Abstract

We studied an influence of continuous terahertz (THz) radiation (0.12 – 0.18 THz, average power density of 3.2 mW/cm2) on a rat glial cell line. A dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of THz radiation is demonstrated. After 1 minute of THz radiation exposure a relative number of apoptotic cells increased in 1.5 times, after 3 minutes it doubled. This result confirms the concept of biological hazard of intense THz radiation. Diagnostic applications of THz radiation can be restricted by the radiation power density and exposure time.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

S. Sergeeva, E. Demidova, O. Sinitsyna, T. Goryachkovskaya, A. Bryanskaya, A. Semenov, I. Meshcheryakova, G. Dianov, V. Popik, and S. Peltek, “2.3THz radiation: Absence of genotoxicity/mutagenicity in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 803, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koyama, E. Narita, Y. Shimizu, T. Shiina, M. Taki, N. Shinohara, and J. Miyakoshi, “Twenty Four-Hour Exposure to a 0.12 THz Electromagnetic Field Does Not Affect the Genotoxicity, Morphological Changes, or Expression of Heat Shock Protein in HCE-T Cells,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(8), 793 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Parpura, I. Sekler, and R. Fern, “Plasmalemmal and mitochondrial Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchange in neuroglia,” Glia 64(10), 1646–1654 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Potokar, J. Jorgačevski, and R. Zorec, “Astrocyte Aquaporin Dynamics in Health and Disease,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17(7), E1121 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

I. Echchgadda, C. Z. Cernab, M. A. Sloanb, D. P. Elamc, and B. L. Ibey, “Effects of different terahertz frequencies on gene expression in human keratinocytes,” SPIE BiOS 9321, 93210Q (2015).

A. De Amicisa, S. De Sanctisa, S. Di Cristofaroa, V. Franchinia, F. Listaa, E. Regalbutoa, E. Giovenaleb, G. P. Galleranob, P. Nenzib, R. Beic, M. Fantinic, M. Benvenutoc, L. Masuellid, E. Coluzzie, C. Ciciae, and A. Sgurae, “Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 793, 150–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. N. Bogomazova, E. M. Vassina, T. N. Goryachkovskaya, V. M. Popik, A. S. Sokolov, N. A. Kolchanov, M. A. Lagarkova, S. L. Kiselev, and S. E. Peltek, “No DNA damage response and negligible genome-wide transcriptional changes in human embryonic stem cells exposed to terahertz radiation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

V. I. Fedorov, V. A. Vechkanov, and O. V. Papafilova, “Influence of terahertz radiation on minimal osmotic resistance of red blood cells,” Biomedical radioelectronics 5, 39–44 (2014).

L. Zhao, Y. H. Hao, and R. Y. Peng, “Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation,” Military Medical Research 1(1), 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. I. Fedorov, “Biohazards of terahertz radiation,” Biomedical radioelectronics 1, 34–39 (2014).

H. Takagi, K. Azuma, T. Tsuka, T. Imagawa, T. Osaki, and Y. Okamoto, “Antitumor effects of high-temperature hyperthermia on a glioma rat model,” Oncology letters 7(4), 1007–1010 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (4)

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Akagi, M. Kordon, H. Zhao, A. Matuszek, J. Dobrucki, R. Errington, P.J. Smith, K. Takeda, Z. Darzynkiewicz, and D. Wlodkowic, “Real-time cell viability assays using a new anthracycline derivative DRAQ7®,” Cytometry Part A 83(2), 227–234 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. F. Munzarova, A. S. Kozlov, and E. L. Zelentsov, “Effect of terahertz laser irradiation on red blood cells aggregation in healthy blood,” Vestnik of NSU: Physics Series 8(2), 117–123 (2013).

V. F. Kirichuk and O. N. Antipova, “Restoration of blood rheological properties with the help of THz-band electromagnetic waves of nitrogen oxide molecular spectrum occurrence,” Russian Open Medical Journal,  2, 2 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

H. Hintzsche and H. Stopper, “Effects of terahertz radiation on biological systems,” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 42(22), 2408–2434 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Weightman, “Prospects for the study of biological systems with high power sources of terahertz radiation,” Physical biology 9(5), 053001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hintzsche, C. Jastrow, T. Kleine-Ostmann, U. Karst, T. Schrader, and H. Stopper, “Terahertz electromagnetic fields (0.106 THz) do not induce manifest genomic damage in vitro,” PloS one,  7(9), e46397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

J. E. Grundt, C. C. Roth, B. D. Rivest, M. L. Doroski, J. Payne, B. L. Ibey, and G. J. Wilmink, “Gene expression profile of Jurkat cells exposed to high power terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7897, 78970E (2011).

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Current State of Research on Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. S. Ol’shevskaya, A. S. Kozlov, A. K. Petrov, T. A. Zapara, and A. S. Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz (submillimeter) laser radiation,” Vestnik of NSU: Physics Series 5(4), 177–181 (2010).

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, B. L. Ibey, J. Bernhard, W. P. Roach, and C. L. Roth, “Quantitative investigation of the bioeffects associated with terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7562, 75620L (2010).

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Ramundo Orlando and G.-P. Gallerano, “Terahertz Radiation Effects and Biological Applications,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1308–1318 (2009).

2008 (1)

A. Korenstein-Ilan, A. Barbul, P. Hasin, A. Eliran, A. Gover, and R. Korenstein, “Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes,” Radiation research 170(2), 224–234 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

V. I. Fedorov, A. G. Khamoyan, E. Ya. Shevela, and E. R. Chernykh, “Investigation of possibility of submillimeter laser using as instrument for diagnostics in medicine,” Proc. SPIE 6734, 673404 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. F. Kirichuk, A. N. Ivanov, O. N. Antipova, A. P. Krenitskii, A. V. Maiborodin, V. D. Tupikin, and O. V. Betskii, “Electromagnetic irradiation of the terahertz diapason at nitric oxide frequencies for correction and prevention of disturbances of platelet functional activity in white rats during long-term stress,” Cell and Tissue Biology 1(4), 357–363 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

V. L. Vaks, Y. I. Koshurinov, D. G. Pavel’ev, and A. N. Panin, “Development and design of a phase-locked loop in the subterahertz and terahertz ranges for a harmonic of the signal of a centimeter-wave synthesizer,” Radiophysics and quantum electronics 48 (10–11), 831–836 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

V. I. Fedorov, S. S. Popova, and A. N. Pisarchik, “Dynamic effects of submillimeter wave radiation on biological objects of various levels of organization,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 24(8), 1235–1254 (2003).
[Crossref]

R.H. Clothier and N. Bourne, “Effects of THz exposure on human primary keratinocyte differentiation and viability,” J. Biological Physics 29(2–3), 179–185 (2003).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. W. Berns, W. Bewley, C. H. Sun, and P. Templin, “Free electron laser irradiation at 200 microns affects DNA synthesis in living cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 87(7), 2810–2812 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. W. Berns and W. Bewley, “Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis in cells exposed to 200-micrometer radiation from the free-electron laser,” Photochemistry and photobiology 46(2), 165–167 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

W. S. Bullough, “Chalone control mechanisms,” Life sciences,  16(3), 323–330 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akagi, J.

J. Akagi, M. Kordon, H. Zhao, A. Matuszek, J. Dobrucki, R. Errington, P.J. Smith, K. Takeda, Z. Darzynkiewicz, and D. Wlodkowic, “Real-time cell viability assays using a new anthracycline derivative DRAQ7®,” Cytometry Part A 83(2), 227–234 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alexandrov, B. S.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alexandrov, L. B.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Antipova, O. N.

V. F. Kirichuk and O. N. Antipova, “Restoration of blood rheological properties with the help of THz-band electromagnetic waves of nitrogen oxide molecular spectrum occurrence,” Russian Open Medical Journal,  2, 2 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. F. Kirichuk, A. N. Ivanov, O. N. Antipova, A. P. Krenitskii, A. V. Maiborodin, V. D. Tupikin, and O. V. Betskii, “Electromagnetic irradiation of the terahertz diapason at nitric oxide frequencies for correction and prevention of disturbances of platelet functional activity in white rats during long-term stress,” Cell and Tissue Biology 1(4), 357–363 (2007).
[Crossref]

Azuma, K.

H. Takagi, K. Azuma, T. Tsuka, T. Imagawa, T. Osaki, and Y. Okamoto, “Antitumor effects of high-temperature hyperthermia on a glioma rat model,” Oncology letters 7(4), 1007–1010 (2014).
[PubMed]

Barbul, A.

A. Korenstein-Ilan, A. Barbul, P. Hasin, A. Eliran, A. Gover, and R. Korenstein, “Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes,” Radiation research 170(2), 224–234 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beic, R.

A. De Amicisa, S. De Sanctisa, S. Di Cristofaroa, V. Franchinia, F. Listaa, E. Regalbutoa, E. Giovenaleb, G. P. Galleranob, P. Nenzib, R. Beic, M. Fantinic, M. Benvenutoc, L. Masuellid, E. Coluzzie, C. Ciciae, and A. Sgurae, “Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 793, 150–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Benvenutoc, M.

A. De Amicisa, S. De Sanctisa, S. Di Cristofaroa, V. Franchinia, F. Listaa, E. Regalbutoa, E. Giovenaleb, G. P. Galleranob, P. Nenzib, R. Beic, M. Fantinic, M. Benvenutoc, L. Masuellid, E. Coluzzie, C. Ciciae, and A. Sgurae, “Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 793, 150–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bernhard, J.

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, B. L. Ibey, J. Bernhard, W. P. Roach, and C. L. Roth, “Quantitative investigation of the bioeffects associated with terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7562, 75620L (2010).

Berns, M. W.

M. W. Berns, W. Bewley, C. H. Sun, and P. Templin, “Free electron laser irradiation at 200 microns affects DNA synthesis in living cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 87(7), 2810–2812 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. W. Berns and W. Bewley, “Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis in cells exposed to 200-micrometer radiation from the free-electron laser,” Photochemistry and photobiology 46(2), 165–167 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Betskii, O. V.

V. F. Kirichuk, A. N. Ivanov, O. N. Antipova, A. P. Krenitskii, A. V. Maiborodin, V. D. Tupikin, and O. V. Betskii, “Electromagnetic irradiation of the terahertz diapason at nitric oxide frequencies for correction and prevention of disturbances of platelet functional activity in white rats during long-term stress,” Cell and Tissue Biology 1(4), 357–363 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bewley, W.

M. W. Berns, W. Bewley, C. H. Sun, and P. Templin, “Free electron laser irradiation at 200 microns affects DNA synthesis in living cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 87(7), 2810–2812 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. W. Berns and W. Bewley, “Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis in cells exposed to 200-micrometer radiation from the free-electron laser,” Photochemistry and photobiology 46(2), 165–167 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bishop, A. R.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bock, J.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bogomazova, A. N.

A. N. Bogomazova, E. M. Vassina, T. N. Goryachkovskaya, V. M. Popik, A. S. Sokolov, N. A. Kolchanov, M. A. Lagarkova, S. L. Kiselev, and S. E. Peltek, “No DNA damage response and negligible genome-wide transcriptional changes in human embryonic stem cells exposed to terahertz radiation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourne, N.

R.H. Clothier and N. Bourne, “Effects of THz exposure on human primary keratinocyte differentiation and viability,” J. Biological Physics 29(2–3), 179–185 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bryanskaya, A.

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Chen, Hou-Tong

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Downes, J.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
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I. Echchgadda, C. Z. Cernab, M. A. Sloanb, D. P. Elamc, and B. L. Ibey, “Effects of different terahertz frequencies on gene expression in human keratinocytes,” SPIE BiOS 9321, 93210Q (2015).

Edgar, D.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
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I. Echchgadda, C. Z. Cernab, M. A. Sloanb, D. P. Elamc, and B. L. Ibey, “Effects of different terahertz frequencies on gene expression in human keratinocytes,” SPIE BiOS 9321, 93210Q (2015).

Eliran, A.

A. Korenstein-Ilan, A. Barbul, P. Hasin, A. Eliran, A. Gover, and R. Korenstein, “Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes,” Radiation research 170(2), 224–234 (2008).
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S. Sergeeva, E. Demidova, O. Sinitsyna, T. Goryachkovskaya, A. Bryanskaya, A. Semenov, I. Meshcheryakova, G. Dianov, V. Popik, and S. Peltek, “2.3THz radiation: Absence of genotoxicity/mutagenicity in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 803, 34–38 (2016).
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A. N. Bogomazova, E. M. Vassina, T. N. Goryachkovskaya, V. M. Popik, A. S. Sokolov, N. A. Kolchanov, M. A. Lagarkova, S. L. Kiselev, and S. E. Peltek, “No DNA damage response and negligible genome-wide transcriptional changes in human embryonic stem cells exposed to terahertz radiation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7749 (2015).
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A. Korenstein-Ilan, A. Barbul, P. Hasin, A. Eliran, A. Gover, and R. Korenstein, “Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes,” Radiation research 170(2), 224–234 (2008).
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J. E. Grundt, C. C. Roth, B. D. Rivest, M. L. Doroski, J. Payne, B. L. Ibey, and G. J. Wilmink, “Gene expression profile of Jurkat cells exposed to high power terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7897, 78970E (2011).

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A. Korenstein-Ilan, A. Barbul, P. Hasin, A. Eliran, A. Gover, and R. Korenstein, “Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes,” Radiation research 170(2), 224–234 (2008).
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R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
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I. Echchgadda, C. Z. Cernab, M. A. Sloanb, D. P. Elamc, and B. L. Ibey, “Effects of different terahertz frequencies on gene expression in human keratinocytes,” SPIE BiOS 9321, 93210Q (2015).

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G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, B. L. Ibey, J. Bernhard, W. P. Roach, and C. L. Roth, “Quantitative investigation of the bioeffects associated with terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7562, 75620L (2010).

Imagawa, T.

H. Takagi, K. Azuma, T. Tsuka, T. Imagawa, T. Osaki, and Y. Okamoto, “Antitumor effects of high-temperature hyperthermia on a glioma rat model,” Oncology letters 7(4), 1007–1010 (2014).
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R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
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Jastrow, C.

H. Hintzsche, C. Jastrow, T. Kleine-Ostmann, U. Karst, T. Schrader, and H. Stopper, “Terahertz electromagnetic fields (0.106 THz) do not induce manifest genomic damage in vitro,” PloS one,  7(9), e46397 (2012).
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Jones, J.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
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J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
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Karst, U.

H. Hintzsche, C. Jastrow, T. Kleine-Ostmann, U. Karst, T. Schrader, and H. Stopper, “Terahertz electromagnetic fields (0.106 THz) do not induce manifest genomic damage in vitro,” PloS one,  7(9), e46397 (2012).
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Khamoyan, A. G.

V. I. Fedorov, A. G. Khamoyan, E. Ya. Shevela, and E. R. Chernykh, “Investigation of possibility of submillimeter laser using as instrument for diagnostics in medicine,” Proc. SPIE 6734, 673404 (2007).
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V. F. Kirichuk and O. N. Antipova, “Restoration of blood rheological properties with the help of THz-band electromagnetic waves of nitrogen oxide molecular spectrum occurrence,” Russian Open Medical Journal,  2, 2 (2013).
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Kiselev, S. L.

A. N. Bogomazova, E. M. Vassina, T. N. Goryachkovskaya, V. M. Popik, A. S. Sokolov, N. A. Kolchanov, M. A. Lagarkova, S. L. Kiselev, and S. E. Peltek, “No DNA damage response and negligible genome-wide transcriptional changes in human embryonic stem cells exposed to terahertz radiation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7749 (2015).
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H. Hintzsche, C. Jastrow, T. Kleine-Ostmann, U. Karst, T. Schrader, and H. Stopper, “Terahertz electromagnetic fields (0.106 THz) do not induce manifest genomic damage in vitro,” PloS one,  7(9), e46397 (2012).
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J. Akagi, M. Kordon, H. Zhao, A. Matuszek, J. Dobrucki, R. Errington, P.J. Smith, K. Takeda, Z. Darzynkiewicz, and D. Wlodkowic, “Real-time cell viability assays using a new anthracycline derivative DRAQ7®,” Cytometry Part A 83(2), 227–234 (2013).
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A. Korenstein-Ilan, A. Barbul, P. Hasin, A. Eliran, A. Gover, and R. Korenstein, “Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes,” Radiation research 170(2), 224–234 (2008).
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A. Korenstein-Ilan, A. Barbul, P. Hasin, A. Eliran, A. Gover, and R. Korenstein, “Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes,” Radiation research 170(2), 224–234 (2008).
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J. S. Olshevskaya, A. S. Ratushnyak, A. K. Petrov, A. K. Kozlov, and T. A. Zapara, “Effect of terahertz electromagnetic waves on neurons systems,” In Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 2008;SIBIRCON 2008. IEEE Region 8 International Conference on. IEEE, 210–211 (2008).

Kozlov, A. S.

A. F. Munzarova, A. S. Kozlov, and E. L. Zelentsov, “Effect of terahertz laser irradiation on red blood cells aggregation in healthy blood,” Vestnik of NSU: Physics Series 8(2), 117–123 (2013).

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V. F. Kirichuk, A. N. Ivanov, O. N. Antipova, A. P. Krenitskii, A. V. Maiborodin, V. D. Tupikin, and O. V. Betskii, “Electromagnetic irradiation of the terahertz diapason at nitric oxide frequencies for correction and prevention of disturbances of platelet functional activity in white rats during long-term stress,” Cell and Tissue Biology 1(4), 357–363 (2007).
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Lagarkova, M. A.

A. N. Bogomazova, E. M. Vassina, T. N. Goryachkovskaya, V. M. Popik, A. S. Sokolov, N. A. Kolchanov, M. A. Lagarkova, S. L. Kiselev, and S. E. Peltek, “No DNA damage response and negligible genome-wide transcriptional changes in human embryonic stem cells exposed to terahertz radiation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7749 (2015).
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Listaa, F.

A. De Amicisa, S. De Sanctisa, S. Di Cristofaroa, V. Franchinia, F. Listaa, E. Regalbutoa, E. Giovenaleb, G. P. Galleranob, P. Nenzib, R. Beic, M. Fantinic, M. Benvenutoc, L. Masuellid, E. Coluzzie, C. Ciciae, and A. Sgurae, “Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 793, 150–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends in biotechnology, (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends in biotechnology, (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends in biotechnology, (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maiborodin, A. V.

V. F. Kirichuk, A. N. Ivanov, O. N. Antipova, A. P. Krenitskii, A. V. Maiborodin, V. D. Tupikin, and O. V. Betskii, “Electromagnetic irradiation of the terahertz diapason at nitric oxide frequencies for correction and prevention of disturbances of platelet functional activity in white rats during long-term stress,” Cell and Tissue Biology 1(4), 357–363 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martinez, J. S.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Masuellid, L.

A. De Amicisa, S. De Sanctisa, S. Di Cristofaroa, V. Franchinia, F. Listaa, E. Regalbutoa, E. Giovenaleb, G. P. Galleranob, P. Nenzib, R. Beic, M. Fantinic, M. Benvenutoc, L. Masuellid, E. Coluzzie, C. Ciciae, and A. Sgurae, “Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 793, 150–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matuszek, A.

J. Akagi, M. Kordon, H. Zhao, A. Matuszek, J. Dobrucki, R. Errington, P.J. Smith, K. Takeda, Z. Darzynkiewicz, and D. Wlodkowic, “Real-time cell viability assays using a new anthracycline derivative DRAQ7®,” Cytometry Part A 83(2), 227–234 (2013).
[Crossref]

McKenzie, J.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
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Meshcheryakova, I.

S. Sergeeva, E. Demidova, O. Sinitsyna, T. Goryachkovskaya, A. Bryanskaya, A. Semenov, I. Meshcheryakova, G. Dianov, V. Popik, and S. Peltek, “2.3THz radiation: Absence of genotoxicity/mutagenicity in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 803, 34–38 (2016).
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Miyakoshi, J.

S. Koyama, E. Narita, Y. Shimizu, T. Shiina, M. Taki, N. Shinohara, and J. Miyakoshi, “Twenty Four-Hour Exposure to a 0.12 THz Electromagnetic Field Does Not Affect the Genotoxicity, Morphological Changes, or Expression of Heat Shock Protein in HCE-T Cells,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(8), 793 (2016).
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Munzarova, A. F.

A. F. Munzarova, A. S. Kozlov, and E. L. Zelentsov, “Effect of terahertz laser irradiation on red blood cells aggregation in healthy blood,” Vestnik of NSU: Physics Series 8(2), 117–123 (2013).

Narita, E.

S. Koyama, E. Narita, Y. Shimizu, T. Shiina, M. Taki, N. Shinohara, and J. Miyakoshi, “Twenty Four-Hour Exposure to a 0.12 THz Electromagnetic Field Does Not Affect the Genotoxicity, Morphological Changes, or Expression of Heat Shock Protein in HCE-T Cells,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(8), 793 (2016).
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Nenzib, P.

A. De Amicisa, S. De Sanctisa, S. Di Cristofaroa, V. Franchinia, F. Listaa, E. Regalbutoa, E. Giovenaleb, G. P. Galleranob, P. Nenzib, R. Beic, M. Fantinic, M. Benvenutoc, L. Masuellid, E. Coluzzie, C. Ciciae, and A. Sgurae, “Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 793, 150–160 (2015).
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Okamoto, Y.

H. Takagi, K. Azuma, T. Tsuka, T. Imagawa, T. Osaki, and Y. Okamoto, “Antitumor effects of high-temperature hyperthermia on a glioma rat model,” Oncology letters 7(4), 1007–1010 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ol’shevskaya, J. S.

J. S. Ol’shevskaya, A. S. Kozlov, A. K. Petrov, T. A. Zapara, and A. S. Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz (submillimeter) laser radiation,” Vestnik of NSU: Physics Series 5(4), 177–181 (2010).

Olshevskaya, J. S.

J. S. Olshevskaya, A. S. Ratushnyak, A. K. Petrov, A. K. Kozlov, and T. A. Zapara, “Effect of terahertz electromagnetic waves on neurons systems,” In Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 2008;SIBIRCON 2008. IEEE Region 8 International Conference on. IEEE, 210–211 (2008).

Orlando, A. Ramundo

A. Ramundo Orlando and G.-P. Gallerano, “Terahertz Radiation Effects and Biological Applications,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1308–1318 (2009).

Osaki, T.

H. Takagi, K. Azuma, T. Tsuka, T. Imagawa, T. Osaki, and Y. Okamoto, “Antitumor effects of high-temperature hyperthermia on a glioma rat model,” Oncology letters 7(4), 1007–1010 (2014).
[PubMed]

Panin, A. N.

V. L. Vaks, Y. I. Koshurinov, D. G. Pavel’ev, and A. N. Panin, “Development and design of a phase-locked loop in the subterahertz and terahertz ranges for a harmonic of the signal of a centimeter-wave synthesizer,” Radiophysics and quantum electronics 48 (10–11), 831–836 (2005).
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Papafilova, O. V.

V. I. Fedorov, V. A. Vechkanov, and O. V. Papafilova, “Influence of terahertz radiation on minimal osmotic resistance of red blood cells,” Biomedical radioelectronics 5, 39–44 (2014).

Parpura, V.

V. Parpura, I. Sekler, and R. Fern, “Plasmalemmal and mitochondrial Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchange in neuroglia,” Glia 64(10), 1646–1654 (2016).
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Pavel’ev, D. G.

V. L. Vaks, Y. I. Koshurinov, D. G. Pavel’ev, and A. N. Panin, “Development and design of a phase-locked loop in the subterahertz and terahertz ranges for a harmonic of the signal of a centimeter-wave synthesizer,” Radiophysics and quantum electronics 48 (10–11), 831–836 (2005).
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Payne, J.

J. E. Grundt, C. C. Roth, B. D. Rivest, M. L. Doroski, J. Payne, B. L. Ibey, and G. J. Wilmink, “Gene expression profile of Jurkat cells exposed to high power terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7897, 78970E (2011).

Peltek, S.

S. Sergeeva, E. Demidova, O. Sinitsyna, T. Goryachkovskaya, A. Bryanskaya, A. Semenov, I. Meshcheryakova, G. Dianov, V. Popik, and S. Peltek, “2.3THz radiation: Absence of genotoxicity/mutagenicity in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 803, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peltek, S. E.

A. N. Bogomazova, E. M. Vassina, T. N. Goryachkovskaya, V. M. Popik, A. S. Sokolov, N. A. Kolchanov, M. A. Lagarkova, S. L. Kiselev, and S. E. Peltek, “No DNA damage response and negligible genome-wide transcriptional changes in human embryonic stem cells exposed to terahertz radiation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7749 (2015).
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Peng, R. Y.

L. Zhao, Y. H. Hao, and R. Y. Peng, “Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation,” Military Medical Research 1(1), 1 (2014).
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Petrov, A. K.

J. S. Ol’shevskaya, A. S. Kozlov, A. K. Petrov, T. A. Zapara, and A. S. Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz (submillimeter) laser radiation,” Vestnik of NSU: Physics Series 5(4), 177–181 (2010).

J. S. Olshevskaya, A. S. Ratushnyak, A. K. Petrov, A. K. Kozlov, and T. A. Zapara, “Effect of terahertz electromagnetic waves on neurons systems,” In Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 2008;SIBIRCON 2008. IEEE Region 8 International Conference on. IEEE, 210–211 (2008).

Phipps, M. L.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
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Pisarchik, A. N.

V. I. Fedorov, S. S. Popova, and A. N. Pisarchik, “Dynamic effects of submillimeter wave radiation on biological objects of various levels of organization,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 24(8), 1235–1254 (2003).
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Popik, V.

S. Sergeeva, E. Demidova, O. Sinitsyna, T. Goryachkovskaya, A. Bryanskaya, A. Semenov, I. Meshcheryakova, G. Dianov, V. Popik, and S. Peltek, “2.3THz radiation: Absence of genotoxicity/mutagenicity in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 803, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popik, V. M.

A. N. Bogomazova, E. M. Vassina, T. N. Goryachkovskaya, V. M. Popik, A. S. Sokolov, N. A. Kolchanov, M. A. Lagarkova, S. L. Kiselev, and S. E. Peltek, “No DNA damage response and negligible genome-wide transcriptional changes in human embryonic stem cells exposed to terahertz radiation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popova, S. S.

V. I. Fedorov, S. S. Popova, and A. N. Pisarchik, “Dynamic effects of submillimeter wave radiation on biological objects of various levels of organization,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 24(8), 1235–1254 (2003).
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Potokar, M.

M. Potokar, J. Jorgačevski, and R. Zorec, “Astrocyte Aquaporin Dynamics in Health and Disease,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17(7), E1121 (2016).
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Rasmussen, K. O.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ratushnyak, A. S.

J. S. Ol’shevskaya, A. S. Kozlov, A. K. Petrov, T. A. Zapara, and A. S. Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz (submillimeter) laser radiation,” Vestnik of NSU: Physics Series 5(4), 177–181 (2010).

J. S. Olshevskaya, A. S. Ratushnyak, A. K. Petrov, A. K. Kozlov, and T. A. Zapara, “Effect of terahertz electromagnetic waves on neurons systems,” In Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 2008;SIBIRCON 2008. IEEE Region 8 International Conference on. IEEE, 210–211 (2008).

Regalbutoa, E.

A. De Amicisa, S. De Sanctisa, S. Di Cristofaroa, V. Franchinia, F. Listaa, E. Regalbutoa, E. Giovenaleb, G. P. Galleranob, P. Nenzib, R. Beic, M. Fantinic, M. Benvenutoc, L. Masuellid, E. Coluzzie, C. Ciciae, and A. Sgurae, “Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 793, 150–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rivest, B. D.

J. E. Grundt, C. C. Roth, B. D. Rivest, M. L. Doroski, J. Payne, B. L. Ibey, and G. J. Wilmink, “Gene expression profile of Jurkat cells exposed to high power terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7897, 78970E (2011).

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, B. L. Ibey, J. Bernhard, W. P. Roach, and C. L. Roth, “Quantitative investigation of the bioeffects associated with terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7562, 75620L (2010).

Roach, W. P.

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, B. L. Ibey, J. Bernhard, W. P. Roach, and C. L. Roth, “Quantitative investigation of the bioeffects associated with terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7562, 75620L (2010).

Rodriguez, G.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rosen, E. D.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roth, C. C.

J. E. Grundt, C. C. Roth, B. D. Rivest, M. L. Doroski, J. Payne, B. L. Ibey, and G. J. Wilmink, “Gene expression profile of Jurkat cells exposed to high power terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7897, 78970E (2011).

Roth, C. L.

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, B. L. Ibey, J. Bernhard, W. P. Roach, and C. L. Roth, “Quantitative investigation of the bioeffects associated with terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7562, 75620L (2010).

Saveliev, Y.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schofield, A.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schrader, T.

H. Hintzsche, C. Jastrow, T. Kleine-Ostmann, U. Karst, T. Schrader, and H. Stopper, “Terahertz electromagnetic fields (0.106 THz) do not induce manifest genomic damage in vitro,” PloS one,  7(9), e46397 (2012).
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Segelstein, D. J.

D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” MS Thesis, University of Missouri, Kansas City (1981).

Sekler, I.

V. Parpura, I. Sekler, and R. Fern, “Plasmalemmal and mitochondrial Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchange in neuroglia,” Glia 64(10), 1646–1654 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semenov, A.

S. Sergeeva, E. Demidova, O. Sinitsyna, T. Goryachkovskaya, A. Bryanskaya, A. Semenov, I. Meshcheryakova, G. Dianov, V. Popik, and S. Peltek, “2.3THz radiation: Absence of genotoxicity/mutagenicity in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 803, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sergeeva, S.

S. Sergeeva, E. Demidova, O. Sinitsyna, T. Goryachkovskaya, A. Bryanskaya, A. Semenov, I. Meshcheryakova, G. Dianov, V. Popik, and S. Peltek, “2.3THz radiation: Absence of genotoxicity/mutagenicity in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 803, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sgurae, A.

A. De Amicisa, S. De Sanctisa, S. Di Cristofaroa, V. Franchinia, F. Listaa, E. Regalbutoa, E. Giovenaleb, G. P. Galleranob, P. Nenzib, R. Beic, M. Fantinic, M. Benvenutoc, L. Masuellid, E. Coluzzie, C. Ciciae, and A. Sgurae, “Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 793, 150–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shevela, E. Ya.

V. I. Fedorov, A. G. Khamoyan, E. Ya. Shevela, and E. R. Chernykh, “Investigation of possibility of submillimeter laser using as instrument for diagnostics in medicine,” Proc. SPIE 6734, 673404 (2007).
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Shiina, T.

S. Koyama, E. Narita, Y. Shimizu, T. Shiina, M. Taki, N. Shinohara, and J. Miyakoshi, “Twenty Four-Hour Exposure to a 0.12 THz Electromagnetic Field Does Not Affect the Genotoxicity, Morphological Changes, or Expression of Heat Shock Protein in HCE-T Cells,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(8), 793 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, Y.

S. Koyama, E. Narita, Y. Shimizu, T. Shiina, M. Taki, N. Shinohara, and J. Miyakoshi, “Twenty Four-Hour Exposure to a 0.12 THz Electromagnetic Field Does Not Affect the Genotoxicity, Morphological Changes, or Expression of Heat Shock Protein in HCE-T Cells,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(8), 793 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shinohara, N.

S. Koyama, E. Narita, Y. Shimizu, T. Shiina, M. Taki, N. Shinohara, and J. Miyakoshi, “Twenty Four-Hour Exposure to a 0.12 THz Electromagnetic Field Does Not Affect the Genotoxicity, Morphological Changes, or Expression of Heat Shock Protein in HCE-T Cells,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(8), 793 (2016).
[Crossref]

Siggel-King, M.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sinitsyna, O.

S. Sergeeva, E. Demidova, O. Sinitsyna, T. Goryachkovskaya, A. Bryanskaya, A. Semenov, I. Meshcheryakova, G. Dianov, V. Popik, and S. Peltek, “2.3THz radiation: Absence of genotoxicity/mutagenicity in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 803, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sloanb, M. A.

I. Echchgadda, C. Z. Cernab, M. A. Sloanb, D. P. Elamc, and B. L. Ibey, “Effects of different terahertz frequencies on gene expression in human keratinocytes,” SPIE BiOS 9321, 93210Q (2015).

Smith, P.J.

J. Akagi, M. Kordon, H. Zhao, A. Matuszek, J. Dobrucki, R. Errington, P.J. Smith, K. Takeda, Z. Darzynkiewicz, and D. Wlodkowic, “Real-time cell viability assays using a new anthracycline derivative DRAQ7®,” Cytometry Part A 83(2), 227–234 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sokolov, A. S.

A. N. Bogomazova, E. M. Vassina, T. N. Goryachkovskaya, V. M. Popik, A. S. Sokolov, N. A. Kolchanov, M. A. Lagarkova, S. L. Kiselev, and S. E. Peltek, “No DNA damage response and negligible genome-wide transcriptional changes in human embryonic stem cells exposed to terahertz radiation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stopper, H.

H. Hintzsche, C. Jastrow, T. Kleine-Ostmann, U. Karst, T. Schrader, and H. Stopper, “Terahertz electromagnetic fields (0.106 THz) do not induce manifest genomic damage in vitro,” PloS one,  7(9), e46397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hintzsche and H. Stopper, “Effects of terahertz radiation on biological systems,” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 42(22), 2408–2434 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. H.

M. W. Berns, W. Bewley, C. H. Sun, and P. Templin, “Free electron laser irradiation at 200 microns affects DNA synthesis in living cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 87(7), 2810–2812 (1990).
[Crossref]

Surman, M.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takagi, H.

H. Takagi, K. Azuma, T. Tsuka, T. Imagawa, T. Osaki, and Y. Okamoto, “Antitumor effects of high-temperature hyperthermia on a glioma rat model,” Oncology letters 7(4), 1007–1010 (2014).
[PubMed]

Takeda, K.

J. Akagi, M. Kordon, H. Zhao, A. Matuszek, J. Dobrucki, R. Errington, P.J. Smith, K. Takeda, Z. Darzynkiewicz, and D. Wlodkowic, “Real-time cell viability assays using a new anthracycline derivative DRAQ7®,” Cytometry Part A 83(2), 227–234 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taki, M.

S. Koyama, E. Narita, Y. Shimizu, T. Shiina, M. Taki, N. Shinohara, and J. Miyakoshi, “Twenty Four-Hour Exposure to a 0.12 THz Electromagnetic Field Does Not Affect the Genotoxicity, Morphological Changes, or Expression of Heat Shock Protein in HCE-T Cells,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(8), 793 (2016).
[Crossref]

Templin, P.

M. W. Berns, W. Bewley, C. H. Sun, and P. Templin, “Free electron laser irradiation at 200 microns affects DNA synthesis in living cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 87(7), 2810–2812 (1990).
[Crossref]

Thomsen, N.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsuka, T.

H. Takagi, K. Azuma, T. Tsuka, T. Imagawa, T. Osaki, and Y. Okamoto, “Antitumor effects of high-temperature hyperthermia on a glioma rat model,” Oncology letters 7(4), 1007–1010 (2014).
[PubMed]

Tupikin, V. D.

V. F. Kirichuk, A. N. Ivanov, O. N. Antipova, A. P. Krenitskii, A. V. Maiborodin, V. D. Tupikin, and O. V. Betskii, “Electromagnetic irradiation of the terahertz diapason at nitric oxide frequencies for correction and prevention of disturbances of platelet functional activity in white rats during long-term stress,” Cell and Tissue Biology 1(4), 357–363 (2007).
[Crossref]

Usheva, A.

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vaks, V. L.

V. L. Vaks, Y. I. Koshurinov, D. G. Pavel’ev, and A. N. Panin, “Development and design of a phase-locked loop in the subterahertz and terahertz ranges for a harmonic of the signal of a centimeter-wave synthesizer,” Radiophysics and quantum electronics 48 (10–11), 831–836 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vassina, E. M.

A. N. Bogomazova, E. M. Vassina, T. N. Goryachkovskaya, V. M. Popik, A. S. Sokolov, N. A. Kolchanov, M. A. Lagarkova, S. L. Kiselev, and S. E. Peltek, “No DNA damage response and negligible genome-wide transcriptional changes in human embryonic stem cells exposed to terahertz radiation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vechkanov, V. A.

V. I. Fedorov, V. A. Vechkanov, and O. V. Papafilova, “Influence of terahertz radiation on minimal osmotic resistance of red blood cells,” Biomedical radioelectronics 5, 39–44 (2014).

Weightman, P.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Weightman, “Prospects for the study of biological systems with high power sources of terahertz radiation,” Physical biology 9(5), 053001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, P.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

Williams, R.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wilmink, G. J.

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Current State of Research on Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Grundt, C. C. Roth, B. D. Rivest, M. L. Doroski, J. Payne, B. L. Ibey, and G. J. Wilmink, “Gene expression profile of Jurkat cells exposed to high power terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7897, 78970E (2011).

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, B. L. Ibey, J. Bernhard, W. P. Roach, and C. L. Roth, “Quantitative investigation of the bioeffects associated with terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7562, 75620L (2010).

Wlodkowic, D.

J. Akagi, M. Kordon, H. Zhao, A. Matuszek, J. Dobrucki, R. Errington, P.J. Smith, K. Takeda, Z. Darzynkiewicz, and D. Wlodkowic, “Real-time cell viability assays using a new anthracycline derivative DRAQ7®,” Cytometry Part A 83(2), 227–234 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends in biotechnology, (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends in biotechnology, (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zapara, T. A.

J. S. Ol’shevskaya, A. S. Kozlov, A. K. Petrov, T. A. Zapara, and A. S. Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz (submillimeter) laser radiation,” Vestnik of NSU: Physics Series 5(4), 177–181 (2010).

J. S. Olshevskaya, A. S. Ratushnyak, A. K. Petrov, A. K. Kozlov, and T. A. Zapara, “Effect of terahertz electromagnetic waves on neurons systems,” In Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 2008;SIBIRCON 2008. IEEE Region 8 International Conference on. IEEE, 210–211 (2008).

Zelentsov, E. L.

A. F. Munzarova, A. S. Kozlov, and E. L. Zelentsov, “Effect of terahertz laser irradiation on red blood cells aggregation in healthy blood,” Vestnik of NSU: Physics Series 8(2), 117–123 (2013).

Zhao, H.

J. Akagi, M. Kordon, H. Zhao, A. Matuszek, J. Dobrucki, R. Errington, P.J. Smith, K. Takeda, Z. Darzynkiewicz, and D. Wlodkowic, “Real-time cell viability assays using a new anthracycline derivative DRAQ7®,” Cytometry Part A 83(2), 227–234 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

L. Zhao, Y. H. Hao, and R. Y. Peng, “Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation,” Military Medical Research 1(1), 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends in biotechnology, (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zorec, R.

M. Potokar, J. Jorgačevski, and R. Zorec, “Astrocyte Aquaporin Dynamics in Health and Disease,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17(7), E1121 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomedical radioelectronics (2)

V. I. Fedorov, V. A. Vechkanov, and O. V. Papafilova, “Influence of terahertz radiation on minimal osmotic resistance of red blood cells,” Biomedical radioelectronics 5, 39–44 (2014).

V. I. Fedorov, “Biohazards of terahertz radiation,” Biomedical radioelectronics 1, 34–39 (2014).

Cell and Tissue Biology (1)

V. F. Kirichuk, A. N. Ivanov, O. N. Antipova, A. P. Krenitskii, A. V. Maiborodin, V. D. Tupikin, and O. V. Betskii, “Electromagnetic irradiation of the terahertz diapason at nitric oxide frequencies for correction and prevention of disturbances of platelet functional activity in white rats during long-term stress,” Cell and Tissue Biology 1(4), 357–363 (2007).
[Crossref]

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology (1)

H. Hintzsche and H. Stopper, “Effects of terahertz radiation on biological systems,” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 42(22), 2408–2434 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cytometry Part A (1)

J. Akagi, M. Kordon, H. Zhao, A. Matuszek, J. Dobrucki, R. Errington, P.J. Smith, K. Takeda, Z. Darzynkiewicz, and D. Wlodkowic, “Real-time cell viability assays using a new anthracycline derivative DRAQ7®,” Cytometry Part A 83(2), 227–234 (2013).
[Crossref]

Glia (1)

V. Parpura, I. Sekler, and R. Fern, “Plasmalemmal and mitochondrial Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchange in neuroglia,” Glia 64(10), 1646–1654 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (1)

S. Koyama, E. Narita, Y. Shimizu, T. Shiina, M. Taki, N. Shinohara, and J. Miyakoshi, “Twenty Four-Hour Exposure to a 0.12 THz Electromagnetic Field Does Not Affect the Genotoxicity, Morphological Changes, or Expression of Heat Shock Protein in HCE-T Cells,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(8), 793 (2016).
[Crossref]

International Journal of Molecular Sciences (1)

M. Potokar, J. Jorgačevski, and R. Zorec, “Astrocyte Aquaporin Dynamics in Health and Disease,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17(7), E1121 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biological Physics (1)

R.H. Clothier and N. Bourne, “Effects of THz exposure on human primary keratinocyte differentiation and viability,” J. Biological Physics 29(2–3), 179–185 (2003).
[Crossref]

Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (3)

V. I. Fedorov, S. S. Popova, and A. N. Pisarchik, “Dynamic effects of submillimeter wave radiation on biological objects of various levels of organization,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 24(8), 1235–1254 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Current State of Research on Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Ramundo Orlando and G.-P. Gallerano, “Terahertz Radiation Effects and Biological Applications,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1308–1318 (2009).

Life sciences (1)

W. S. Bullough, “Chalone control mechanisms,” Life sciences,  16(3), 323–330 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Military Medical Research (1)

L. Zhao, Y. H. Hao, and R. Y. Peng, “Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation,” Military Medical Research 1(1), 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis (2)

A. De Amicisa, S. De Sanctisa, S. Di Cristofaroa, V. Franchinia, F. Listaa, E. Regalbutoa, E. Giovenaleb, G. P. Galleranob, P. Nenzib, R. Beic, M. Fantinic, M. Benvenutoc, L. Masuellid, E. Coluzzie, C. Ciciae, and A. Sgurae, “Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 793, 150–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sergeeva, E. Demidova, O. Sinitsyna, T. Goryachkovskaya, A. Bryanskaya, A. Semenov, I. Meshcheryakova, G. Dianov, V. Popik, and S. Peltek, “2.3THz radiation: Absence of genotoxicity/mutagenicity in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 803, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oncology letters (1)

H. Takagi, K. Azuma, T. Tsuka, T. Imagawa, T. Osaki, and Y. Okamoto, “Antitumor effects of high-temperature hyperthermia on a glioma rat model,” Oncology letters 7(4), 1007–1010 (2014).
[PubMed]

Photochemistry and photobiology (1)

M. W. Berns and W. Bewley, “Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis in cells exposed to 200-micrometer radiation from the free-electron laser,” Photochemistry and photobiology 46(2), 165–167 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physical biology (1)

P. Weightman, “Prospects for the study of biological systems with high power sources of terahertz radiation,” Physical biology 9(5), 053001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physics in medicine and biology (1)

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Physics in medicine and biology 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

PloS one (2)

J. Bock, Y. Fukuyo, S. Kang, M. L. Phipps, L. B. Alexandrov, K. O. Rasmussen, A. R. Bishop, E. D. Rosen, J. S. Martinez, Hou-Tong Chen, G. Rodriguez, B. S. Alexandrov, and A. Usheva, “Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation,” PloS one 5(12), e15806 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Hintzsche, C. Jastrow, T. Kleine-Ostmann, U. Karst, T. Schrader, and H. Stopper, “Terahertz electromagnetic fields (0.106 THz) do not induce manifest genomic damage in vitro,” PloS one,  7(9), e46397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. I. Fedorov, A. G. Khamoyan, E. Ya. Shevela, and E. R. Chernykh, “Investigation of possibility of submillimeter laser using as instrument for diagnostics in medicine,” Proc. SPIE 6734, 673404 (2007).
[Crossref]

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (1)

M. W. Berns, W. Bewley, C. H. Sun, and P. Templin, “Free electron laser irradiation at 200 microns affects DNA synthesis in living cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 87(7), 2810–2812 (1990).
[Crossref]

Radiation research (1)

A. Korenstein-Ilan, A. Barbul, P. Hasin, A. Eliran, A. Gover, and R. Korenstein, “Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes,” Radiation research 170(2), 224–234 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radiophysics and quantum electronics (1)

V. L. Vaks, Y. I. Koshurinov, D. G. Pavel’ev, and A. N. Panin, “Development and design of a phase-locked loop in the subterahertz and terahertz ranges for a harmonic of the signal of a centimeter-wave synthesizer,” Radiophysics and quantum electronics 48 (10–11), 831–836 (2005).
[Crossref]

Russian Open Medical Journal (1)

V. F. Kirichuk and O. N. Antipova, “Restoration of blood rheological properties with the help of THz-band electromagnetic waves of nitrogen oxide molecular spectrum occurrence,” Russian Open Medical Journal,  2, 2 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. N. Bogomazova, E. M. Vassina, T. N. Goryachkovskaya, V. M. Popik, A. S. Sokolov, N. A. Kolchanov, M. A. Lagarkova, S. L. Kiselev, and S. E. Peltek, “No DNA damage response and negligible genome-wide transcriptional changes in human embryonic stem cells exposed to terahertz radiation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

SPIE BiOS (3)

I. Echchgadda, C. Z. Cernab, M. A. Sloanb, D. P. Elamc, and B. L. Ibey, “Effects of different terahertz frequencies on gene expression in human keratinocytes,” SPIE BiOS 9321, 93210Q (2015).

J. E. Grundt, C. C. Roth, B. D. Rivest, M. L. Doroski, J. Payne, B. L. Ibey, and G. J. Wilmink, “Gene expression profile of Jurkat cells exposed to high power terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7897, 78970E (2011).

G. J. Wilmink, B. D. Rivest, B. L. Ibey, J. Bernhard, W. P. Roach, and C. L. Roth, “Quantitative investigation of the bioeffects associated with terahertz radiation,” SPIE BiOS 7562, 75620L (2010).

Vestnik of NSU: Physics Series (2)

J. S. Ol’shevskaya, A. S. Kozlov, A. K. Petrov, T. A. Zapara, and A. S. Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz (submillimeter) laser radiation,” Vestnik of NSU: Physics Series 5(4), 177–181 (2010).

A. F. Munzarova, A. S. Kozlov, and E. L. Zelentsov, “Effect of terahertz laser irradiation on red blood cells aggregation in healthy blood,” Vestnik of NSU: Physics Series 8(2), 117–123 (2013).

Other (3)

J. S. Olshevskaya, A. S. Ratushnyak, A. K. Petrov, A. K. Kozlov, and T. A. Zapara, “Effect of terahertz electromagnetic waves on neurons systems,” In Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 2008;SIBIRCON 2008. IEEE Region 8 International Conference on. IEEE, 210–211 (2008).

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends in biotechnology, (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” MS Thesis, University of Missouri, Kansas City (1981).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Gating tactics used for isolation of live cells and cells at different stages of apoptosis.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup: THz radiation emitted by BWO is fed into horn antenna and collimated using TPX lens to obtain 20 mm wide beam. The beam is directed by the mirror to propagate orthogonally to the bottom surface of the plate with cell culture under exposure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The number of live cells and cells at early and late stages of apoptosis in the sample in relation of the THz radiation exposure time.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relative number (in %) of live cells and cells at different stages of apoptosis in samples irradiated by THz emission of different durations (Mean ± SEM, n = 4, *p < 0.05, **p ⩽ 0.001)

Metrics