Abstract

The purpose of this work is to investigate the benefits of adaptive optics (AO) technology for optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). OCTA has shown great potential in non-invasively enhancing the contrast of vessels and small capillaries. Especially the capability of the technique to visualize capillaries with a lateral extension that is below the transverse resolution of the system opens unique opportunities in diagnosing retinal vascular diseases. However, there are some limitations of this technology such as shadowing and projection artifacts caused by overlying vasculature or the inability to determine the true extension of a vessel. Thus, the evaluation of the vascular structure and density based on OCTA alone can be misleading. In this paper we compare the performance of AO-OCT, AO-OCTA and OCTA for imaging retinal vasculature. The improved transverse resolution and the reduced depth of focus of AO-OCT and AO-OCTA greatly reduce shadowing artifacts allowing for a better differentiation and segmentation of different vasculature layers of the inner retina. The comparison is done on images recorded in healthy volunteers and in diabetic patients with distinct pathologies of the retinal microvasculature.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (7)

U. Schmidt-Erfurth and S. M. Waldstein, “A paradigm shift in imaging biomarkers in neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 50, 1–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chu, J. Lin, C. Gao, C. Xin, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, L. Roisman, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative assessment of the retinal microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066008 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. J. Zawadzki, A. G. Capps, and J. S. Werner, “Comparison of amplitude-decorrelation, speckle-variance and phase-variance OCT angiography methods for imaging the human retina and choroid,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 911–942 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Salas, W. Drexler, X. Levecq, B. Lamory, M. Ritter, S. Prager, J. Hafner, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and M. Pircher, “Multi-modal adaptive optics system including fundus photography and optical coherence tomography for the clinical setting,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1783–1796 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (10)

F. Felberer, M. Rechenmacher, R. Haindl, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and M. Pircher, “Imaging of retinal vasculature using adaptive optics SLO/OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1407–1418 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lozzi, A. Agrawal, A. Boretsky, C. G. Welle, and D. X. Hammer, “Image quality metrics for optical coherence angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2435–2447 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couturier, V. Mané, S. Bonnin, A. Erginay, P. Massin, A. Gaudric, and R. Tadayoni, “Capillary plexus anomalies in diabetic retinopathy on optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2384–2391 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Keane, D. A. Sim, R. Agrawal, N. Koutramanos, J. Zarranz-Ventura, M. Fruttiger, C. A. Egan, and A. Tufail, “The application of optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 5952 (2015).

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image Artifacts in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

M. R. Thorell, Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, L. An, M. K. Durbin, M. Laron, U. Sharma, P. F. Stetson, G. Gregori, R. K. Wang, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Swept-Source OCT Angiography of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 45(5), 369–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, U. Baran, Y. Li, W. Qin, W. Wang, H. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Does optical microangiography provide accurate imaging of capillary vessels?: validation using multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(10), 106011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

E. Wei, Y. Jia, O. Tan, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Parafoveal retinal vascular response to pattern visual stimulation assessed with OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, D. B. Kay, D. Scoles, A. Dubra, and M. Lombardo, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging--clinical opportunities and challenges,” Curr. Eye Res. 38(7), 709–721 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Dubow, N. Shah, T. Y. Chui, D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo imaging of human retinal microvasculature using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1305–1317 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Felberer, J. S. Kroisamer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and M. Pircher, “Lens based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17297–17310 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Angiography of the retina and the choroid with phase-resolved OCT using interval-optimized backstitched B-scans,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20516–20534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kurokawa, K. Sasaki, S. Makita, Y. J. Hong, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional retinal and choroidal capillary imaging by power Doppler optical coherence angiography with adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22796–22812 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, B. Kaluzny, and R. J. Zawadzki, “New directions in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 524–542 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Longair, D. A. Baker, and J. D. Armstrong, “Simple Neurite Tracer: open source software for reconstruction, visualization and analysis of neuronal processes,” Bioinformatics 27(17), 2453–2454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, A. S. G. Singh, C. Blatter, S. Schriefl, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Imaging of the parafoveal capillary network and its integrity analysis using fractal dimension,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1159–1168 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
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A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
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D. T. Miller, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, and S. Lee, “Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT),” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 321–330 (2011).
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2010 (1)

J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive Visualization And Analysis of Parafoveal Capillaries in Humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
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2009 (1)

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, Y. Hong, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated retinal shadow compensation of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010503 (2009).
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2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

1991 (2)

C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical Measurement of the Axial Eye Length by Laser Doppler Interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32(3), 616–624 (1991).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

T. J. Fallon, P. Chowiencyzk, and E. M. Kohner, “Measurement of retinal blood flow in diabetes by the blue-light entoptic phenomenon,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 70(1), 43–46 (1986).
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Adhi, M.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
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Agemy, S. A.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
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Agrawal, A.

Agrawal, R.

P. A. Keane, D. A. Sim, R. Agrawal, N. Koutramanos, J. Zarranz-Ventura, M. Fruttiger, C. A. Egan, and A. Tufail, “The application of optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 5952 (2015).

Ahlers, C.

An, L.

M. R. Thorell, Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, L. An, M. K. Durbin, M. Laron, U. Sharma, P. F. Stetson, G. Gregori, R. K. Wang, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Swept-Source OCT Angiography of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 45(5), 369–380 (2014).
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L. An and R. K. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
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Andre, R.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
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Armour, R. L.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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M. H. Longair, D. A. Baker, and J. D. Armstrong, “Simple Neurite Tracer: open source software for reconstruction, visualization and analysis of neuronal processes,” Bioinformatics 27(17), 2453–2454 (2011).
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Bailey, S. T.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
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T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
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Baker, D. A.

M. H. Longair, D. A. Baker, and J. D. Armstrong, “Simple Neurite Tracer: open source software for reconstruction, visualization and analysis of neuronal processes,” Bioinformatics 27(17), 2453–2454 (2011).
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Baran, U.

H. Wang, U. Baran, Y. Li, W. Qin, W. Wang, H. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Does optical microangiography provide accurate imaging of capillary vessels?: validation using multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(10), 106011 (2014).
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Baumal, C. R.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
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Baumann, B.

Becker, M. D.

F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
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Biedermann, B. R.

Blatter, C.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
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T. Schmoll, A. S. G. Singh, C. Blatter, S. Schriefl, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Imaging of the parafoveal capillary network and its integrity analysis using fractal dimension,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1159–1168 (2011).
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Bonini Filho, M. A.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonnin, S.

A. Couturier, V. Mané, S. Bonnin, A. Erginay, P. Massin, A. Gaudric, and R. Tadayoni, “Capillary plexus anomalies in diabetic retinopathy on optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2384–2391 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boretsky, A.

Bower, B. A.

Braaf, B.

Bruestle, J.

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Cable, A.

Campbell, J. P.

Capps, A. G.

Carroll, J.

Cense, B.

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

Z. Chu, J. Lin, C. Gao, C. Xin, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, L. Roisman, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative assessment of the retinal microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066008 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
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Chin, A. T.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S.

Choi, W.

E. Wei, Y. Jia, O. Tan, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Parafoveal retinal vascular response to pattern visual stimulation assessed with OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chowiencyzk, P.

T. J. Fallon, P. Chowiencyzk, and E. M. Kohner, “Measurement of retinal blood flow in diabetes by the blue-light entoptic phenomenon,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 70(1), 43–46 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Z.

Z. Chu, J. Lin, C. Gao, C. Xin, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, L. Roisman, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative assessment of the retinal microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066008 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chui, T.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chui, T. Y.

Chui, T. Y. P.

Cooper, R. F.

Couturier, A.

A. Couturier, V. Mané, S. Bonnin, A. Erginay, P. Massin, A. Gaudric, and R. Tadayoni, “Capillary plexus anomalies in diabetic retinopathy on optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2384–2391 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

de Carlo, T. E.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Dubis, A. M.

Dubow, M.

Dubra, A.

Duker, J. S.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durbin, M. K.

M. R. Thorell, Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, L. An, M. K. Durbin, M. Laron, U. Sharma, P. F. Stetson, G. Gregori, R. K. Wang, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Swept-Source OCT Angiography of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 45(5), 369–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edmunds, B.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Egan, C. A.

P. A. Keane, D. A. Sim, R. Agrawal, N. Koutramanos, J. Zarranz-Ventura, M. Fruttiger, C. A. Egan, and A. Tufail, “The application of optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 5952 (2015).

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Elsner, A. E.

Erginay, A.

A. Couturier, V. Mané, S. Bonnin, A. Erginay, P. Massin, A. Gaudric, and R. Tadayoni, “Capillary plexus anomalies in diabetic retinopathy on optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2384–2391 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabritius, T.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, Y. Hong, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated retinal shadow compensation of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallon, T. J.

T. J. Fallon, P. Chowiencyzk, and E. M. Kohner, “Measurement of retinal blood flow in diabetes by the blue-light entoptic phenomenon,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 70(1), 43–46 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Felberer, F.

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, D.

Ferrara, D.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flaxel, C. J.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freiberg, F. J.

F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fruttiger, M.

P. A. Keane, D. A. Sim, R. Agrawal, N. Koutramanos, J. Zarranz-Ventura, M. Fruttiger, C. A. Egan, and A. Tufail, “The application of optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 5952 (2015).

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image Artifacts in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Wei, Y. Jia, O. Tan, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Parafoveal retinal vascular response to pattern visual stimulation assessed with OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, C.

Z. Chu, J. Lin, C. Gao, C. Xin, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, L. Roisman, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative assessment of the retinal microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066008 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, S. S.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia, P. M.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gattey, D. M.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaudric, A.

A. Couturier, V. Mané, S. Bonnin, A. Erginay, P. Massin, A. Gaudric, and R. Tadayoni, “Capillary plexus anomalies in diabetic retinopathy on optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2384–2391 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gentile, R. C.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Grajciar, B.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregori, G.

Z. Chu, J. Lin, C. Gao, C. Xin, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, L. Roisman, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative assessment of the retinal microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066008 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Thorell, Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, L. An, M. K. Durbin, M. Laron, U. Sharma, P. F. Stetson, G. Gregori, R. K. Wang, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Swept-Source OCT Angiography of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 45(5), 369–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hafner, J.

Haindl, R.

Hammer, D. X.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, Y. Hong, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated retinal shadow compensation of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, Y. J.

Hornegger, J.

Hsiao, Y. S.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Wei, Y. Jia, O. Tan, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Parafoveal retinal vascular response to pattern visual stimulation assessed with OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81343 (2013).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
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Jia, Y.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
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E. Wei, Y. Jia, O. Tan, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Parafoveal retinal vascular response to pattern visual stimulation assessed with OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81343 (2013).
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Sulai, Y. N.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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A. Couturier, V. Mané, S. Bonnin, A. Erginay, P. Massin, A. Gaudric, and R. Tadayoni, “Capillary plexus anomalies in diabetic retinopathy on optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2384–2391 (2015).
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Tam, J.

J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive Visualization And Analysis of Parafoveal Capillaries in Humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
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E. Wei, Y. Jia, O. Tan, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Parafoveal retinal vascular response to pattern visual stimulation assessed with OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81343 (2013).
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M. R. Thorell, Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, L. An, M. K. Durbin, M. Laron, U. Sharma, P. F. Stetson, G. Gregori, R. K. Wang, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Swept-Source OCT Angiography of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 45(5), 369–380 (2014).
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P. A. Keane, D. A. Sim, R. Agrawal, N. Koutramanos, J. Zarranz-Ventura, M. Fruttiger, C. A. Egan, and A. Tufail, “The application of optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 5952 (2015).

Tumbar, R.

Vannasdale, D. A.

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R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image Artifacts in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
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Wilson, B. C.

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T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
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T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
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F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
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Witkin, A. J.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
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M. Wojtkowski, B. Kaluzny, and R. J. Zawadzki, “New directions in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 524–542 (2012).
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F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
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Xin, C.

Z. Chu, J. Lin, C. Gao, C. Xin, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, L. Roisman, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative assessment of the retinal microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066008 (2016).
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Yang, V. X. D.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

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P. A. Keane, D. A. Sim, R. Agrawal, N. Koutramanos, J. Zarranz-Ventura, M. Fruttiger, C. A. Egan, and A. Tufail, “The application of optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 5952 (2015).

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zeng, H.

H. Wang, U. Baran, Y. Li, W. Qin, W. Wang, H. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Does optical microangiography provide accurate imaging of capillary vessels?: validation using multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(10), 106011 (2014).
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Zhang, A.

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
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Zhang, M.

Zhang, Q.

Z. Chu, J. Lin, C. Gao, C. Xin, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, L. Roisman, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative assessment of the retinal microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066008 (2016).
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A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
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M. R. Thorell, Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, L. An, M. K. Durbin, M. Laron, U. Sharma, P. F. Stetson, G. Gregori, R. K. Wang, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Swept-Source OCT Angiography of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 45(5), 369–380 (2014).
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Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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A. Lozzi, A. Agrawal, A. Boretsky, C. G. Welle, and D. X. Hammer, “Image quality metrics for optical coherence angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2435–2447 (2015).
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I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. J. Zawadzki, A. G. Capps, and J. S. Werner, “Comparison of amplitude-decorrelation, speckle-variance and phase-variance OCT angiography methods for imaging the human retina and choroid,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 911–942 (2016).
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M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
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T. Schmoll, A. S. G. Singh, C. Blatter, S. Schriefl, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Imaging of the parafoveal capillary network and its integrity analysis using fractal dimension,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1159–1168 (2011).
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A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
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A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
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T. Y. P. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
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F. Felberer, M. Rechenmacher, R. Haindl, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and M. Pircher, “Imaging of retinal vasculature using adaptive optics SLO/OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1407–1418 (2015).
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Eye (Lond.) (1)

D. T. Miller, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, and S. Lee, “Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT),” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 321–330 (2011).
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Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
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Int. J. Retina Vitreous (1)

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

P. A. Keane, D. A. Sim, R. Agrawal, N. Koutramanos, J. Zarranz-Ventura, M. Fruttiger, C. A. Egan, and A. Tufail, “The application of optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 5952 (2015).

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Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
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H. Wang, U. Baran, Y. Li, W. Qin, W. Wang, H. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Does optical microangiography provide accurate imaging of capillary vessels?: validation using multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(10), 106011 (2014).
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A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
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C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

JAMA Ophthalmol. (1)

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
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Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina (1)

M. R. Thorell, Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, L. An, M. K. Durbin, M. Laron, U. Sharma, P. F. Stetson, G. Gregori, R. K. Wang, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Swept-Source OCT Angiography of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 45(5), 369–380 (2014).
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Ophthalmology (2)

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
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Opt. Express (8)

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Angiography of the retina and the choroid with phase-resolved OCT using interval-optimized backstitched B-scans,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20516–20534 (2012).
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S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
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L. An and R. K. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
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F. Felberer, J. S. Kroisamer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and M. Pircher, “Lens based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17297–17310 (2012).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
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K. Kurokawa, K. Sasaki, S. Makita, Y. J. Hong, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional retinal and choroidal capillary imaging by power Doppler optical coherence angiography with adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22796–22812 (2012).
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T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

M. Wojtkowski, B. Kaluzny, and R. J. Zawadzki, “New directions in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 524–542 (2012).
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PLoS One (1)

E. Wei, Y. Jia, O. Tan, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Parafoveal retinal vascular response to pattern visual stimulation assessed with OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81343 (2013).
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Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (2)

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U. Schmidt-Erfurth and S. M. Waldstein, “A paradigm shift in imaging biomarkers in neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 50, 1–24 (2016).
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Retina (4)

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image Artifacts in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couturier, V. Mané, S. Bonnin, A. Erginay, P. Massin, A. Gaudric, and R. Tadayoni, “Capillary plexus anomalies in diabetic retinopathy on optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2384–2391 (2015).
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S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
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T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
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Science (1)

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (7454 KB)      Fly-through the B-scans of one volume data set. On the left hand side the intensity image and on the right hand side the corresponding angiography images.
» Visualization 2: AVI (8347 KB)      Fly-through the B-scans of one volume data set. On the left hand side the intensity image and on the right hand side the corresponding angiography images.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram showing the different steps for calculating the Weber contrast value. These steps were performed for each volume and each plexus. The fore and background regions are indicated in white in the images on the right hand side.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative B-scan images of a healthy volunteer extracted from a volume acquired at a location vertical = 0° and nasal = 3° from the fovea. (A) Intensity image (linear grey scale), (B) AO-OCTA image (linear grey scale). Visualization 1 shows a fly through of the B-scan images. The dashed lines show the corresponding borders for the en-face projection images. The different regions containing the vessel beds are indicated with the numbers 1-4. Blue: Posterior border of the topmost layer including the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Violet: Posterior border of the ganglion cell layer (anterior border is the blue line). Red: Posterior border of the inner plexiform layer. Green: Posterior border of the outer plexiform layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Side by side comparison between AO-OCT intensity images from different vasculature beds (top row: A, B, C, D) and the AO-OCTA images (bottom row: E, F, G, H). From left to right the corresponding depth integrated layers (cf. Fig. 2) are the nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer and outer plexiform layer (the red arrow in E indicates a vessel that is not clearly visible in the corresponding intensity image. The red arrow in H indicates areas with low signal intensity, green arrow points to an artifact).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The mean Weber contrast determined for 4 volumes that were recorded at 4 different locations. Blue: WC for the angiography images. Yellow: WC for the AO-OCT intensity images. Error bars indicate the standard deviation. The x-axis indicates the number of plexus as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OCTA images retrieved from a healthy volunteer. (A) En-face projection depth integrated over the nerve fiber layer (Layer No. 1 in Fig. 2, the red arrow indicates a capillary within the nerve fiber layer, (B) En-face projection depth integrated over layer No.2 in Fig. 2, (C) En-face projection between the vessels of layer No. 2 and layer No.3 (The red circles indicate connecting vessels that are perpendicular to the vasculature beds and connect the vessel layers (B) and (D). The blue arrow points to a connecting vessel that is more inclined than the other connecting vessels, the red arrow indicates a vessel that can be seen in the B-scan image (G). (D) En-face projection over layer No. 3, (E) En-face projection between the vessels of layer No. 3 and layer No. 4 (The red circles indicate vessels that connect the central capillary plexus in (D) with the outer capillary plexus in (F), the blue arrow points to a connecting vessel with a large inclination, the yellow arrow points to a vessel that can be observed in the B-scan image displayed in (H). (F) En-face projection over layer No. 4. (G) Representative B-scan averaged over 3 frames extracted from Visualization 2 at the location marked with a white line in (A) (The red arrow points to a connecting vessel that can be observed in (C). (H) Representative averaged B-scan extracted from Visualization 2 at the location marked with a red line in (A) (The yellow arrow points to a vessel that can be seen in (E). The volume was recorded at a location 1.5° temporal and 3° inferior to the fovea.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Vessel layer posterior to the nerve fiber layer (region 2 in Fig. 2). (A) AO-OCTA image consisting of 25 images that were stitched together. (B) Angiogram recorded with the commercial instrument. Field of view: ~7° × 7°. Depth integration of en-face images was identical for both images and is indicated in Fig. 2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Vessel layer below the inner plexiform layer (region 3 in Fig. 2). (A) AO-OCTA image consisting of 25 images that were stitched together. (B) Angiogram recorded with the commercial instrument. Field of view: 7°x7°. Depth integration of en-face images was identical for both images.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vessel layer below the outer plexiform layer (region 4 in Fig. 2). (A) AO-OCTA image consisting of 25 images that were stitched together. (B) Angiogram recorded with the commercial instrument. Field of view: 7° x 7°. Depth integration of en-face images was identical for both images.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

AO-OCTA images (left column) and OCTA images (right column) of selected regions of interest compared side by side. The retinal vessels are imaged in the macula region and are depth integrated over region 2 in Fig. 2. The field of view approximately corresponds to the area that can be imaged with the AO-OCTA using a single volume acquisition. (A) AO-OCTA image showing a small vessel (indicated with a red arrow) that proceeds parallel to a larger vessel. (B) The same region as in A) imaged with the commercial instrument. (C) AO-OCTA image showing a continuous vessel loop (indicated with the red arrow). (D) In this image the vessel loop (indicated with the red arrow) seems not to be connected with the main vessel on the left side. (E) AO-OCTA image showing three vessel junctions (indicated with a red arrow). (F) The same region as in E) imaged with the commercial instrument. The vessel junctions cannot be observed. Instead, closed vessel loops can be seen.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

OCTA and AO-OCTA images of a patient with diabetic retinopathy. (A) Overview OCTA image recorded with a commercial instrument (the red square indicates the region of interest that has been imaged using AO-OCTA). (B) Enlarged region of interest (indicated by the red square in (A) depth integrated over the anterior layers (region 1 and 2 in Fig. 2). (C) The same region as in (B) but depth integrated over deeper retinal layers (region 3 and 4 in Fig. 2). (D) OCT B-scan recorded at the center of the region of interest shown in (A). (E) En-face AO-OCTA image depth integrated over the region between the green lines shown in (G). (F) En-face AO-OCT intensity image depth integrated over the same region as in (E). (G) AO-OCTA B-scan showing the microaneurysm (H) AO-OCT intensity image at same location as in (G). The red arrows in the images show the location of a microaneurysm. The green arrows point to a hard exudate. The blue arrows indicate a small capillary that appears to perform a twisted loop and is embedded in highly scattering media.

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