Abstract

Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) benefits diagnostic imaging and therapeutic guidance by allowing for high-speed en face imaging of retinal structures. When combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT), SLO enables real-time aiming and retinal tracking and provides complementary information for post-acquisition volumetric co-registration, bulk motion compensation, and averaging. However, multimodality SLO-OCT systems generally require dedicated light sources, scanners, relay optics, detectors, and additional digitization and synchronization electronics, which increase system complexity. Here, we present a multimodal ophthalmic imaging system using swept-source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography (SS-SESLO-OCT) for in vivo human retinal imaging. SESLO reduces the complexity of en face imaging systems by multiplexing spatial positions as a function of wavelength. SESLO image quality benefited from single-mode illumination and multimode collection through a prototype double-clad fiber coupler, which optimized scattered light throughput and reduce speckle contrast while maintaining lateral resolution. Using a shared 1060 nm swept-source, shared scanner and imaging optics, and a shared dual-channel high-speed digitizer, we acquired inherently co-registered en face retinal images and OCT cross-sections simultaneously at 200 frames-per-second.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, M. I. Seider, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Retinal Surgery: Perioperative Analysis to Real-Time Four-Dimensional Image-Guided Surgery,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT37–OCT50 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, C. S. Lee, J. Chao, C. L. Chen, T. Zhang, U. Sharma, A. Zhang, J. Liu, K. Rezaei, K. L. Pepple, R. Munsen, J. Kinyoun, M. Johnstone, R. N. Van Gelder, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field optical coherence tomography based microangiography for retinal imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22017 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (10)

Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, T. Zhang, S. Kubach, L. An, M. Laron, U. Sharma, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field imaging of retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography provided by motion tracking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 066008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral Lesions Identified on Ultrawide Field Imaging Predict Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression over 4 Years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. McNabb, D. S. Grewal, S. Schuman, P. Mruthyunjaya, J. A. Izatt, and A. N. Kuo, “Ultra wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography for peripheral eye disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 2804 (2015).

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-Speed, Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nonexudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Geographic Atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Fechtig, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, C. Blatter, R. M. Werkmeister, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Line-field parallel swept source MHz OCT for structural and functional retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 716–735 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. De Montigny, W. J. Madore, O. Ouellette, G. Bernard, M. Leduc, M. Strupler, C. Boudoux, and N. Godbout, “Double-clad fiber coupler for partially coherent detection,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9040–9051 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, C. L. Kufner, W. Wieser, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Ultra-widefield retinal MHz-OCT imaging with up to 100 degrees viewing angle,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1534–1552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, C. Hain, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging pulse wave propagation in human retinal vessels using full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4771–4774 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nankivil, G. Waterman, F. LaRocca, B. Keller, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Handheld, rapidly switchable, anterior/posterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4516–4528 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zeidan and D. Yelin, “Miniature forward-viewing spectrally encoded endoscopic probe,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4871–4874 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

N. Z. Gregori, B. L. Lam, G. Gregori, S. Ranganathan, E. M. Stone, A. Morante, F. Abukhalil, and P. R. Aroucha, “Wide-Field Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients and Carriers of X-Linked Retinoschisis,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 169–174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Hendargo, R. Estrada, S. J. Chiu, C. Tomasi, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated non-rigid registration and mosaicing for robust imaging of distinct retinal capillary beds using speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 803–821 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Madore, E. De Montigny, O. Ouellette, S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Leduc, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Asymmetric double-clad fiber couplers for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4514–4517 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

D. F. Martin, M. G. Maguire, G. S. Ying, J. E. Grunwald, S. L. Fine, G. J. Jaffe, and CATT Research Group, “Ranibizumab and bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(20), 1897–1908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

2009 (4)

Y. K. Tao, K. M. Kennedy, and J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-resolved 3D retinal microvessel imaging using single-pass flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4177–4188 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116, 2305 (2009).

R. Matungka, Y. F. Zheng, and R. L. Ewing, “Image registration using adaptive polar transform,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 18(10), 2340–2354 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

2007 (2)

2006 (5)

2005 (3)

P. J. Rosenfeld, A. E. Fung, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography findings after an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (avastin) for macular edema from central retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36(4), 336–339 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. A. Goldsmith, Y. Li, M. R. Chalita, V. Westphal, C. A. Patil, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Anterior chamber width measurement by high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(2), 238–244 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. Yun, W. Oh, W. White, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8214–8221 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103(8), 1260–1270 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

R. A. Abrams, D. E. Meyer, and S. Kornblum, “Speed and Accuracy of Saccadic Eye Movements: Characteristics of Impulse Variability in the Oculomotor System,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 15(3), 529–543 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

V. P. Laurutis and D. A. Robinson, “The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex During Human Saccadic Eye Movements,” J. Physiol. 373(1), 209–233 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

O. Pomerantzeff, M. Pankratov, G. J. Wang, and P. Dufault, “Wide-angle optical model of the eye,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61(3), 166–176 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 28(7), 488–492 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1964 (1)

D. A. Robinson, “The Mechanics of Human Saccadic Eye Movement,” J. Physiol. 174(2), 245–264 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abrams, R. A.

R. A. Abrams, D. E. Meyer, and S. Kornblum, “Speed and Accuracy of Saccadic Eye Movements: Characteristics of Impulse Variability in the Oculomotor System,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 15(3), 529–543 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abukhalil, F.

N. Z. Gregori, B. L. Lam, G. Gregori, S. Ranganathan, E. M. Stone, A. Morante, F. Abukhalil, and P. R. Aroucha, “Wide-Field Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients and Carriers of X-Linked Retinoschisis,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 169–174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adhi, M.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-Speed, Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nonexudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Geographic Atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Aiello, L. M.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral Lesions Identified on Ultrawide Field Imaging Predict Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression over 4 Years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aiello, L. P.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral Lesions Identified on Ultrawide Field Imaging Predict Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression over 4 Years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, L.

Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, T. Zhang, S. Kubach, L. An, M. Laron, U. Sharma, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field imaging of retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography provided by motion tracking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 066008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
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Aroucha, P. R.

N. Z. Gregori, B. L. Lam, G. Gregori, S. Ranganathan, E. M. Stone, A. Morante, F. Abukhalil, and P. R. Aroucha, “Wide-Field Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients and Carriers of X-Linked Retinoschisis,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 169–174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avery, R. L.

R. L. Avery, D. J. Pieramici, M. D. Rabena, A. A. Castellarin, M. A. Nasir, and M. J. Giust, “Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 113(3), 363–372 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, S.

Baumal, C. R.

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103(8), 1260–1270 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Bernard, G.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bigelow, C. E.

Blatter, C.

Bock, R.

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

M. Stopa, B. A. Bower, E. Davies, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Correlation of pathologic features in spectral domain optical coherence tomography with conventional retinal studies,” Retina 28(2), 298–308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Carrasco-Zevallos, O. M.

O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, M. I. Seider, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Retinal Surgery: Perioperative Analysis to Real-Time Four-Dimensional Image-Guided Surgery,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT37–OCT50 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellarin, A. A.

R. L. Avery, D. J. Pieramici, M. D. Rabena, A. A. Castellarin, M. A. Nasir, and M. J. Giust, “Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 113(3), 363–372 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavallerano, J. D.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral Lesions Identified on Ultrawide Field Imaging Predict Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression over 4 Years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chalita, M. R.

J. A. Goldsmith, Y. Li, M. R. Chalita, V. Westphal, C. A. Patil, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Anterior chamber width measurement by high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(2), 238–244 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, J.

Q. Zhang, C. S. Lee, J. Chao, C. L. Chen, T. Zhang, U. Sharma, A. Zhang, J. Liu, K. Rezaei, K. L. Pepple, R. Munsen, J. Kinyoun, M. Johnstone, R. N. Van Gelder, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field optical coherence tomography based microangiography for retinal imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22017 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

Q. Zhang, C. S. Lee, J. Chao, C. L. Chen, T. Zhang, U. Sharma, A. Zhang, J. Liu, K. Rezaei, K. L. Pepple, R. Munsen, J. Kinyoun, M. Johnstone, R. N. Van Gelder, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field optical coherence tomography based microangiography for retinal imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22017 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chiu, S. J.

Choi, W.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-Speed, Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nonexudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Geographic Atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chopra, V.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116, 2305 (2009).

Coker, J. G.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103(8), 1260–1270 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, E.

M. Stopa, B. A. Bower, E. Davies, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Correlation of pathologic features in spectral domain optical coherence tomography with conventional retinal studies,” Retina 28(2), 298–308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daxhelet, X.

de Boer, J. F.

de Carlo, T. E.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-Speed, Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nonexudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Geographic Atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Montigny, E.

Delori, F. C.

Drexler, W.

D. J. Fechtig, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, C. Blatter, R. M. Werkmeister, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Line-field parallel swept source MHz OCT for structural and functional retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 716–735 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dufault, P.

O. Pomerantzeff, M. Pankratov, G. J. Wang, and P. Dufault, “Wide-angle optical model of the eye,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61(3), 166–176 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J.

Duker, J. S.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-Speed, Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nonexudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Geographic Atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103(8), 1260–1270 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dyer, K. H.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral Lesions Identified on Ultrawide Field Imaging Predict Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression over 4 Years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Estrada, R.

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ewing, R. L.

R. Matungka, Y. F. Zheng, and R. L. Ewing, “Image registration using adaptive polar transform,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 18(10), 2340–2354 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

Fechtig, D. J.

Ferguson, R. D.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, “Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041126 (2006).
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N. V. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, T. Ustun, J. F. de Boer, and R. D. Ferguson, “Hybrid retinal imager using line-scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12909–12914 (2006).
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D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, G. Maislin, and R. H. Webb, “Hand-held digital line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO),” Proc. SPIE 5314, 161–169 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fienup, J. R.

Fine, S. L.

D. F. Martin, M. G. Maguire, G. S. Ying, J. E. Grunwald, S. L. Fine, G. J. Jaffe, and CATT Research Group, “Ranibizumab and bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(20), 1897–1908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fingler, J.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flaxel, C. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franke, G.

Fraser, S. E.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. Heim, and A. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz - 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130M (2012).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
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Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-Speed, Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nonexudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Geographic Atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
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M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
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B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
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R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
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W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
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M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
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M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103(8), 1260–1270 (1996).
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C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 217–229 (1995).
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Fung, A. E.

P. J. Rosenfeld, A. E. Fung, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography findings after an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (avastin) for macular edema from central retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36(4), 336–339 (2005).
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Gao, S. S.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
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Giust, M. J.

R. L. Avery, D. J. Pieramici, M. D. Rabena, A. A. Castellarin, M. A. Nasir, and M. J. Giust, “Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 113(3), 363–372 (2006).
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Godbout, N.

Goldsmith, J. A.

J. A. Goldsmith, Y. Li, M. R. Chalita, V. Westphal, C. A. Patil, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Anterior chamber width measurement by high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(2), 238–244 (2005).
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Gorczynska, I.

Grajciar, B.

Gregori, G.

N. Z. Gregori, B. L. Lam, G. Gregori, S. Ranganathan, E. M. Stone, A. Morante, F. Abukhalil, and P. R. Aroucha, “Wide-Field Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients and Carriers of X-Linked Retinoschisis,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 169–174 (2013).
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Gregori, N. Z.

N. Z. Gregori, B. L. Lam, G. Gregori, S. Ranganathan, E. M. Stone, A. Morante, F. Abukhalil, and P. R. Aroucha, “Wide-Field Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients and Carriers of X-Linked Retinoschisis,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 169–174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grewal, D. S.

R. P. McNabb, D. S. Grewal, S. Schuman, P. Mruthyunjaya, J. A. Izatt, and A. N. Kuo, “Ultra wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography for peripheral eye disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 2804 (2015).

Grulkowski, I.

Grunwald, J. E.

D. F. Martin, M. G. Maguire, G. S. Ying, J. E. Grunwald, S. L. Fine, G. J. Jaffe, and CATT Research Group, “Ranibizumab and bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(20), 1897–1908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Haddad, N. M.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral Lesions Identified on Ultrawide Field Imaging Predict Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression over 4 Years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
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Hain, C.

Hammer, D. X.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, “Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041126 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, T. Ustun, J. F. de Boer, and R. D. Ferguson, “Hybrid retinal imager using line-scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12909–12914 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, G. Maislin, and R. H. Webb, “Hand-held digital line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO),” Proc. SPIE 5314, 161–169 (2004).
[Crossref]

Haritoglou, C.

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103(8), 1260–1270 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heim, P.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. Heim, and A. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz - 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130M (2012).
[Crossref]

Hendargo, H. C.

Hillmann, D.

Hong, Y.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116, 2305 (2009).

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Goldsmith, Y. Li, M. R. Chalita, V. Westphal, C. A. Patil, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Anterior chamber width measurement by high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(2), 238–244 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, T. Zhang, S. Kubach, L. An, M. Laron, U. Sharma, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field imaging of retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography provided by motion tracking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 066008 (2015).
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Huber, R.

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, C. L. Kufner, W. Wieser, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Ultra-widefield retinal MHz-OCT imaging with up to 100 degrees viewing angle,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1534–1552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, G. W.

Hüttmann, G.

Hwang, T. S.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Iftimia, N. V.

Ishikawa, H.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116, 2305 (2009).

Izatt, J. A.

O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, M. I. Seider, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Retinal Surgery: Perioperative Analysis to Real-Time Four-Dimensional Image-Guided Surgery,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT37–OCT50 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. McNabb, D. S. Grewal, S. Schuman, P. Mruthyunjaya, J. A. Izatt, and A. N. Kuo, “Ultra wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography for peripheral eye disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 2804 (2015).

D. Nankivil, G. Waterman, F. LaRocca, B. Keller, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Handheld, rapidly switchable, anterior/posterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4516–4528 (2015).
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H. C. Hendargo, R. Estrada, S. J. Chiu, C. Tomasi, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated non-rigid registration and mosaicing for robust imaging of distinct retinal capillary beds using speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 803–821 (2013).
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Y. K. Tao and J. A. Izatt, “Spectrally encoded confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 574–576 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Interlaced spectrally encoded confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 431–440 (2010).
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Y. K. Tao, K. M. Kennedy, and J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-resolved 3D retinal microvessel imaging using single-pass flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4177–4188 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Stopa, B. A. Bower, E. Davies, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Correlation of pathologic features in spectral domain optical coherence tomography with conventional retinal studies,” Retina 28(2), 298–308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Goldsmith, Y. Li, M. R. Chalita, V. Westphal, C. A. Patil, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Anterior chamber width measurement by high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(2), 238–244 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaffe, G. J.

D. F. Martin, M. G. Maguire, G. S. Ying, J. E. Grunwald, S. L. Fine, G. J. Jaffe, and CATT Research Group, “Ranibizumab and bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(20), 1897–1908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayaraman, V.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-Speed, Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nonexudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Geographic Atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
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Ophthalmology (11)

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O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116, 2305 (2009).

R. L. Avery, D. J. Pieramici, M. D. Rabena, A. A. Castellarin, M. A. Nasir, and M. J. Giust, “Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 113(3), 363–372 (2006).
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P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
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P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral Lesions Identified on Ultrawide Field Imaging Predict Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression over 4 Years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
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N. Z. Gregori, B. L. Lam, G. Gregori, S. Ranganathan, E. M. Stone, A. Morante, F. Abukhalil, and P. R. Aroucha, “Wide-Field Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients and Carriers of X-Linked Retinoschisis,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 169–174 (2013).
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Opt. Express (15)

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
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T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
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B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
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Y. K. Tao, K. M. Kennedy, and J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-resolved 3D retinal microvessel imaging using single-pass flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4177–4188 (2009).
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J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
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C. Boudoux, S. Yun, W. Oh, W. White, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8214–8221 (2005).
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R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
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S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
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N. V. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, T. Ustun, J. F. de Boer, and R. D. Ferguson, “Hybrid retinal imager using line-scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12909–12914 (2006).
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D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
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S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9755–9764 (2010).
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E. De Montigny, W. J. Madore, O. Ouellette, G. Bernard, M. Leduc, M. Strupler, C. Boudoux, and N. Godbout, “Double-clad fiber coupler for partially coherent detection,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9040–9051 (2015).
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Opt. Lett. (9)

H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, C. Hain, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging pulse wave propagation in human retinal vessels using full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4771–4774 (2015).
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W. J. Madore, E. De Montigny, O. Ouellette, S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Leduc, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Asymmetric double-clad fiber couplers for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4514–4517 (2013).
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A. Zeidan and D. Yelin, “Miniature forward-viewing spectrally encoded endoscopic probe,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4871–4874 (2014).
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G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded miniature endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 412–414 (2002).
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R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
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M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 156–158 (2008).
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A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (43144 KB)      In vivo SS-SESLO-OCT human retinal imaging.
» Visualization 2: AVI (26632 KB)      Multi-volumetric SESLO registration.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SS-SESLO-OCT engine and imaging optics schematics. (a) A 1060 nm swept-source is shared between the SESLO and OCT via a 30:70 coupler, respectively. SESLO illumination is relayed by the single-mode core and detected by the multimode inner cladding of a prototype DCFC. (b) Cross-sectional views of the imaging optics (SESLO, blue; OCT, red; shared, purple). SESLO and OCT optical paths share a scanning mirror (Gx, SESLO scan axis and OCT fast axis) and are combined using a pick-off mirror. (c) Representative in vivo retinal SESLO image centered on the optic nerve showing: SESLO encoded, SESLO scan, OCT fast, and OCT slow axes. The SESLO and OCT FOVs are offset in the fast axis by ~25 μm at the retina (δx). DCF, double-clad fiber; f, collimating, objective, ophthalmic, relay, and scan lenses; Gx,y, galvanometer scanners; M, mirror; MMF, multimode fiber; PC, polarization controller; PD, photodiode; PM, D-shaped pickoff mirror; VPHG, grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SS-SESLO-OCT CAD renderings. (a) Top, (b) front, and (c) isometric views of SS-SESLO-OCT on a 6 x 24 in. optical breadboard shows the relative system size and layout, and positions of optics/optomechanics of corresponding components in Fig. 1(b). f, collimating, objective, ophthalmic, relay, and scan lenses; Gx,y, galvanometer scanners; PM, D-shaped pickoff mirror; VPHG, grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SS-SESLO-OCT spot diagrams. (a), (b) SESLO and (c), (d) OCT spot diagrams showing (a), (c) full-field and (b), (d) magnified spot matrices. SESLO ray trace shows diffraction-limited performance on-axis with an Airy radius of 7.56 μm and about 4-6x the Airy disc at the edge of the field. Across a FOV matching that of the SESLO FOV, OCT spots are diffraction limited at the center of the FOV with an Airy radius of 13.8 μm and 2-3x the Airy disc at the edges of the field. All spot diagrams are simulated at the retina of a model eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of SECSLO and SESLO imaging performance. Images of USAF 1951 test chart through a uniformly scattering layer acquired using (a), (b) a single-mode optical circulator and (c), (d) a DCFC show identical smallest resolvable elements (horizontal: Group 5 Element 6, 8.77 μm; vertical: Group 6 Element 2, 6.96 μm). Images were acquired at the focal plane of the final scan lens (fs in Fig. 1(b) and 2). Anisotropic lateral resolution is a result of dominant chromatic aberration in the vertical (spectrally encoded) dimension.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SESLO speckle reduction using multimode collection. En face image and corresponding intensity profiles of a uniformly scattering phantom imaged using single-mode illumination and collection through an optical circulator (SMF), single-mode illumination and multimode collection through a DCFC, and single-mode illumination and multimode collection through a double-clad fiber coupler and a 250 m multimode patch cord (DCFC + MMF).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In vivo SS-SESLO-OCT human retinal imaging. (a) Raw SESLO sampled with 1376 (spectral) x 500 pix. acquired at 200 fps and (b) 5-frame average (see Visualization 1). (c) Inherently co-registered volumetric OCT data set with representative (d) fast and (e) slow axis cross-sectional images. (d) B-scans were acquired simultaneously with each SESLO frame. OCT volume was sampled with 1376 x 500 x 500 pix. (spectral x A-scan x B-scan) with a total acquisition time of 2.5 s. Arrow, specular reflection artifact.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Multi-volumetric SESLO registration. Three SS-SESLO-OCT volumes were acquired with the subject moving freely and re-fixating between each data set. All SESLO images were registered to (a) the first frame of volume 1 to calculate (b) translational (top and middle) and rotational (bottom) bulk motions (see Visualization 2). (c) Bulk motion compensation and averaging of all 1500 SESLO frames results in significant SNR improvement with no loss of features. Raw SESLO frames were acquired at 200 fps. Each volumetric data set is delineated by dotted lines and a period of missing data during a blink is labeled by the red bar.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Multi-volumetric SS-SESLO-OCT registration and mosaicking. (a)-(c) En face projections of volumetric OCT data sets with each B-scan bulk motion corrected using registration parameters calculated from corresponding SESLO frames (Fig. 7). Black lines, missing data; red arrows, saccades and fixation drifts; asterisk, blink. (d) OCT mosaic showing recovery of missing data using mutual information from all three motion-corrected volumes.

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