Abstract

This work presents experimental and analytical comparison of terahertz transmission and reflection imaging modes for assessing breast carcinoma in excised paraffin-embedded human breast tissue. Modeling for both transmission and reflection imaging is developed. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of the tissue samples are obtained. The reflection measurements taken at the system’s fixed oblique angle of 30° are shown to be a hybridization of TE and TM modes. The models are validated with transmission spectroscopy at fixed points on fresh bovine muscle and fat tissues. Images based on the calculated absorption coefficient and index of refraction of bovine tissue are successfully compared with the terahertz magnitude and phase measured in the reflection mode. The validated techniques are extended to 20 and 30 μm slices of fixed human lobular carcinoma and infiltrating ductal carcinoma mounted on polystyrene microscope slides in order to investigate the terahertz differentiation of the carcinoma with non-cancerous tissue. Both transmission and reflection imaging show clear differentiation in carcinoma versus healthy tissue. However, when using the reflection mode, in the calculation of the thin tissue properties, the absorption is shown to be sensitive to small phase variations that arise due to deviations in slide and tissue thickness and non-ideal tissue adhesion. On the other hand, the results show that the transmission mode is much less sensitive to these phase variations. The results also demonstrate that reflection imaging provides higher resolution and more clear margins between cancerous and fibroglandular regions, cancerous and fatty regions, and fibroglandular and fatty tissue regions. In addition, more features consistent with high power pathology images are exhibited in the reflection mode images.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

T. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Time of flight estimation for breast cancer margin thickness using embedded tumors,” Proc. SPIE 9706, 97061V (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9706, 97061W (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

D. Y. S. Chau, A. R. Dennis, H. Lin, J. A. Zeitler, and A. Tunnacliffe, “Determination of Water Content in Dehydrated Mammalian Cells Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging: A Feasibility Study,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 17(2), 200–207 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Terahertz Imaging of Excised Breast Tumor Tissue on Paraffin Sections,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(5), 2088–2097 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

S. J. Oh, S.-H. Kim, Y. B. Ji, K. Jeong, Y. Park, J. Yang, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, S.-G. Kang, Y.-M. Huh, J.-H. Son, and J.-S. Suh, “Study of freshly excised brain tissues using terahertz imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2837–2842 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Burford, M. El-Shenawee, C. B. O’Neal, and K. J. Olejniczak, “Terahertz Imaging for Nondestructive Evaluation of Packaged Power Electronic Devices,” Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng. 4, 395–401 (2014).

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and P. Mounaix, “Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. B. Ji, S.-H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Choi, J.-H. Son, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. K. Lee, S. J. Oh, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4162–4170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

D. M. Charron, K. Ajito, J. Y. Kim, and Y. Ueno, “Chemical mapping of pharmaceutical cocrystals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 1980–1984 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. E. Baughman, H. Yokus, S. Balci, D. S. Wilbert, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Observation of hydrofluoric acid burns on osseous tissues by means of terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 798–805 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. Joseph, and R. Giles, “Detection of colon cancer by continuous-wave terahertz polarization imaging technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 090504 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2438–2447 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 123–128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

Adomavicius, R.

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ahuja, A. T.

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajito, K.

D. M. Charron, K. Ajito, J. Y. Kim, and Y. Ueno, “Chemical mapping of pharmaceutical cocrystals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 1980–1984 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alavi, K.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. Joseph, and R. Giles, “Detection of colon cancer by continuous-wave terahertz polarization imaging technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 090504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Almeida, A.

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arbab, M. H.

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashworth, P. C.

Bajwa, N.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balci, S.

W. E. Baughman, H. Yokus, S. Balci, D. S. Wilbert, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Observation of hydrofluoric acid burns on osseous tissues by means of terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 798–805 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baughman, W. E.

W. E. Baughman, H. Yokus, S. Balci, D. S. Wilbert, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Observation of hydrofluoric acid burns on osseous tissues by means of terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 798–805 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernardo, L. M.

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berry, E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 123–128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonn, M.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bousquet, B.

B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and P. Mounaix, “Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bowman, T.

T. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Time of flight estimation for breast cancer margin thickness using embedded tumors,” Proc. SPIE 9706, 97061V (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9706, 97061W (2016).
[Crossref]

Bowman, T. C.

T. C. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Terahertz Imaging of Excised Breast Tumor Tissue on Paraffin Sections,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(5), 2088–2097 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. C. Bowman, Y. Wu, A. Walter, J. Gauch, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Time of Flight THz Imaging of 3D Ex-Vivo Breast cancer Tumor Tissues,” in 40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (2015).
[Crossref]

Brown, E. R.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burford, N. M.

N. M. Burford, M. El-Shenawee, C. B. O’Neal, and K. J. Olejniczak, “Terahertz Imaging for Nondestructive Evaluation of Packaged Power Electronic Devices,” Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng. 4, 395–401 (2014).

Campbell, L. K.

T. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9706, 97061W (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Time of flight estimation for breast cancer margin thickness using embedded tumors,” Proc. SPIE 9706, 97061V (2016).
[Crossref]

T. C. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Terahertz Imaging of Excised Breast Tumor Tissue on Paraffin Sections,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(5), 2088–2097 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. C. Bowman, Y. Wu, A. Walter, J. Gauch, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Time of Flight THz Imaging of 3D Ex-Vivo Breast cancer Tumor Tissues,” in 40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (2015).
[Crossref]

Canioni, L.

B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and P. Mounaix, “Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chamberlain, J. M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 123–128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charron, D. M.

D. M. Charron, K. Ajito, J. Y. Kim, and Y. Ueno, “Chemical mapping of pharmaceutical cocrystals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 1980–1984 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chau, D. Y. S.

D. Y. S. Chau, A. R. Dennis, H. Lin, J. A. Zeitler, and A. Tunnacliffe, “Determination of Water Content in Dehydrated Mammalian Cells Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging: A Feasibility Study,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 17(2), 200–207 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, A.

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, G. C.

Choi, Y.

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Culjat, M. O.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dennis, A. R.

D. Y. S. Chau, A. R. Dennis, H. Lin, J. A. Zeitler, and A. Tunnacliffe, “Determination of Water Content in Dehydrated Mammalian Cells Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging: A Feasibility Study,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 17(2), 200–207 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickey, T. C.

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doradla, P.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. Joseph, and R. Giles, “Detection of colon cancer by continuous-wave terahertz polarization imaging technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 090504 (2013).
[Crossref]

El-Shenawee, M.

T. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Time of flight estimation for breast cancer margin thickness using embedded tumors,” Proc. SPIE 9706, 97061V (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9706, 97061W (2016).
[Crossref]

T. C. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Terahertz Imaging of Excised Breast Tumor Tissue on Paraffin Sections,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(5), 2088–2097 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. M. Burford, M. El-Shenawee, C. B. O’Neal, and K. J. Olejniczak, “Terahertz Imaging for Nondestructive Evaluation of Packaged Power Electronic Devices,” Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng. 4, 395–401 (2014).

T. C. Bowman, Y. Wu, A. Walter, J. Gauch, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Time of Flight THz Imaging of 3D Ex-Vivo Breast cancer Tumor Tissues,” in 40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 123–128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frederique, L.

B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and P. Mounaix, “Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gauch, J.

T. C. Bowman, Y. Wu, A. Walter, J. Gauch, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Time of Flight THz Imaging of 3D Ex-Vivo Breast cancer Tumor Tissues,” in 40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (2015).
[Crossref]

Giles, R.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. Joseph, and R. Giles, “Detection of colon cancer by continuous-wave terahertz polarization imaging technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 090504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giles, R. H.

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goyette, T. M.

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundfest, W. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haam, S.

Han, P. Y.

He, Y.

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hendry, E.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Henrique, R.

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Homer-Vanniasinkam, S.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 123–128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubschman, J. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, Y.-M.

Jansen, C.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jeon, T.-I.

Jeong, K.

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y. B.

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joseph, C.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. Joseph, and R. Giles, “Detection of colon cancer by continuous-wave terahertz polarization imaging technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 090504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Joseph, C. S.

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamataki, A.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S.-G.

Kasalynas, I.

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kealey, C. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. Y.

D. M. Charron, K. Ajito, J. Y. Kim, and Y. Ueno, “Chemical mapping of pharmaceutical cocrystals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 1980–1984 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. M.

W. E. Baughman, H. Yokus, S. Balci, D. S. Wilbert, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Observation of hydrofluoric acid burns on osseous tissues by means of terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 798–805 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-H.

Klein, M. B.

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kung, P.

W. E. Baughman, H. Yokus, S. Balci, D. S. Wilbert, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Observation of hydrofluoric acid burns on osseous tissues by means of terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 798–805 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kürner, T.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. K.

Lin, H.

D. Y. S. Chau, A. R. Dennis, H. Lin, J. A. Zeitler, and A. Tunnacliffe, “Determination of Water Content in Dehydrated Mammalian Cells Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging: A Feasibility Study,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 17(2), 200–207 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, T.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lopes, M.

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lopes, P. C.

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Macutkevic, J.

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Miles, R. E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 123–128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miura, Y.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreira, J. A.

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mounaix, P.

B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and P. Mounaix, “Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mourad, P. D.

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neel, V. A.

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, J.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, S. K.

O’Neal, C. B.

N. M. Burford, M. El-Shenawee, C. B. O’Neal, and K. J. Olejniczak, “Terahertz Imaging for Nondestructive Evaluation of Packaged Power Electronic Devices,” Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng. 4, 395–401 (2014).

Oh, S. J.

Olejniczak, K. J.

N. M. Burford, M. El-Shenawee, C. B. O’Neal, and K. J. Olejniczak, “Terahertz Imaging for Nondestructive Evaluation of Packaged Power Electronic Devices,” Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng. 4, 395–401 (2014).

Orfanidis, S. J.

S. J. Orfanidis, Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas (2013).

Park, D. W.

Park, Y.

Pepper, M.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piesiewicz, R.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pinder, S. E.

Provenzano, E.

Purushotham, A. D.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Recur, B.

B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and P. Mounaix, “Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, T.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawai, T.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seliuta, D.

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shan, J.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[Crossref]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2438–2447 (2004).
[Crossref]

Singh, R. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, M. A.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 123–128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, J. H.

J. H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102033 (2009).
[Crossref]

Son, J.-H.

Stojadinovic, A.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, J.-S.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sy, M. Y.

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sy, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[Crossref]

Taylor, Z. D.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tewari, P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tribe, W. R.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tunnacliffe, A.

D. Y. S. Chau, A. R. Dennis, H. Lin, J. A. Zeitler, and A. Tunnacliffe, “Determination of Water Content in Dehydrated Mammalian Cells Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging: A Feasibility Study,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 17(2), 200–207 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ueno, Y.

D. M. Charron, K. Ajito, J. Y. Kim, and Y. Ueno, “Chemical mapping of pharmaceutical cocrystals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 1980–1984 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulbricht, R.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ung, B. S.

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Uzuki, M.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valusis, G.

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wahaia, F.

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wallace, V. P.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walter, A.

T. C. Bowman, Y. Wu, A. Walter, J. Gauch, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Time of Flight THz Imaging of 3D Ex-Vivo Breast cancer Tumor Tissues,” in 40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-X. J.

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wietzke, S.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wilbert, D. S.

W. E. Baughman, H. Yokus, S. Balci, D. S. Wilbert, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Observation of hydrofluoric acid burns on osseous tissues by means of terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 798–805 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winebrenner, D. P.

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

T. C. Bowman, Y. Wu, A. Walter, J. Gauch, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Time of Flight THz Imaging of 3D Ex-Vivo Breast cancer Tumor Tissues,” in 40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokus, H.

W. E. Baughman, H. Yokus, S. Balci, D. S. Wilbert, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Observation of hydrofluoric acid burns on osseous tissues by means of terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 798–805 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeitler, J. A.

D. Y. S. Chau, A. R. Dennis, H. Lin, J. A. Zeitler, and A. Tunnacliffe, “Determination of Water Content in Dehydrated Mammalian Cells Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging: A Feasibility Study,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 17(2), 200–207 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. C.

Zhang, Y.-T.

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zinov’ev, N. N.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 123–128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

D. M. Charron, K. Ajito, J. Y. Kim, and Y. Ueno, “Chemical mapping of pharmaceutical cocrystals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 1980–1984 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. (1)

D. Y. S. Chau, A. R. Dennis, H. Lin, J. A. Zeitler, and A. Tunnacliffe, “Determination of Water Content in Dehydrated Mammalian Cells Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging: A Feasibility Study,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 17(2), 200–207 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. (1)

W. E. Baughman, H. Yokus, S. Balci, D. S. Wilbert, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Observation of hydrofluoric acid burns on osseous tissues by means of terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 798–805 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

T. C. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Terahertz Imaging of Excised Breast Tumor Tissue on Paraffin Sections,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(5), 2088–2097 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2438–2447 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng. (1)

N. M. Burford, M. El-Shenawee, C. B. O’Neal, and K. J. Olejniczak, “Terahertz Imaging for Nondestructive Evaluation of Packaged Power Electronic Devices,” Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng. 4, 395–401 (2014).

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kürner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28(5), 363–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102033 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Biol. Phys. (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 123–128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. Joseph, and R. Giles, “Detection of colon cancer by continuous-wave terahertz polarization imaging technique,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 090504 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (1)

B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and P. Mounaix, “Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

F. Wahaia, G. Valusis, L. M. Bernardo, A. Almeida, J. A. Moreira, P. C. Lopes, J. Macutkevic, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, R. Adomavicius, R. Henrique, and M. Lopes, “Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques,” J. Mol. Struct. 1006(1-3), 77–82 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Time of flight estimation for breast cancer margin thickness using embedded tumors,” Proc. SPIE 9706, 97061V (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9706, 97061W (2016).
[Crossref]

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (1)

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

World J. Radiol. (1)

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

“Breast Cancer.” American Cancer Society [Online]. Available: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003090-pdf.pdf Last revised 4 May 2016.

C. T. A. Johnk, Engineering Electromagnetic Fields and Waves, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1988).

S. J. Orfanidis, Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas (2013).

T. C. Bowman, “Experimental Terahertz Imaging and Spectroscopy for Ex-vivo Breast Cancer Tissue,” University of Arkansas (2014).

T. C. Bowman, Y. Wu, A. Walter, J. Gauch, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Time of Flight THz Imaging of 3D Ex-Vivo Breast cancer Tumor Tissues,” in 40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S.-Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Improved Algorithm for Material Characterization by Terahertz Reflection Imaging,” in 2015 40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz) (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 TPS Spectra 3000 (a) diagram with transmission imaging module, (b) reflection imaging module, (c) incident time domain signal, and (d) frequency domain signal obtained with Fourier transform.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The refractive index (black) left scale and absorption coefficient (red) right scale of two polystyrene materials used in this work: a 1 mm thick microscope slide (solid line) and 1.2 mm thick polystyrene plate (dotted line).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmission imaging setup.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reflection imaging setups for tissue on polystyrene slides. (a) Air, tissue, polystyrene slide, air orientation. (b) air, slide, tissue, air orientation. (c) air, slide, tissue, slide, air setup. In all cases, the THz emitter and detector are located on the left side.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated reflection signals at different rotation angle ψ between TE and TM modes versus the measurement signal for acrylic sheet.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 THz spectroscopy of fresh bovine tissue using (a) quartz window reference and (b) sample measurement of tissue in quartz holder (c) the mean calculated refractive index (black) and absorption coefficient (red) of the muscle (solid line) and fat (dashed line). Error bars indicate the standard deviation of the measurements. The measured properties of water (dotted line) are also shown for comparison.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Reflection imaging setup where bovine tissue is held between two polystyrene plates. (a) The reference measurement, (b) the sample measurement, and (c) photo of the sample positioned on the system window. The THz emitter and detector are positioned below the window.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Reflection imaging and characterization of fresh bovine tissue. (a) Photograph of the sample. (b) THz time domain measured reflection from sample. Fourier transform used to obtain THz frequency domain reflected magnitude at (c) 1 THz and (d) 2 THz and reflected phase at (e) 1 THz and (f) 2 THz. The calculated refractive index at (g) 1 THz and (h) 2 THz and the calculated absorption coefficient at (i) 1 THz and (j) 2 THz.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Reflection imaging and characterization of bovine tissue sample 2 represented by (a) photograph. (b) The time domain reflection image, (c) the refractive index, n, and (d) the absorption coefficient, αabs, at 0.5 THz, (e) n and (f) αabs at 0.75 THz, (g) n and (h) αabs at 1 THz, and (i) n and (j) αabs at 2 THz.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Reflection and Transmission images of lobular carcinoma samples obtained from 69-year-old woman. Pathology of (a) Sample 1 and (b) Sample 2 with regions designated by outlines for lobular carcinoma (black), fibroglandular (red), and fatty/fibroglandular (blue) tissue. Points 1-6 are indicated for high power pathology assessment to be shown in Fig. 12. Reflection peak time domain images are shown for (c) Sample 1 and (d) Sample 2. Transmission peak time domain images are shown for (e) Sample 1 and (d) Sample 2. Blank areas in the transmission images (e-f) represent the smaller scanning ranges (window size) in the transmission module in the measurement system used in this work, which is not the case for the reflection module in the system.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Frequency domain images of lobular carcinoma. Pathology given for (a) Sample 1 and (b) Sample 2. Transmission magnitude images at 1 THz for (c) Sample 1 and (d) Sample 2 and at 2 THz for (e) Sample 1 and (f) Sample 2 following the configuration in Fig. 3. Reflection magnitude images at 1 THz for (g) Sample 1 and (h) Sample 2 and at 2 THz for (i) Sample 1 and (j) Sample 2 following the configuration in Fig. 4(a). Points labeled 1-6 in reflection images indicate features that are visible in the images compared with high power pathology in Fig. 12.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 High power pathology (100X) of positions 1-6 indicated in Fig. 10(b), showing neoplastic epithelial cells of varying density in positions 1-5 and a blood vessel in position 6.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Single point reflection comparison for three selected points A, B, C in lobular carcinoma scans for (a) Sample 1 and (b) Sample 2.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 B-scan reflection imaging used to investigate tissue adhesion to polystyrene slides for (a) Sample 1 and (b) Sample 2 of lobular carcinoma. Color bars indicate electric fields in B-scan images on the right in arbitrary unit (a.u.).
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Comparison between transmission and reflection solutions for Sample 1 of lobular carcinoma using (a),(b) transmission imaging following configuration in Fig. 3, (c),(d) reflection imaging with tissue facing the incident signal following configuration in Fig. 4(a), and (e),(f) reflection imaging with the polystyrene slide facing the incident signal following configuration in Fig. 4(b). All frequency images are at 1 THz.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Reflection and Transmission images of infiltrating ductal carcinoma samples obtained from 39-year-old woman. Pathology of (a) Sample 1 and (b) Sample 2 with regions designated by outlines for infiltrating ductal carcinoma (black) and fatty/fibroglandular (blue) tissue. Points 1-6 are indicated for high power pathology assessment to be shown in Fig. 18. Reflection peak time domain images are shown for (c) Sample 1 and (d) Sample 2. Transmission peak time domain images are shown for (e) Sample 1 and (d) Sample 2. Blank areas in the transmission images (e-f) represent the smaller scanning ranges (window size) in the transmission module in the measurement system used in this work, which is not the case for the reflection module in the system.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Frequency domain images of infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Pathology given for (a) Sample 1 and (b) Sample 2. Transmission magnitude images at 1 THz for (c) Sample 1 and (d) Sample 2 following the configuration in Fig. 3 and reflection magnitude images at 1 THz for (e) Sample 1 and (f) Sample 2 following the configuration in Fig. 4(a).
Fig. 18
Fig. 18 High power pathology (100X) of positions 1-6 indicated in Fig. 16(b), showing neoplastic epithelial cells in position 1, interior fibrous tissue in position 2, blood vessels and fatty tissue dividing the IDC in positions 3-4, the edge of the epithelial cells with surrounding fat in position 5, and fibrous mature collagen in fatty tissue in position 6.
Fig. 19
Fig. 19 B-scan reflection imaging used to investigate tissue adhesion to polystyrene slides for (a) Sample 1 and (b) Sample 2 of infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Color bars indicate electric fields in B-scan images on the right in arbitrary units (a.u.).
Fig. 20
Fig. 20 Comparison between transmission and reflection solutions of the absorption coefficient for Sample 1 of infiltrating ductal carcinoma using (a) transmission imaging following configuration in Fig. 3, (b) reflection imaging with tissue facing the incident signal following configuration in Fig. 4(a), and (c) reflection imaging with the polystyrene slide facing the incident signal following configuration in Fig. 4(b). All frequency images are at 1 THz.

Equations (11)

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E samp / E ref = τ ˜ e ( γ 1 γ 3 ) d 2 ,
τ ˜ =( 2 n ˜ 3 ( n ˜ 1 + n ˜ 2 ) ( n ˜ 1 + n ˜ 3 )( n ˜ 2 + n ˜ 3 ) )( 1 ρ 12 2 e 2 γ 2 d 1 1+ ρ 23 ρ 31 e 2 γ 3 d 2 ) ( 1+ ρ 12 ρ 23 + ρ 31 e 2 γ 3 d 2 1+ ρ 23 ρ 31 e 2 γ 3 d 2 e 2 γ 2 d 1 ) 1 .
er r mag =[ ln ( | E samp / E ref | ) meas ][ { ln( τ ˜ ) }+( α abs,1 α abs,3 ) d 2 2 ],
er r phase =[ arg ( E samp / E ref ) meas ][ { ln( τ ˜ ) }+ ω c ( n 1 n 3 ) d 2 ].
E samp E ref = Γ T =( ρ T,12 + ρ T,23 e j2 ω c n ˜ 2 cos θ 2 d 1 1+ ρ T,12 ρ T,23 e j2 ω c n ˜ 2 cos θ 2 d 1 ) 1 ρ T,13 e j2 ω c n ˜ 1 cos θ 1 d 1 ,
n ˜ 1 sin θ 1 = n ˜ 2 sin θ 2 = n ˜ i sin θ i .
E samp / E ref =Γ= ( Γ TE cosψ) 2 + ( Γ TM sinψ) 2 ,
er r mag =[ ln ( | E samp / E ref | ) meas ][ { ln( Γ ) } ],
er r phase =[ arg ( E samp / E ref ) meas ][ { ln( Γ ) } ].
ρ T,ij = ρ TE,ij = n ˜ i cos θ i n ˜ j cos θ j n ˜ i cos θ i + n ˜ j cos θ j ,
ρ T,ij = ρ TM,ij = n ˜ i cos θ j n ˜ j cos θ i n ˜ i cos θ j + n ˜ j cos θ i .

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