Abstract

We assess the clinical utility of a unique simultaneous fingerprint (FP) (i.e., 800-1800 cm−1) and high-wavenumber (HW) (i.e., 2800-3600 cm−1) fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal cancer at endoscopy. A total of 2124 high-quality in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra (normal = 1321; cancer = 581) were acquired from 101 tissue sites (normal = 71; cancer = 30) of 60 patients (normal = 44; cancer = 16) undergoing routine endoscopic examination. FP/HW Raman spectra differ significantly between normal and cancerous laryngeal tissue that could be attributed to changes of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and the bound water content in the larynx. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis and leave-one tissue site-out, cross-validation were employed on the in vivo FP/HW tissue Raman spectra acquired, yielding a diagnostic accuracy of 91.1% (sensitivity: 93.3% (28/30); specificity: 90.1% (64/71)) for laryngeal cancer identification, which is superior to using either FP (accuracy: 86.1%; sensitivity: 86.7% (26/30); specificity: 85.9% (61/71)) or HW (accuracy: 84.2%; sensitivity: 76.7% (23/30); specificity: 87.3% (62/71)) Raman technique alone. Further receiver operating characteristic analysis reconfirms the best performance of the simultaneous FP/HW Raman technique for laryngeal cancer diagnosis. We demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous FP/HW Raman spectroscopy technique can be used for improving real-time in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma during endoscopic examination.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Raman difference spectroscopy: a non-invasive method for identification of oral squamous cell carcinoma

Christian Knipfer, Johanna Motz, Werner Adler, Kathrin Brunner, Medhaine Tesfay Gebrekidan, Robert Hankel, Abbas Agaimy, Stefan Will, Andreas Braeuer, Friedrich Wilhelm Neukam, and Florian Stelzle
Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9) 3252-3265 (2014)

Clinical characterization of in vivo inflammatory bowel disease with Raman spectroscopy

Isaac J. Pence, Dawn B. Beaulieu, Sara N. Horst, Xiaohong Bi, Alan J. Herline, David A. Schwartz, and Anita Mahadevan-Jansen
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2) 524-535 (2017)

Rapid near-infrared Raman spectroscopy system for real-time in vivo skin measurements

Zhiwei Huang, Haishan Zeng, Iltefat Hamzavi, David I. McLean, and Harvey Lui
Opt. Lett. 26(22) 1782-1784 (2001)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Markou, A. Christoforidou, I. Karasmanis, G. Tsiropoulos, S. Triaridis, I. Constantinidis, V. Vital, and A. Nikolaou, “Laryngeal cancer: epidemiological data from Νorthern Greece and review of the literature,” Hippokratia 17(4), 313–318 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  2. J. S. Williamson, T. C. Biggs, and D. Ingrams, “Laryngeal cancer: an overview,” Trends in Urology Men’s Health 3(6), 14–17 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. L.-A. Lee, A.-J. Cheng, T.-J. Fang, C.-G. Huang, C.-T. Liao, J. T.-C. Chang, and H.-Y. Li, “High Incidence of Malignant Transformation of Laryngeal Papilloma in Taiwan,” Laryngoscope 118(1), 50–55 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. E. A. Chu and Y. J. Kim, “Laryngeal Cancer: Diagnosis and Preoperative Work-up,” Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 41(4), 673–695 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, D. P. Lau, and Z. Huang, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and random recursive partitioning ensemble techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1232–1239 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. K. Lin, D. L. P. Cheng, and Z. Huang, “Optical diagnosis of laryngeal cancer using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 35(1), 213–217 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal tissue in the oral cavity,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(2), 255–262 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. E. M. Barroso, R. W. H. Smits, T. C. Bakker Schut, I. ten Hove, J. A. Hardillo, E. B. Wolvius, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy tissue based on water content determined by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(4), 2419–2426 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Huang, S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, J. Mo, K. Lin, X. Shao, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “Integrated Raman spectroscopy and trimodal wide-field imaging techniques for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 758–760 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. O. R. Hughes, N. Stone, M. Kraft, C. Arens, and M. A. Birchall, “Optical and molecular techniques to identify tumor margins within the larynx,” Head Neck 32(11), 1544–1553 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. G. Shim, B. C. Wilson, E. Marple, and M. Wach, “Study of Fiber-Optic Probes for in Vivo Medical Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 53(6), 619–627 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 711–713 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(3), 542–554 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. C. A. Patil, I. J. Pence, C. A. Lieber, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “1064 nm dispersive Raman spectroscopy of tissues with strong near-infrared autofluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 303–306 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Komachi, H. Sato, K. Aizawa, and H. Tashiro, “Micro-optical fiber probe for use in an intravascular Raman endoscope,” Appl. Opt. 44(22), 4722–4732 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Z. Huang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “In vivo early diagnosis of gastric dysplasia using narrow-band image-guided Raman endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037017 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081418 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem. 77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High Wavenumber Raman Spectroscopy for in Vivo Detection of Cervical Dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 187, 377–392 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. J. Wang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Development of a beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe for enhancing in vivo epithelial tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2321–2323 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. So, and Z. Huang, “Raman endoscopy for in vivo differentiation between benign and malignant ulcers in the stomach,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3162–3168 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, N. Shepherd, H. Barr, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Raman spectroscopy: a potential tool for early objective diagnosis of neoplasia in the oesophagus,” J. Biophotonics 4(10), 685–695 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. M. Gniadecka, H. C. Wulf, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and J. Hercogova, “Distinctive molecular abnormalities in benign and malignant skin lesions: studies by Raman spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 418–423 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).
  39. K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due to Proliferation in Mammalian Cell Cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13169 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. C. M. Andersen and R. Bro, “Variable selection in regression- a tutorial,” J. Chemometr. 24(11-12), 728–737 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 187, 377–392 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Barroso, R. W. H. Smits, T. C. Bakker Schut, I. ten Hove, J. A. Hardillo, E. B. Wolvius, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy tissue based on water content determined by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(4), 2419–2426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Patil, I. J. Pence, C. A. Lieber, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “1064 nm dispersive Raman spectroscopy of tissues with strong near-infrared autofluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 303–306 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. Wang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Development of a beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe for enhancing in vivo epithelial tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2321–2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Markou, A. Christoforidou, I. Karasmanis, G. Tsiropoulos, S. Triaridis, I. Constantinidis, V. Vital, and A. Nikolaou, “Laryngeal cancer: epidemiological data from Νorthern Greece and review of the literature,” Hippokratia 17(4), 313–318 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. S. Williamson, T. C. Biggs, and D. Ingrams, “Laryngeal cancer: an overview,” Trends in Urology Men’s Health 3(6), 14–17 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Lin, D. L. P. Cheng, and Z. Huang, “Optical diagnosis of laryngeal cancer using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 35(1), 213–217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal tissue in the oral cavity,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(2), 255–262 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081418 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, N. Shepherd, H. Barr, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Raman spectroscopy: a potential tool for early objective diagnosis of neoplasia in the oesophagus,” J. Biophotonics 4(10), 685–695 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. So, and Z. Huang, “Raman endoscopy for in vivo differentiation between benign and malignant ulcers in the stomach,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3162–3168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “In vivo early diagnosis of gastric dysplasia using narrow-band image-guided Raman endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037017 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. R. Hughes, N. Stone, M. Kraft, C. Arens, and M. A. Birchall, “Optical and molecular techniques to identify tumor margins within the larynx,” Head Neck 32(11), 1544–1553 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Andersen and R. Bro, “Variable selection in regression- a tutorial,” J. Chemometr. 24(11-12), 728–737 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

Z. Huang, S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, J. Mo, K. Lin, X. Shao, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “Integrated Raman spectroscopy and trimodal wide-field imaging techniques for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 758–760 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, D. P. Lau, and Z. Huang, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and random recursive partitioning ensemble techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1232–1239 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High Wavenumber Raman Spectroscopy for in Vivo Detection of Cervical Dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-A. Lee, A.-J. Cheng, T.-J. Fang, C.-G. Huang, C.-T. Liao, J. T.-C. Chang, and H.-Y. Li, “High Incidence of Malignant Transformation of Laryngeal Papilloma in Taiwan,” Laryngoscope 118(1), 50–55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Chu and Y. J. Kim, “Laryngeal Cancer: Diagnosis and Preoperative Work-up,” Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 41(4), 673–695 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem. 77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Komachi, H. Sato, K. Aizawa, and H. Tashiro, “Micro-optical fiber probe for use in an intravascular Raman endoscope,” Appl. Opt. 44(22), 4722–4732 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due to Proliferation in Mammalian Cell Cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(3), 542–554 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

M. Gniadecka, H. C. Wulf, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and J. Hercogova, “Distinctive molecular abnormalities in benign and malignant skin lesions: studies by Raman spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 418–423 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aizawa, K.

Almeida, R. M.

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem. 77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almond, L. M.

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, N. Shepherd, H. Barr, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Raman spectroscopy: a potential tool for early objective diagnosis of neoplasia in the oesophagus,” J. Biophotonics 4(10), 685–695 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, C. M.

C. M. Andersen and R. Bro, “Variable selection in regression- a tutorial,” J. Chemometr. 24(11-12), 728–737 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anderson, D. W.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arens, C.

O. R. Hughes, N. Stone, M. Kraft, C. Arens, and M. A. Birchall, “Optical and molecular techniques to identify tumor margins within the larynx,” Head Neck 32(11), 1544–1553 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baatenburg de Jong, R. J.

E. M. Barroso, R. W. H. Smits, T. C. Bakker Schut, I. ten Hove, J. A. Hardillo, E. B. Wolvius, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy tissue based on water content determined by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(4), 2419–2426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

Badizadegan, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

Bakker Schut, T. C.

E. M. Barroso, R. W. H. Smits, T. C. Bakker Schut, I. ten Hove, J. A. Hardillo, E. B. Wolvius, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy tissue based on water content determined by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(4), 2419–2426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barman, I.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, N. Shepherd, H. Barr, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Raman spectroscopy: a potential tool for early objective diagnosis of neoplasia in the oesophagus,” J. Biophotonics 4(10), 685–695 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barroso, E. M.

E. M. Barroso, R. W. H. Smits, T. C. Bakker Schut, I. ten Hove, J. A. Hardillo, E. B. Wolvius, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy tissue based on water content determined by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(4), 2419–2426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, R.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berean, K.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergholt, M. S.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Development of a beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe for enhancing in vivo epithelial tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2321–2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal tissue in the oral cavity,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(2), 255–262 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Huang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “In vivo early diagnosis of gastric dysplasia using narrow-band image-guided Raman endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037017 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. So, and Z. Huang, “Raman endoscopy for in vivo differentiation between benign and malignant ulcers in the stomach,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3162–3168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biggs, T. C.

J. S. Williamson, T. C. Biggs, and D. Ingrams, “Laryngeal cancer: an overview,” Trends in Urology Men’s Health 3(6), 14–17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Birchall, M.

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birchall, M. A.

O. R. Hughes, N. Stone, M. Kraft, C. Arens, and M. A. Birchall, “Optical and molecular techniques to identify tumor margins within the larynx,” Head Neck 32(11), 1544–1553 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bok Yan So, J.

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081418 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

Born, C.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bro, R.

C. M. Andersen and R. Bro, “Variable selection in regression- a tutorial,” J. Chemometr. 24(11-12), 728–737 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bruining, H. A.

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carpenter, S.

K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due to Proliferation in Mammalian Cell Cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caspers, P. J.

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, J. T.-C.

L.-A. Lee, A.-J. Cheng, T.-J. Fang, C.-G. Huang, C.-T. Liao, J. T.-C. Chang, and H.-Y. Li, “High Incidence of Malignant Transformation of Laryngeal Papilloma in Taiwan,” Laryngoscope 118(1), 50–55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, A.-J.

L.-A. Lee, A.-J. Cheng, T.-J. Fang, C.-G. Huang, C.-T. Liao, J. T.-C. Chang, and H.-Y. Li, “High Incidence of Malignant Transformation of Laryngeal Papilloma in Taiwan,” Laryngoscope 118(1), 50–55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, D. L. P.

K. Lin, D. L. P. Cheng, and Z. Huang, “Optical diagnosis of laryngeal cancer using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 35(1), 213–217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christensen, D. H.

M. Gniadecka, H. C. Wulf, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and J. Hercogova, “Distinctive molecular abnormalities in benign and malignant skin lesions: studies by Raman spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 418–423 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christoforidou, A.

K. Markou, A. Christoforidou, I. Karasmanis, G. Tsiropoulos, S. Triaridis, I. Constantinidis, V. Vital, and A. Nikolaou, “Laryngeal cancer: epidemiological data from Νorthern Greece and review of the literature,” Hippokratia 17(4), 313–318 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chu, E. A.

E. A. Chu and Y. J. Kim, “Laryngeal Cancer: Diagnosis and Preoperative Work-up,” Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 41(4), 673–695 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Constantinidis, I.

K. Markou, A. Christoforidou, I. Karasmanis, G. Tsiropoulos, S. Triaridis, I. Constantinidis, V. Vital, and A. Nikolaou, “Laryngeal cancer: epidemiological data from Νorthern Greece and review of the literature,” Hippokratia 17(4), 313–318 (2013).
[PubMed]

Crow, P.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crum, C. P.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

Dasari, R. R.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(3), 542–554 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Day, J. C. C.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Jong, B.

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Draga, R. O. P.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duraipandian, S.

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081418 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, T.-J.

L.-A. Lee, A.-J. Cheng, T.-J. Fang, C.-G. Huang, C.-T. Liao, J. T.-C. Chang, and H.-Y. Li, “High Incidence of Malignant Transformation of Laryngeal Papilloma in Taiwan,” Laryngoscope 118(1), 50–55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(3), 542–554 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

Fountas, K.

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due to Proliferation in Mammalian Cell Cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galindo, L. H.

Gardecki, J. A.

Georgakoudi, I.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

Gniadecka, M.

M. Gniadecka, H. C. Wulf, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and J. Hercogova, “Distinctive molecular abnormalities in benign and malignant skin lesions: studies by Raman spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 418–423 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grimbergen, M. C. M.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan Yeoh, K.

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081418 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hardillo, J. A.

E. M. Barroso, R. W. H. Smits, T. C. Bakker Schut, I. ten Hove, J. A. Hardillo, E. B. Wolvius, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy tissue based on water content determined by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(4), 2419–2426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hercogova, J.

M. Gniadecka, H. C. Wulf, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and J. Hercogova, “Distinctive molecular abnormalities in benign and malignant skin lesions: studies by Raman spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 418–423 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, K. Y.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 187, 377–392 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. So, and Z. Huang, “Raman endoscopy for in vivo differentiation between benign and malignant ulcers in the stomach,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3162–3168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “In vivo early diagnosis of gastric dysplasia using narrow-band image-guided Raman endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037017 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, J. Mo, K. Lin, X. Shao, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “Integrated Raman spectroscopy and trimodal wide-field imaging techniques for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 758–760 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-G.

L.-A. Lee, A.-J. Cheng, T.-J. Fang, C.-G. Huang, C.-T. Liao, J. T.-C. Chang, and H.-Y. Li, “High Incidence of Malignant Transformation of Laryngeal Papilloma in Taiwan,” Laryngoscope 118(1), 50–55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 187, 377–392 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Development of a beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe for enhancing in vivo epithelial tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2321–2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081418 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lin, D. L. P. Cheng, and Z. Huang, “Optical diagnosis of laryngeal cancer using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 35(1), 213–217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal tissue in the oral cavity,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(2), 255–262 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Huang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “In vivo early diagnosis of gastric dysplasia using narrow-band image-guided Raman endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037017 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. So, and Z. Huang, “Raman endoscopy for in vivo differentiation between benign and malignant ulcers in the stomach,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3162–3168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, J. Mo, K. Lin, X. Shao, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “Integrated Raman spectroscopy and trimodal wide-field imaging techniques for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 758–760 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, D. P. Lau, and Z. Huang, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and random recursive partitioning ensemble techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1232–1239 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High Wavenumber Raman Spectroscopy for in Vivo Detection of Cervical Dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, O. R.

O. R. Hughes, N. Stone, M. Kraft, C. Arens, and M. A. Birchall, “Optical and molecular techniques to identify tumor margins within the larynx,” Head Neck 32(11), 1544–1553 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunter, M.

Hutchings, J.

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, N. Shepherd, H. Barr, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Raman spectroscopy: a potential tool for early objective diagnosis of neoplasia in the oesophagus,” J. Biophotonics 4(10), 685–695 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilancheran, A.

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High Wavenumber Raman Spectroscopy for in Vivo Detection of Cervical Dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ingrams, D.

J. S. Williamson, T. C. Biggs, and D. Ingrams, “Laryngeal cancer: an overview,” Trends in Urology Men’s Health 3(6), 14–17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jonges, T. G. N.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karasmanis, I.

K. Markou, A. Christoforidou, I. Karasmanis, G. Tsiropoulos, S. Triaridis, I. Constantinidis, V. Vital, and A. Nikolaou, “Laryngeal cancer: epidemiological data from Νorthern Greece and review of the literature,” Hippokratia 17(4), 313–318 (2013).
[PubMed]

Keefe, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

Kendall, C.

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, N. Shepherd, H. Barr, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Raman spectroscopy: a potential tool for early objective diagnosis of neoplasia in the oesophagus,” J. Biophotonics 4(10), 685–695 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

E. A. Chu and Y. J. Kim, “Laryngeal Cancer: Diagnosis and Preoperative Work-up,” Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 41(4), 673–695 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koljenovic, S.

E. M. Barroso, R. W. H. Smits, T. C. Bakker Schut, I. ten Hove, J. A. Hardillo, E. B. Wolvius, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy tissue based on water content determined by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(4), 2419–2426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem. 77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komachi, Y.

Korbelik, M.

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraft, M.

O. R. Hughes, N. Stone, M. Kraft, C. Arens, and M. A. Birchall, “Optical and molecular techniques to identify tumor margins within the larynx,” Head Neck 32(11), 1544–1553 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kramer, J. R.

Kros, J. M.

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar Anubham, S.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar Gundawar, M.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar Myakalwar, A.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kummer, J. A.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, D. P.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, D. P. Lau, and Z. Huang, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and random recursive partitioning ensemble techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1232–1239 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, L.-A.

L.-A. Lee, A.-J. Cheng, T.-J. Fang, C.-G. Huang, C.-T. Liao, J. T.-C. Chang, and H.-Y. Li, “High Incidence of Malignant Transformation of Laryngeal Papilloma in Taiwan,” Laryngoscope 118(1), 50–55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.-Y.

L.-A. Lee, A.-J. Cheng, T.-J. Fang, C.-G. Huang, C.-T. Liao, J. T.-C. Chang, and H.-Y. Li, “High Incidence of Malignant Transformation of Laryngeal Papilloma in Taiwan,” Laryngoscope 118(1), 50–55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, C.-T.

L.-A. Lee, A.-J. Cheng, T.-J. Fang, C.-G. Huang, C.-T. Liao, J. T.-C. Chang, and H.-Y. Li, “High Incidence of Malignant Transformation of Laryngeal Papilloma in Taiwan,” Laryngoscope 118(1), 50–55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. A.

Lin, K.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 187, 377–392 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lin, D. L. P. Cheng, and Z. Huang, “Optical diagnosis of laryngeal cancer using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 35(1), 213–217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “In vivo early diagnosis of gastric dysplasia using narrow-band image-guided Raman endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037017 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. So, and Z. Huang, “Raman endoscopy for in vivo differentiation between benign and malignant ulcers in the stomach,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3162–3168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, J. Mo, K. Lin, X. Shao, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “Integrated Raman spectroscopy and trimodal wide-field imaging techniques for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 758–760 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Low, J. J. H.

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High Wavenumber Raman Spectroscopy for in Vivo Detection of Cervical Dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lui, H.

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Man, C. S.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markou, K.

K. Markou, A. Christoforidou, I. Karasmanis, G. Tsiropoulos, S. Triaridis, I. Constantinidis, V. Vital, and A. Nikolaou, “Laryngeal cancer: epidemiological data from Νorthern Greece and review of the literature,” Hippokratia 17(4), 313–318 (2013).
[PubMed]

Marple, E.

McLean, D. I.

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McWilliams, A.

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meaden, G. M.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mo, J.

Morrison, M. D.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Motz, J. T.

Mourant, J. R.

K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due to Proliferation in Mammalian Cell Cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munger, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

Ng, J.

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High Wavenumber Raman Spectroscopy for in Vivo Detection of Cervical Dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nielsen, O. F.

M. Gniadecka, H. C. Wulf, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and J. Hercogova, “Distinctive molecular abnormalities in benign and malignant skin lesions: studies by Raman spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 418–423 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikolaou, A.

K. Markou, A. Christoforidou, I. Karasmanis, G. Tsiropoulos, S. Triaridis, I. Constantinidis, V. Vital, and A. Nikolaou, “Laryngeal cancer: epidemiological data from Νorthern Greece and review of the literature,” Hippokratia 17(4), 313–318 (2013).
[PubMed]

Patil, C. A.

Pence, I. J.

Puppels, G. J.

E. M. Barroso, R. W. H. Smits, T. C. Bakker Schut, I. ten Hove, J. A. Hardillo, E. B. Wolvius, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy tissue based on water content determined by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(4), 2419–2426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem. 77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, J. L.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. S.

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruud Bosch, J. L. H.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santos, L.

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santos, L. F.

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem. 77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, H.

Shabbir, A.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081418 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, X.

Shapshay, S. M.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

Sheetse, E. E.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

Shen, L.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepherd, N.

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, N. Shepherd, H. Barr, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Raman spectroscopy: a potential tool for early objective diagnosis of neoplasia in the oesophagus,” J. Biophotonics 4(10), 685–695 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, M. G.

Short, K. W.

K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due to Proliferation in Mammalian Cell Cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Short, M. A.

Smith, B.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, J.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smits, R. W. H.

E. M. Barroso, R. W. H. Smits, T. C. Bakker Schut, I. ten Hove, J. A. Hardillo, E. B. Wolvius, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy tissue based on water content determined by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(4), 2419–2426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, J. B.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. So, and Z. Huang, “Raman endoscopy for in vivo differentiation between benign and malignant ulcers in the stomach,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3162–3168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spegazzini, N.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, S.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stavroulaki, P.

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, N. Shepherd, H. Barr, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Raman spectroscopy: a potential tool for early objective diagnosis of neoplasia in the oesophagus,” J. Biophotonics 4(10), 685–695 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. R. Hughes, N. Stone, M. Kraft, C. Arens, and M. A. Birchall, “Optical and molecular techniques to identify tumor margins within the larynx,” Head Neck 32(11), 1544–1553 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sylvest Bergholt, M.

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081418 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tashiro, H.

Teh, M.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 187, 377–392 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081418 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “In vivo early diagnosis of gastric dysplasia using narrow-band image-guided Raman endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037017 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. So, and Z. Huang, “Raman endoscopy for in vivo differentiation between benign and malignant ulcers in the stomach,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3162–3168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, J. Mo, K. Lin, X. Shao, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “Integrated Raman spectroscopy and trimodal wide-field imaging techniques for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 758–760 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teh, S. K.

Z. Huang, S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, J. Mo, K. Lin, X. Shao, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “Integrated Raman spectroscopy and trimodal wide-field imaging techniques for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 758–760 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, D. P. Lau, and Z. Huang, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and random recursive partitioning ensemble techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1232–1239 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ten Hove, I.

E. M. Barroso, R. W. H. Smits, T. C. Bakker Schut, I. ten Hove, J. A. Hardillo, E. B. Wolvius, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy tissue based on water content determined by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(4), 2419–2426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Triaridis, S.

K. Markou, A. Christoforidou, I. Karasmanis, G. Tsiropoulos, S. Triaridis, I. Constantinidis, V. Vital, and A. Nikolaou, “Laryngeal cancer: epidemiological data from Νorthern Greece and review of the literature,” Hippokratia 17(4), 313–318 (2013).
[PubMed]

Tsiropoulos, G.

K. Markou, A. Christoforidou, I. Karasmanis, G. Tsiropoulos, S. Triaridis, I. Constantinidis, V. Vital, and A. Nikolaou, “Laryngeal cancer: epidemiological data from Νorthern Greece and review of the literature,” Hippokratia 17(4), 313–318 (2013).
[PubMed]

van Aken, M.

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Swol, C. F.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vijverberg, P. L. M.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vital, V.

K. Markou, A. Christoforidou, I. Karasmanis, G. Tsiropoulos, S. Triaridis, I. Constantinidis, V. Vital, and A. Nikolaou, “Laryngeal cancer: epidemiological data from Νorthern Greece and review of the literature,” Hippokratia 17(4), 313–318 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wach, M.

Wang, J.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 187, 377–392 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Development of a beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe for enhancing in vivo epithelial tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2321–2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williamson, J. S.

J. S. Williamson, T. C. Biggs, and D. Ingrams, “Laryngeal cancer: an overview,” Trends in Urology Men’s Health 3(6), 14–17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wilson, B. C.

Wolthuis, R.

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem. 77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolvius, E. B.

E. M. Barroso, R. W. H. Smits, T. C. Bakker Schut, I. ten Hove, J. A. Hardillo, E. B. Wolvius, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy tissue based on water content determined by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(4), 2419–2426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, B.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wulf, H. C.

M. Gniadecka, H. C. Wulf, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and J. Hercogova, “Distinctive molecular abnormalities in benign and malignant skin lesions: studies by Raman spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 418–423 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan So, J. B.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeoh, K. G.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 187, 377–392 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. So, and Z. Huang, “Raman endoscopy for in vivo differentiation between benign and malignant ulcers in the stomach,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3162–3168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “In vivo early diagnosis of gastric dysplasia using narrow-band image-guided Raman endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037017 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, J. Mo, K. Lin, X. Shao, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “Integrated Raman spectroscopy and trimodal wide-field imaging techniques for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 758–760 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu Ho, K.

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081418 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Zheng, W.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 187, 377–392 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Development of a beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe for enhancing in vivo epithelial tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2321–2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081418 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal tissue in the oral cavity,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(2), 255–262 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Huang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “In vivo early diagnosis of gastric dysplasia using narrow-band image-guided Raman endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037017 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. So, and Z. Huang, “Raman endoscopy for in vivo differentiation between benign and malignant ulcers in the stomach,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3162–3168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, J. Mo, K. Lin, X. Shao, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “Integrated Raman spectroscopy and trimodal wide-field imaging techniques for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 758–760 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, D. P. Lau, and Z. Huang, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and random recursive partitioning ensemble techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1232–1239 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High Wavenumber Raman Spectroscopy for in Vivo Detection of Cervical Dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (5)

E. M. Barroso, R. W. H. Smits, T. C. Bakker Schut, I. ten Hove, J. A. Hardillo, E. B. Wolvius, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy tissue based on water content determined by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(4), 2419–2426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem. 77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High Wavenumber Raman Spectroscopy for in Vivo Detection of Cervical Dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (2)

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. So, and Z. Huang, “Raman endoscopy for in vivo differentiation between benign and malignant ulcers in the stomach,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3162–3168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, D. P. Lau, and Z. Huang, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and random recursive partitioning ensemble techniques,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1232–1239 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due to Proliferation in Mammalian Cell Cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

K. Lin, D. L. P. Cheng, and Z. Huang, “Optical diagnosis of laryngeal cancer using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 35(1), 213–217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer (1)

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraday Discuss. (2)

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 187, 377–392 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraday Discussions (1)

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discussions 126, 265–311 (2004).

Gastroenterology (1)

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Head Neck (1)

O. R. Hughes, N. Stone, M. Kraft, C. Arens, and M. A. Birchall, “Optical and molecular techniques to identify tumor margins within the larynx,” Head Neck 32(11), 1544–1553 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hippokratia (1)

K. Markou, A. Christoforidou, I. Karasmanis, G. Tsiropoulos, S. Triaridis, I. Constantinidis, V. Vital, and A. Nikolaou, “Laryngeal cancer: epidemiological data from Νorthern Greece and review of the literature,” Hippokratia 17(4), 313–318 (2013).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

Z. Huang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, and K. G. Yeoh, “In vivo early diagnosis of gastric dysplasia using narrow-band image-guided Raman endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037017 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081418 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (2)

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, N. Shepherd, H. Barr, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Raman spectroscopy: a potential tool for early objective diagnosis of neoplasia in the oesophagus,” J. Biophotonics 4(10), 685–695 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chemometr. (1)

C. M. Andersen and R. Bro, “Variable selection in regression- a tutorial,” J. Chemometr. 24(11-12), 728–737 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal tissue in the oral cavity,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(2), 255–262 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laryngoscope (2)

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-A. Lee, A.-J. Cheng, T.-J. Fang, C.-G. Huang, C.-T. Liao, J. T.-C. Chang, and H.-Y. Li, “High Incidence of Malignant Transformation of Laryngeal Papilloma in Taiwan,” Laryngoscope 118(1), 50–55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. (1)

E. A. Chu and Y. J. Kim, “Laryngeal Cancer: Diagnosis and Preoperative Work-up,” Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 41(4), 673–695 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

M. Gniadecka, H. C. Wulf, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and J. Hercogova, “Distinctive molecular abnormalities in benign and malignant skin lesions: studies by Raman spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 418–423 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trends in Urology Men’s Health (1)

J. S. Williamson, T. C. Biggs, and D. Ingrams, “Laryngeal cancer: an overview,” Trends in Urology Men’s Health 3(6), 14–17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The mean in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra ± 1 standard deviations (SD) of normal (n = 1321) and laryngeal carcinoma (n = 581) acquired from 101 tissue sites (normal = 71 and carcinoma = 30) of 60 patients during clinical endoscopy. (b) Difference spectra (i.e., carcinoma - normal) ± 1 SD resolving the distinct spectral features of laryngeal carcinoma. The representative image of the simultaneous FP/HW Raman procedures under WLR imaging guidance is also shown.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Unpaired two-sided Student’s t-test on Raman peak intensities over the entire spectral range (i.e., 800–1800 cm−1 and 2800–3600 cm−1) for laryngeal cancer diagnosis. (b) Histogram of the most diagnostically different (p < 0.001) Raman peak intensities (mean ± SD) in the FP (e.g., 875 cm−1, 1078 cm−1, 1554 cm−1, 1655 cm−1, and HW at 2885 cm−1, 2940 cm−1 and 3250 cm−1 for tissue differentiation between normal and cancer larynx.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The relationship between the number of PLS factors-latent variables (LVs) and the root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) for PLS-DA modeling.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The first two latent variables (LV1 and LV2) loadings with Raman spectral features for PLS-DA/LOO-CV algorithms development for laryngeal tissue classification (i.e., normal and carcinoma).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Scattered plots of posterior probability of Raman predictions for normal and carcinomatous larynx using PLS-DA/LOO-CVmodeling for (a) integrated FP/HW, (b) FP, and (c) HW, respectively. (○) normal; and (▲) carcinoma.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the classification results for separating laryngeal cancer from normal tissue using the integrated FP/HW Raman, FP, and HW Raman techniques together with PLS-DA/LOO-CV methods. The areas under the ROC curves (AUC) are 0.968, 0.936 and 0.907, respectively, by using the integrated FP and HW, FP and HW Raman techniques.

Metrics