Abstract

In this paper, we present a pulse pressure waveform sensor that does not constrain a wearer’s daily activity; the sensor uses hetero-core fiber optics. Hetero-core fiber sensors have been found to be sensitive to moderate bending. To detect minute pulse pressure changes from the radial artery at the wrist, we devised a fiber sensor arrangement using three-point bending supports. We analyzed and evaluated the measurement validity using wavelet transformation, which is well-suited for biological signal processing. It was confirmed that the detected pulse waveform had a fundamental mode frequency of around 1.25 Hz over the time-varying waveform. A band-pass filter with a range of frequencies from 0.85 to 1.7 Hz was used to pick up the fundamental mode. In addition, a high-pass filter with 0.85 Hz frequency eliminated arm motion artifacts; consequently, we achieved high signal-to-noise ratio. For unrestricted daily health management, it is desirable that pulse pressure monitoring can be achieved by simply placing a device on the hand without the sensor being noticed. Two types of arrangements were developed and demonstrated in which the pulse sensors were either embedded in a base, such as an armrest, or in a wearable device. A wearable device without cuff pressure using a sensitivity-enhanced fiber sensor was successfully achieved with a sensitivity of 0.07–0.3 dB with a noise floor lower than 0.01 dB for multiple subjects.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. T. Tamura, T. Togawa, M. Ogawa, and M. Yoda, “Fully automated health monitoring system in the home,” Med. Eng. Phys. 20(8), 573–579 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Engin, A. Demirel, E. Z. Engin, and M. Fedakar, “Recent developments and trends in biomedical sensors,” Measurement 37(2), 173–188 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41(4), 377–383 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. X. Zhu, W. Chen, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, K. Yamakoshi, and D. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of respiration rhythm and pulse rate during sleep,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53(12 Pt 1), 2553–2563 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  5. W. Chen, X. Zhu, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, and K. Yamakoshi, “Unconstrained detection of respiration rhythm and pulse rate with one under-pillow sensor during sleep,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 43(2), 306–312 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Ogoh, “Middle cerebral artery flow velocity and pulse pressure during dynamic exercise in humans,” Heart Circul. Physiol. 288(4), H1526–H1531 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, and S. R. J. Maxwell, “Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure,” J. Appl. Physiol. 100(1), 136–141 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Nitzan, S. Turivnenko, A. Milston, A. Babchenko, and Y. Mahler, “Low-frequency variability in the blood volume and in the blood volume pulse measured by photoplethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 223–229 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. Tanaka, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Wakimoto, “Unconstrained and non-invasive measurement of heart-beat and respiration periods using a phonocardiographic sensor,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40(2), 246–252 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(2), 224–229 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. Sprager and D. Zazula, “Heartbeat and respiration detection from optical interferometric signals by using a multimethod approach,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(10), 2922–2929 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. Lau, Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, H. Rumpel, Y. Lian, H. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Intensity-modulated microbend fiber optic sensor for respiratory monitoring and gating during MRI,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(9), 2655–2662 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and J. Lewandowski, “Monitoring Respiration and Cardiac Activity Using Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Sensor,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(7), 1934–1942 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. Nishiyama, H. Sasaki, and K. Watanabe, “A deformation sensitive pad-structure embedded with hetero-core optic fiber sensors,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 136(1), 205–211 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Nishiyama and K. Watanabe, “Wearable sensing glove with embedded hetero-core fiber-optic nerves for unconstrained hand motion capture,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58(12), 3995–4000 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 017002 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. H. Sasaki, Y. Kubota, and K. Watanabe, “Sensitivity property of a hetero-core splice fiber optic displacement sensor,” Proc. SPIE 5579, 136–143 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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2013 (1)

D. Lau, Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, H. Rumpel, Y. Lian, H. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Intensity-modulated microbend fiber optic sensor for respiratory monitoring and gating during MRI,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(9), 2655–2662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and J. Lewandowski, “Monitoring Respiration and Cardiac Activity Using Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Sensor,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(7), 1934–1942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sprager and D. Zazula, “Heartbeat and respiration detection from optical interferometric signals by using a multimethod approach,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(10), 2922–2929 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 017002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Nishiyama and K. Watanabe, “Wearable sensing glove with embedded hetero-core fiber-optic nerves for unconstrained hand motion capture,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58(12), 3995–4000 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

M. Nishiyama, H. Sasaki, and K. Watanabe, “A deformation sensitive pad-structure embedded with hetero-core optic fiber sensors,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 136(1), 205–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Allsop, K. Carroll, G. Lloyd, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period-grating sensors to respiratory plethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

X. Zhu, W. Chen, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, K. Yamakoshi, and D. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of respiration rhythm and pulse rate during sleep,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53(12 Pt 1), 2553–2563 (2006).
[PubMed]

R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, and S. R. J. Maxwell, “Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure,” J. Appl. Physiol. 100(1), 136–141 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

W. Chen, X. Zhu, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, and K. Yamakoshi, “Unconstrained detection of respiration rhythm and pulse rate with one under-pillow sensor during sleep,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 43(2), 306–312 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Engin, A. Demirel, E. Z. Engin, and M. Fedakar, “Recent developments and trends in biomedical sensors,” Measurement 37(2), 173–188 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Ogoh, “Middle cerebral artery flow velocity and pulse pressure during dynamic exercise in humans,” Heart Circul. Physiol. 288(4), H1526–H1531 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Sasaki, Y. Kubota, and K. Watanabe, “Sensitivity property of a hetero-core splice fiber optic displacement sensor,” Proc. SPIE 5579, 136–143 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41(4), 377–383 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. Tanaka, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Wakimoto, “Unconstrained and non-invasive measurement of heart-beat and respiration periods using a phonocardiographic sensor,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40(2), 246–252 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(2), 224–229 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. Tamura, T. Togawa, M. Ogawa, and M. Yoda, “Fully automated health monitoring system in the home,” Med. Eng. Phys. 20(8), 573–579 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. Nitzan, S. Turivnenko, A. Milston, A. Babchenko, and Y. Mahler, “Low-frequency variability in the blood volume and in the blood volume pulse measured by photoplethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 223–229 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, K. Carroll, G. Lloyd, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period-grating sensors to respiratory plethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babchenko, A.

A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(2), 224–229 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nitzan, S. Turivnenko, A. Milston, A. Babchenko, and Y. Mahler, “Low-frequency variability in the blood volume and in the blood volume pulse measured by photoplethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 223–229 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, K. Carroll, G. Lloyd, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period-grating sensors to respiratory plethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carroll, K.

T. Allsop, K. Carroll, G. Lloyd, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period-grating sensors to respiratory plethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cernerud, L.

M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41(4), 377–383 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

X. Zhu, W. Chen, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, K. Yamakoshi, and D. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of respiration rhythm and pulse rate during sleep,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53(12 Pt 1), 2553–2563 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. Chen, X. Zhu, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, and K. Yamakoshi, “Unconstrained detection of respiration rhythm and pulse rate with one under-pillow sensor during sleep,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 43(2), 306–312 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

D. Lau, Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, H. Rumpel, Y. Lian, H. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Intensity-modulated microbend fiber optic sensor for respiratory monitoring and gating during MRI,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(9), 2655–2662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demirel, A.

M. Engin, A. Demirel, E. Z. Engin, and M. Fedakar, “Recent developments and trends in biomedical sensors,” Measurement 37(2), 173–188 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dziuda, L.

L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and J. Lewandowski, “Monitoring Respiration and Cardiac Activity Using Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Sensor,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(7), 1934–1942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ekström, M.

M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41(4), 377–383 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engin, E. Z.

M. Engin, A. Demirel, E. Z. Engin, and M. Fedakar, “Recent developments and trends in biomedical sensors,” Measurement 37(2), 173–188 (2005).
[Crossref]

Engin, M.

M. Engin, A. Demirel, E. Z. Engin, and M. Fedakar, “Recent developments and trends in biomedical sensors,” Measurement 37(2), 173–188 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fedakar, M.

M. Engin, A. Demirel, E. Z. Engin, and M. Fedakar, “Recent developments and trends in biomedical sensors,” Measurement 37(2), 173–188 (2005).
[Crossref]

Folke, M.

M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41(4), 377–383 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haensse, D.

Hök, B.

M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41(4), 377–383 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanemitsu, Y.

X. Zhu, W. Chen, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, K. Yamakoshi, and D. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of respiration rhythm and pulse rate during sleep,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53(12 Pt 1), 2553–2563 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. Chen, X. Zhu, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, and K. Yamakoshi, “Unconstrained detection of respiration rhythm and pulse rate with one under-pillow sensor during sleep,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 43(2), 306–312 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kei, P. L.

D. Lau, Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, H. Rumpel, Y. Lian, H. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Intensity-modulated microbend fiber optic sensor for respiratory monitoring and gating during MRI,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(9), 2655–2662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khanokh, B.

A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(2), 224–229 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitamura, K.

X. Zhu, W. Chen, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, K. Yamakoshi, and D. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of respiration rhythm and pulse rate during sleep,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53(12 Pt 1), 2553–2563 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. Chen, X. Zhu, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, and K. Yamakoshi, “Unconstrained detection of respiration rhythm and pulse rate with one under-pillow sensor during sleep,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 43(2), 306–312 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krej, M.

L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and J. Lewandowski, “Monitoring Respiration and Cardiac Activity Using Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Sensor,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(7), 1934–1942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubota, Y.

H. Sasaki, Y. Kubota, and K. Watanabe, “Sensitivity property of a hetero-core splice fiber optic displacement sensor,” Proc. SPIE 5579, 136–143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lau, D.

D. Lau, Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, H. Rumpel, Y. Lian, H. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Intensity-modulated microbend fiber optic sensor for respiratory monitoring and gating during MRI,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(9), 2655–2662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewandowski, J.

L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and J. Lewandowski, “Monitoring Respiration and Cardiac Activity Using Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Sensor,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(7), 1934–1942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lian, Y.

D. Lau, Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, H. Rumpel, Y. Lian, H. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Intensity-modulated microbend fiber optic sensor for respiratory monitoring and gating during MRI,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(9), 2655–2662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lloyd, G.

T. Allsop, K. Carroll, G. Lloyd, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period-grating sensors to respiratory plethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahler, Y.

M. Nitzan, S. Turivnenko, A. Milston, A. Babchenko, and Y. Mahler, “Low-frequency variability in the blood volume and in the blood volume pulse measured by photoplethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 223–229 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, Y.

S. Tanaka, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Wakimoto, “Unconstrained and non-invasive measurement of heart-beat and respiration periods using a phonocardiographic sensor,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40(2), 246–252 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maxwell, S. R. J.

R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, and S. R. J. Maxwell, “Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure,” J. Appl. Physiol. 100(1), 136–141 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, M.

T. Allsop, K. Carroll, G. Lloyd, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period-grating sensors to respiratory plethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milston, A.

M. Nitzan, S. Turivnenko, A. Milston, A. Babchenko, and Y. Mahler, “Low-frequency variability in the blood volume and in the blood volume pulse measured by photoplethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 223–229 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyamoto, M.

M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 017002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nemoto, T.

X. Zhu, W. Chen, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, K. Yamakoshi, and D. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of respiration rhythm and pulse rate during sleep,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53(12 Pt 1), 2553–2563 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. Chen, X. Zhu, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, and K. Yamakoshi, “Unconstrained detection of respiration rhythm and pulse rate with one under-pillow sensor during sleep,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 43(2), 306–312 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, S. H.

D. Lau, Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, H. Rumpel, Y. Lian, H. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Intensity-modulated microbend fiber optic sensor for respiratory monitoring and gating during MRI,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(9), 2655–2662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishiyama, M.

M. Nishiyama and K. Watanabe, “Wearable sensing glove with embedded hetero-core fiber-optic nerves for unconstrained hand motion capture,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58(12), 3995–4000 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Nishiyama, H. Sasaki, and K. Watanabe, “A deformation sensitive pad-structure embedded with hetero-core optic fiber sensors,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 136(1), 205–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nishyama, M.

M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 017002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nitzan, M.

A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(2), 224–229 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nitzan, S. Turivnenko, A. Milston, A. Babchenko, and Y. Mahler, “Low-frequency variability in the blood volume and in the blood volume pulse measured by photoplethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 223–229 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogawa, M.

T. Tamura, T. Togawa, M. Ogawa, and M. Yoda, “Fully automated health monitoring system in the home,” Med. Eng. Phys. 20(8), 573–579 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogoh, S.

S. Ogoh, “Middle cerebral artery flow velocity and pulse pressure during dynamic exercise in humans,” Heart Circul. Physiol. 288(4), H1526–H1531 (2004).
[Crossref]

Payne, R. A.

R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, and S. R. J. Maxwell, “Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure,” J. Appl. Physiol. 100(1), 136–141 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothmaier, M.

Rumpel, H.

D. Lau, Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, H. Rumpel, Y. Lian, H. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Intensity-modulated microbend fiber optic sensor for respiratory monitoring and gating during MRI,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(9), 2655–2662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasaki, H.

M. Nishiyama, H. Sasaki, and K. Watanabe, “A deformation sensitive pad-structure embedded with hetero-core optic fiber sensors,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 136(1), 205–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Sasaki, Y. Kubota, and K. Watanabe, “Sensitivity property of a hetero-core splice fiber optic displacement sensor,” Proc. SPIE 5579, 136–143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Selm, B.

Shomer, Y.

A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(2), 224–229 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skibniewski, F. W.

L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and J. Lewandowski, “Monitoring Respiration and Cardiac Activity Using Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Sensor,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(7), 1934–1942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spichtig, S.

Sprager, S.

S. Sprager and D. Zazula, “Heartbeat and respiration detection from optical interferometric signals by using a multimethod approach,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(10), 2922–2929 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Symeonides, C. N.

R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, and S. R. J. Maxwell, “Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure,” J. Appl. Physiol. 100(1), 136–141 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamura, T.

T. Tamura, T. Togawa, M. Ogawa, and M. Yoda, “Fully automated health monitoring system in the home,” Med. Eng. Phys. 20(8), 573–579 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, S.

S. Tanaka, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Wakimoto, “Unconstrained and non-invasive measurement of heart-beat and respiration periods using a phonocardiographic sensor,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40(2), 246–252 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teo, J. T.

D. Lau, Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, H. Rumpel, Y. Lian, H. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Intensity-modulated microbend fiber optic sensor for respiratory monitoring and gating during MRI,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(9), 2655–2662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Togawa, T.

T. Tamura, T. Togawa, M. Ogawa, and M. Yoda, “Fully automated health monitoring system in the home,” Med. Eng. Phys. 20(8), 573–579 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turivnenko, S.

M. Nitzan, S. Turivnenko, A. Milston, A. Babchenko, and Y. Mahler, “Low-frequency variability in the blood volume and in the blood volume pulse measured by photoplethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 223–229 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wakimoto, K.

S. Tanaka, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Wakimoto, “Unconstrained and non-invasive measurement of heart-beat and respiration periods using a phonocardiographic sensor,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40(2), 246–252 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 017002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nishiyama and K. Watanabe, “Wearable sensing glove with embedded hetero-core fiber-optic nerves for unconstrained hand motion capture,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58(12), 3995–4000 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Nishiyama, H. Sasaki, and K. Watanabe, “A deformation sensitive pad-structure embedded with hetero-core optic fiber sensors,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 136(1), 205–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Sasaki, Y. Kubota, and K. Watanabe, “Sensitivity property of a hetero-core splice fiber optic displacement sensor,” Proc. SPIE 5579, 136–143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, K. Carroll, G. Lloyd, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period-grating sensors to respiratory plethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, and S. R. J. Maxwell, “Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure,” J. Appl. Physiol. 100(1), 136–141 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, D.

X. Zhu, W. Chen, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, K. Yamakoshi, and D. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of respiration rhythm and pulse rate during sleep,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53(12 Pt 1), 2553–2563 (2006).
[PubMed]

Wolf, M.

Yamakoshi, K.

X. Zhu, W. Chen, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, K. Yamakoshi, and D. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of respiration rhythm and pulse rate during sleep,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53(12 Pt 1), 2553–2563 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. Chen, X. Zhu, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, and K. Yamakoshi, “Unconstrained detection of respiration rhythm and pulse rate with one under-pillow sensor during sleep,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 43(2), 306–312 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

D. Lau, Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, H. Rumpel, Y. Lian, H. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Intensity-modulated microbend fiber optic sensor for respiratory monitoring and gating during MRI,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(9), 2655–2662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoda, M.

T. Tamura, T. Togawa, M. Ogawa, and M. Yoda, “Fully automated health monitoring system in the home,” Med. Eng. Phys. 20(8), 573–579 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zazula, D.

S. Sprager and D. Zazula, “Heartbeat and respiration detection from optical interferometric signals by using a multimethod approach,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(10), 2922–2929 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, W. Chen, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, K. Yamakoshi, and D. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of respiration rhythm and pulse rate during sleep,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53(12 Pt 1), 2553–2563 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. Chen, X. Zhu, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, and K. Yamakoshi, “Unconstrained detection of respiration rhythm and pulse rate with one under-pillow sensor during sleep,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 43(2), 306–312 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heart Circul. Physiol. (1)

S. Ogoh, “Middle cerebral artery flow velocity and pulse pressure during dynamic exercise in humans,” Heart Circul. Physiol. 288(4), H1526–H1531 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (4)

X. Zhu, W. Chen, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, K. Yamakoshi, and D. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of respiration rhythm and pulse rate during sleep,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53(12 Pt 1), 2553–2563 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. Sprager and D. Zazula, “Heartbeat and respiration detection from optical interferometric signals by using a multimethod approach,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(10), 2922–2929 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lau, Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, H. Rumpel, Y. Lian, H. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Intensity-modulated microbend fiber optic sensor for respiratory monitoring and gating during MRI,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(9), 2655–2662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and J. Lewandowski, “Monitoring Respiration and Cardiac Activity Using Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Sensor,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(7), 1934–1942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

M. Nishiyama and K. Watanabe, “Wearable sensing glove with embedded hetero-core fiber-optic nerves for unconstrained hand motion capture,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58(12), 3995–4000 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

R. A. Payne, C. N. Symeonides, D. J. Webb, and S. R. J. Maxwell, “Pulse transit time measured from the ECG: an unreliable marker of beat-to-beat blood pressure,” J. Appl. Physiol. 100(1), 136–141 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

M. Nitzan, S. Turivnenko, A. Milston, A. Babchenko, and Y. Mahler, “Low-frequency variability in the blood volume and in the blood volume pulse measured by photoplethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 223–229 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 017002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Allsop, K. Carroll, G. Lloyd, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period-grating sensors to respiratory plethysmography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Babchenko, B. Khanokh, Y. Shomer, and M. Nitzan, “Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of respiratory chest circumference changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(2), 224–229 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Measurement (1)

M. Engin, A. Demirel, E. Z. Engin, and M. Fedakar, “Recent developments and trends in biomedical sensors,” Measurement 37(2), 173–188 (2005).
[Crossref]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (3)

M. Folke, L. Cernerud, M. Ekström, and B. Hök, “Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41(4), 377–383 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, X. Zhu, T. Nemoto, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Kitamura, and K. Yamakoshi, “Unconstrained detection of respiration rhythm and pulse rate with one under-pillow sensor during sleep,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 43(2), 306–312 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tanaka, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Wakimoto, “Unconstrained and non-invasive measurement of heart-beat and respiration periods using a phonocardiographic sensor,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40(2), 246–252 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

T. Tamura, T. Togawa, M. Ogawa, and M. Yoda, “Fully automated health monitoring system in the home,” Med. Eng. Phys. 20(8), 573–579 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Sasaki, Y. Kubota, and K. Watanabe, “Sensitivity property of a hetero-core splice fiber optic displacement sensor,” Proc. SPIE 5579, 136–143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

M. Nishiyama, H. Sasaki, and K. Watanabe, “A deformation sensitive pad-structure embedded with hetero-core optic fiber sensors,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 136(1), 205–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. K.-J. Li, Dynamics of the Vascular System (World scientific publishing, Singapore, 2004).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Single-mode-based hetero-core fiber optic bending sensor.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Bending loss characteristics of hetero-core fiber sensors; (a) inserted core diameter of 5 μm with hetero-core insertion length of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm and (b) inserted core diameter of 3 μm with hetero-core insertion length of 1.0 mm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Pulse pressure-sensing module with hetero-core fiber optic sensors based on three-point bending made of silicone rubber: panels (a) and (b) show the structure of a pulse sensor with a hetero-core diameter of 5 μm; (c) shows the extended measurable area by means of multiple fiber sensors; and (d) shows a wearable minimized sensing device with a hetero-core diameter of 3μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup for fiber optic pulse pressure monitoring; (a) measurement equipment and pulse pressure-sensing module set into a base and (b) minimized pulse pressure device on the wrist.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Wavelet decomposition of pulse pressure signal from the hetero-core fiber optic sensor: (a) real-time raw signal and (b)–(e) decomposed wavelet coefficients of the scale 23–26.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Pulse pressure waveform analysis based on FFT and criterion of pulse waveform amplitudes: (a) raw data of real-time loss profile for pulse sensor and its FFT spectrum; (b) band-pass-filtered spectrum to pick up first harmonic component; and (c) loss profile from inverse FFT of high-pass-filtered spectrum.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental results using a hetero-core fiber optic pulse-sensing module. Real-time responses in the loss for the position of the hetero-core portion of P = (a) 1 mm, (b) 0.5 mm, and (c) 0 mm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Loss amplitudes for the position of the hetero-core portion.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Real-time loss profiles for expansion of the pulse-detectable area of the pulse pressure sensors (a) -A, (b) -B, and (c) -C, as shown in Fig. 3(c).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Real-time responses of downsized and high-sensitive fiber optic pulse pressure sensor for the wearable device: subjects -A (a) -B (b), and -C (c).

Equations (3)

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Ψ a,b (t)= 1 | a | Ψ( tb a ).
CWT{ f(t);a,b }= f(t) Ψ a,b * (t)dt .
F a = F c aΔ .,

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