Abstract

Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a promising technique for brain monitoring as it can provide a continuous signal that is directly related to cerebral blood flow (CBF); however, signal contamination from extracerebral tissue can cause flow underestimations. The goal of this study was to investigate whether a multi-layered (ML) model that accounts for light propagation through the different tissue layers could successfully separate scalp and brain flow when applied to DCS data acquired at multiple source-detector distances. The method was first validated with phantom experiments. Next, experiments were conducted in a pig model of the adult head with a mean extracerebral tissue thickness of 9.8 ± 0.4 mm. Reductions in CBF were measured by ML DCS and computed tomography perfusion for validation; excellent agreement was observed by a mean difference of 1.2 ± 4.6% (CI95%: −31.1 and 28.6) between the two modalities, which was not significantly different.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

A. L. de Oliveira Manoel, A. Goffi, T. R. Marotta, T. A. Schweizer, S. Abrahamson, and R. L. Macdonald, “The critical care management of poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage,” Crit. Care 20(1), 21 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Binzoni, B. Sanguinetti, D. Van de Ville, H. Zbinden, and F. Martelli, “Probability density function of the electric field in diffuse correlation spectroscopy of human bone in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 55(4), 757–762 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, A. B. Parthasarathy, W. B. Baker, K. Gannon, V. Kavuri, T. Ko, S. Schenkel, Z. Li, Z. Li, M. T. Mullen, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Fast blood flow monitoring in deep tissues with real-time software correlators,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 776–797 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

M. Diop, J. Kishimoto, V. Toronov, D. S. C. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Development of a combined broadband near-infrared and diffusion correlation system for monitoring cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in preterm infants,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3907–3918 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Verdecchia, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Assessment of the best flow model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy data acquired directly on the brain,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4288–4301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Farzam and T. Durduran, “Multidistance diffuse correlation spectroscopy for simultaneous estimation of blood flow index and optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 055001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2(3), 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Strangman, Q. Zhang, and Z. Li, “Scalp and skull influence on near infrared photon propagation in the Colin27 brain template,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 136–149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kirkman, G. Citerio, and M. Smith, “The intensive care management of acute ischemic stroke: an overview,” Intensive Care Med. 40(5), 640–653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Weigl, D. Milej, A. Gerega, B. Toczylowska, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, M. Botwicz, R. Maniewski, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, and A. Liebert, “Assessment of cerebral perfusion in post-traumatic brain injury patients with the use of ICG-bolus tracking method,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 555–565 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, C. D. d’Esterre, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Quantifying cerebral blood flow in an adult pig ischemia model by a depth-resolved dynamic contrast-enhanced optical method,” Neuroimage 94, 303–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 011009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for non-invasive, micro-vascular cerebral blood flow measurement,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 51–63 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 4053–4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

M. Diop and K. St Lawrence, “Improving the depth sensitivity of time-resolved measurements by extracting the distribution of times-of-flight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(3), 447–459 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, S. S. Schenkel, D. L. Minkoff, X. Lu, C. G. Favilla, P. M. Vora, D. R. Busch, M. Chandra, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Influence of probe pressure on the diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow signal: extra-cerebral contributions,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 978–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. W. English, A. F. Turgeon, E. Owen, S. Doucette, G. Pagliarello, and L. McIntyre, “Protocol management of severe traumatic brain injury in intensive care units: a systematic review,” Neurocrit. Care 18(1), 131–142 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Macdonald, “Delayed neurological deterioration after subarachnoid haemorrhage,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 10(1), 44–58 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Verdecchia, M. Diop, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Quantifying the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 27007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hallacoglu, A. Sassaroli, and S. Fantini, “Optical characterization of Two-Layered Turbid Media for Non-Invasive, Absolute Oximetry in Cerebral and Extracerebral Tissue,” PLoS One 8(5), e64095 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, A. Aggarwal, M. Dehaes, S. A. Carp, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32(3), 481–488 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Dhar, M. T. Scalfani, S. Blackburn, A. R. Zazulia, T. Videen, and M. Diringer, “Relationship between angiographic vasospasm and regional hypoperfusion in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke 43(7), 1788–1794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (6)

C. Zweifel, G. Castellani, M. Czosnyka, A. Helmy, A. Manktelow, E. Carrera, K. M. Brady, P. J. Hutchinson, D. K. Menon, J. D. Pickard, and P. Smielewski, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients,” J. Neurotrauma 27(11), 1951–1958 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Z. Al-Tamimi, N. M. Orsi, A. C. Quinn, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, and S. A. Ross, “A review of delayed ischemic neurologic deficit following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: historical overview, current treatment, and pathophysiology,” World. Neurosurg. 73(6), 654–667 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061708 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Light diffusion in N-layered turbid media: steady-state domain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 025003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

T.-Y. Lee, “Functional CT: physiological models,” Trends Biotechnol. 20(8), S3–S10 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Brown, P. A. Picot, J. G. Naeini, R. Springett, D. T. Delpy, and T.-Y. Lee, “Quantitative near infrared spectroscopy measurement of cerebral hemodynamics in newborn piglets,” Pediatr. Res. 51(5), 564–570 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

A. Cenic, D. G. Nabavi, R. A. Craen, A. W. Gelb, and T. Y. Lee, “Dynamic CT measurement of cerebral blood flow: a validation study,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 20(1), 63–73 (1999).
[PubMed]

A. Kienle and T. Glanzmann, “In vivo determination of the optical properties of muscle with time-resolved reflectance using a layered model,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(11), 2689–2702 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lemieux and D. Durian, “Investigating non-Gaussian scattering processes by using nth-order intensity correlation functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(7), 1651 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. E. Skipetrov and R. Maynard, “Dynamic multiple scattering of light in multilayer turbid media,” Phys. Lett. Sect. A Gen. Solid State Phys. 217(2–3), 181–185 (1996).

1995 (1)

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

P. J. Kirkpatrick, P. Smielewski, M. Czosnyka, and J. D. Pickard, “Continuous monitoring of cortical perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry in ventilated patients with head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(11), 1382–1388 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. T. Tsay, T. C. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, “Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(10), 2727–2741 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abrahamson, S.

A. L. de Oliveira Manoel, A. Goffi, T. R. Marotta, T. A. Schweizer, S. Abrahamson, and R. L. Macdonald, “The critical care management of poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage,” Crit. Care 20(1), 21 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramson, K.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2(3), 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aggarwal, A.

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, A. Aggarwal, M. Dehaes, S. A. Carp, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32(3), 481–488 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Tamimi, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Al-Tamimi, N. M. Orsi, A. C. Quinn, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, and S. A. Ross, “A review of delayed ischemic neurologic deficit following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: historical overview, current treatment, and pathophysiology,” World. Neurosurg. 73(6), 654–667 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aviv, R. I.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, W. B.

Barbieri, B.

P.-Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
[PubMed]

Beletsky, V.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bherer, L.

Binzoni, T.

Black, S. E.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blackburn, S.

R. Dhar, M. T. Scalfani, S. Blackburn, A. R. Zazulia, T. Videen, and M. Diringer, “Relationship between angiographic vasospasm and regional hypoperfusion in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke 43(7), 1788–1794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botwicz, M.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, A. Gerega, B. Toczylowska, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, M. Botwicz, R. Maniewski, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, and A. Liebert, “Assessment of cerebral perfusion in post-traumatic brain injury patients with the use of ICG-bolus tracking method,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 555–565 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brady, K. M.

C. Zweifel, G. Castellani, M. Czosnyka, A. Helmy, A. Manktelow, E. Carrera, K. M. Brady, P. J. Hutchinson, D. K. Menon, J. D. Pickard, and P. Smielewski, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients,” J. Neurotrauma 27(11), 1951–1958 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, D. W.

D. W. Brown, P. A. Picot, J. G. Naeini, R. Springett, D. T. Delpy, and T.-Y. Lee, “Quantitative near infrared spectroscopy measurement of cerebral hemodynamics in newborn piglets,” Pediatr. Res. 51(5), 564–570 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buckley, E. M.

E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 011009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, M. G.

Busch, D. R.

Campbell, L. E.

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carp, S.

P.-Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
[PubMed]

Carp, S. A.

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, A. Aggarwal, M. Dehaes, S. A. Carp, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32(3), 481–488 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrera, E.

C. Zweifel, G. Castellani, M. Czosnyka, A. Helmy, A. Manktelow, E. Carrera, K. M. Brady, P. J. Hutchinson, D. K. Menon, J. D. Pickard, and P. Smielewski, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients,” J. Neurotrauma 27(11), 1951–1958 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellani, G.

C. Zweifel, G. Castellani, M. Czosnyka, A. Helmy, A. Manktelow, E. Carrera, K. M. Brady, P. J. Hutchinson, D. K. Menon, J. D. Pickard, and P. Smielewski, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients,” J. Neurotrauma 27(11), 1951–1958 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cenic, A.

A. Cenic, D. G. Nabavi, R. A. Craen, A. W. Gelb, and T. Y. Lee, “Dynamic CT measurement of cerebral blood flow: a validation study,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 20(1), 63–73 (1999).
[PubMed]

Chan, R.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, S.-T.

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandra, M.

Cheng, R.

Cheung, C.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Citerio, G.

M. A. Kirkman, G. Citerio, and M. Smith, “The intensive care management of acute ischemic stroke: an overview,” Intensive Care Med. 40(5), 640–653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coutts, S. B.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Craen, R. A.

A. Cenic, D. G. Nabavi, R. A. Craen, A. W. Gelb, and T. Y. Lee, “Dynamic CT measurement of cerebral blood flow: a validation study,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 20(1), 63–73 (1999).
[PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czosnyka, M.

C. Zweifel, G. Castellani, M. Czosnyka, A. Helmy, A. Manktelow, E. Carrera, K. M. Brady, P. J. Hutchinson, D. K. Menon, J. D. Pickard, and P. Smielewski, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients,” J. Neurotrauma 27(11), 1951–1958 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Kirkpatrick, P. Smielewski, M. Czosnyka, and J. D. Pickard, “Continuous monitoring of cortical perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry in ventilated patients with head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(11), 1382–1388 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

d’Esterre, C. D.

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, C. D. d’Esterre, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Quantifying cerebral blood flow in an adult pig ischemia model by a depth-resolved dynamic contrast-enhanced optical method,” Neuroimage 94, 303–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Oliveira Manoel, A. L.

A. L. de Oliveira Manoel, A. Goffi, T. R. Marotta, T. A. Schweizer, S. Abrahamson, and R. L. Macdonald, “The critical care management of poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage,” Crit. Care 20(1), 21 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dehaes, M.

P.-Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
[PubMed]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, A. Aggarwal, M. Dehaes, S. A. Carp, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32(3), 481–488 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

D. W. Brown, P. A. Picot, J. G. Naeini, R. Springett, D. T. Delpy, and T.-Y. Lee, “Quantitative near infrared spectroscopy measurement of cerebral hemodynamics in newborn piglets,” Pediatr. Res. 51(5), 564–570 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demchuk, A. M.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desjardins, M.

Detre, J. A.

Dhar, R.

R. Dhar, M. T. Scalfani, S. Blackburn, A. R. Zazulia, T. Videen, and M. Diringer, “Relationship between angiographic vasospasm and regional hypoperfusion in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke 43(7), 1788–1794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dietsche, G.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diop, M.

M. Diop, J. Kishimoto, V. Toronov, D. S. C. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Development of a combined broadband near-infrared and diffusion correlation system for monitoring cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in preterm infants,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3907–3918 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Verdecchia, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Assessment of the best flow model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy data acquired directly on the brain,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4288–4301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, C. D. d’Esterre, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Quantifying cerebral blood flow in an adult pig ischemia model by a depth-resolved dynamic contrast-enhanced optical method,” Neuroimage 94, 303–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Diop and K. St Lawrence, “Improving the depth sensitivity of time-resolved measurements by extracting the distribution of times-of-flight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(3), 447–459 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Verdecchia, M. Diop, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Quantifying the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 27007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. Verdecchia, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a time-resolved near-infrared technique to yield absolute cerebral blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 2068–2081 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diringer, M.

R. Dhar, M. T. Scalfani, S. Blackburn, A. R. Zazulia, T. Videen, and M. Diringer, “Relationship between angiographic vasospasm and regional hypoperfusion in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke 43(7), 1788–1794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, L.

Doucette, S.

S. W. English, A. F. Turgeon, E. Owen, S. Doucette, G. Pagliarello, and L. McIntyre, “Protocol management of severe traumatic brain injury in intensive care units: a systematic review,” Neurocrit. Care 18(1), 131–142 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2(3), 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Farzam and T. Durduran, “Multidistance diffuse correlation spectroscopy for simultaneous estimation of blood flow index and optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 055001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for non-invasive, micro-vascular cerebral blood flow measurement,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 51–63 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durian, D.

Edlow, B. L.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elbert, T.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elliott, J. T.

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, C. D. d’Esterre, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Quantifying cerebral blood flow in an adult pig ischemia model by a depth-resolved dynamic contrast-enhanced optical method,” Neuroimage 94, 303–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

English, S. W.

S. W. English, A. F. Turgeon, E. Owen, S. Doucette, G. Pagliarello, and L. McIntyre, “Protocol management of severe traumatic brain injury in intensive care units: a systematic review,” Neurocrit. Care 18(1), 131–142 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, K. C.

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

B. Hallacoglu, A. Sassaroli, and S. Fantini, “Optical characterization of Two-Layered Turbid Media for Non-Invasive, Absolute Oximetry in Cerebral and Extracerebral Tissue,” PLoS One 8(5), e64095 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farzam, P.

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Farzam and T. Durduran, “Multidistance diffuse correlation spectroscopy for simultaneous estimation of blood flow index and optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 055001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favilla, C. G.

Feng, T. C.

Fenoglio, A.

P.-Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
[PubMed]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, A. Aggarwal, M. Dehaes, S. A. Carp, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32(3), 481–488 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fiebach, J. B.

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061708 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fox, A. J.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 011009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
[PubMed]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, A. Aggarwal, M. Dehaes, S. A. Carp, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32(3), 481–488 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frangos, S.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gagnon, L.

Gannon, K.

Gelb, A. W.

A. Cenic, D. G. Nabavi, R. A. Craen, A. W. Gelb, and T. Y. Lee, “Dynamic CT measurement of cerebral blood flow: a validation study,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 20(1), 63–73 (1999).
[PubMed]

Gerega, A.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, A. Gerega, B. Toczylowska, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, M. Botwicz, R. Maniewski, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, and A. Liebert, “Assessment of cerebral perfusion in post-traumatic brain injury patients with the use of ICG-bolus tracking method,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 555–565 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gisler, T.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glanzmann, T.

A. Kienle and T. Glanzmann, “In vivo determination of the optical properties of muscle with time-resolved reflectance using a layered model,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(11), 2689–2702 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goffi, A.

A. L. de Oliveira Manoel, A. Goffi, T. R. Marotta, T. A. Schweizer, S. Abrahamson, and R. L. Macdonald, “The critical care management of poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage,” Crit. Care 20(1), 21 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goyal, M.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grady, M. S.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grant, P. E.

E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 011009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
[PubMed]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, A. Aggarwal, M. Dehaes, S. A. Carp, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32(3), 481–488 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2(3), 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 4053–4075 (2014).
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R. C. Mesquita, S. S. Schenkel, D. L. Minkoff, X. Lu, C. G. Favilla, P. M. Vora, D. R. Busch, M. Chandra, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Influence of probe pressure on the diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow signal: extra-cerebral contributions,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 978–994 (2013).
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M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
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T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
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C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
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Gruber, C.

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061708 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gulka, I. B.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hachinski, V.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagan, K.

P.-Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hallacoglu, B.

B. Hallacoglu, A. Sassaroli, and S. Fantini, “Optical characterization of Two-Layered Turbid Media for Non-Invasive, Absolute Oximetry in Cerebral and Extracerebral Tissue,” PLoS One 8(5), e64095 (2013).
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Haskell, R. C.

Helmy, A.

C. Zweifel, G. Castellani, M. Czosnyka, A. Helmy, A. Manktelow, E. Carrera, K. M. Brady, P. J. Hutchinson, D. K. Menon, J. D. Pickard, and P. Smielewski, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients,” J. Neurotrauma 27(11), 1951–1958 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hogan, M. J.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
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Homer-Vanniasinkam, S.

Y. Z. Al-Tamimi, N. M. Orsi, A. C. Quinn, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, and S. A. Ross, “A review of delayed ischemic neurologic deficit following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: historical overview, current treatment, and pathophysiology,” World. Neurosurg. 73(6), 654–667 (2010).
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Horn, P.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubner, U.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, P. J.

C. Zweifel, G. Castellani, M. Czosnyka, A. Helmy, A. Manktelow, E. Carrera, K. M. Brady, P. J. Hutchinson, D. K. Menon, J. D. Pickard, and P. Smielewski, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients,” J. Neurotrauma 27(11), 1951–1958 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iftime, D.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irwin, D.

Jehanne-Lacasse, J.

Jelzow, A.

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061708 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kacprzak, M.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, A. Gerega, B. Toczylowska, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, M. Botwicz, R. Maniewski, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, and A. Liebert, “Assessment of cerebral perfusion in post-traumatic brain injury patients with the use of ICG-bolus tracking method,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 555–565 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kavuri, V.

Kienle, A.

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Light diffusion in N-layered turbid media: steady-state domain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 025003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kienle and T. Glanzmann, “In vivo determination of the optical properties of muscle with time-resolved reflectance using a layered model,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(11), 2689–2702 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M. N.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirkman, M. A.

M. A. Kirkman, G. Citerio, and M. Smith, “The intensive care management of acute ischemic stroke: an overview,” Intensive Care Med. 40(5), 640–653 (2014).
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Kirkpatrick, P. J.

P. J. Kirkpatrick, P. Smielewski, M. Czosnyka, and J. D. Pickard, “Continuous monitoring of cortical perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry in ventilated patients with head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(11), 1382–1388 (1994).
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Kishimoto, J.

Klar, E.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Ko, T. S.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2(3), 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kofke, W. A.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kudrimoti, M.

Kung, D. K.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2(3), 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D. H.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D. S. C.

Lee, T. Y.

A. Cenic, D. G. Nabavi, R. A. Craen, A. W. Gelb, and T. Y. Lee, “Dynamic CT measurement of cerebral blood flow: a validation study,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 20(1), 63–73 (1999).
[PubMed]

Lee, T.-Y.

K. Verdecchia, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Assessment of the best flow model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy data acquired directly on the brain,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4288–4301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, C. D. d’Esterre, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Quantifying cerebral blood flow in an adult pig ischemia model by a depth-resolved dynamic contrast-enhanced optical method,” Neuroimage 94, 303–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Verdecchia, M. Diop, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Quantifying the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 27007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. Verdecchia, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a time-resolved near-infrared technique to yield absolute cerebral blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 2068–2081 (2011).
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M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Lee, “Functional CT: physiological models,” Trends Biotechnol. 20(8), S3–S10 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Brown, P. A. Picot, J. G. Naeini, R. Springett, D. T. Delpy, and T.-Y. Lee, “Quantitative near infrared spectroscopy measurement of cerebral hemodynamics in newborn piglets,” Pediatr. Res. 51(5), 564–570 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemieux, P.

Lesage, F.

Levine, J. M.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Liebert, A.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, A. Gerega, B. Toczylowska, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, M. Botwicz, R. Maniewski, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, and A. Liebert, “Assessment of cerebral perfusion in post-traumatic brain injury patients with the use of ICG-bolus tracking method,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 555–565 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liemert, A.

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Light diffusion in N-layered turbid media: steady-state domain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 025003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, P.-Y.

P.-Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lu, X.

Lucke, T.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macdonald, R.

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061708 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macdonald, R. L.

A. L. de Oliveira Manoel, A. Goffi, T. R. Marotta, T. A. Schweizer, S. Abrahamson, and R. L. Macdonald, “The critical care management of poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage,” Crit. Care 20(1), 21 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Macdonald, “Delayed neurological deterioration after subarachnoid haemorrhage,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 10(1), 44–58 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maloney-Wilensky, E.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maniewski, R.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, A. Gerega, B. Toczylowska, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, M. Botwicz, R. Maniewski, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, and A. Liebert, “Assessment of cerebral perfusion in post-traumatic brain injury patients with the use of ICG-bolus tracking method,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 555–565 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manktelow, A.

C. Zweifel, G. Castellani, M. Czosnyka, A. Helmy, A. Manktelow, E. Carrera, K. M. Brady, P. J. Hutchinson, D. K. Menon, J. D. Pickard, and P. Smielewski, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients,” J. Neurotrauma 27(11), 1951–1958 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maret, G.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marotta, T. R.

A. L. de Oliveira Manoel, A. Goffi, T. R. Marotta, T. A. Schweizer, S. Abrahamson, and R. L. Macdonald, “The critical care management of poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage,” Crit. Care 20(1), 21 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

Martin, G. T.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maynard, R.

S. E. Skipetrov and R. Maynard, “Dynamic multiple scattering of light in multilayer turbid media,” Phys. Lett. Sect. A Gen. Solid State Phys. 217(2–3), 181–185 (1996).

Mayzner-Zawadzka, E.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, A. Gerega, B. Toczylowska, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, M. Botwicz, R. Maniewski, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, and A. Liebert, “Assessment of cerebral perfusion in post-traumatic brain injury patients with the use of ICG-bolus tracking method,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 555–565 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McAdams, M. S.

McIntyre, L.

S. W. English, A. F. Turgeon, E. Owen, S. Doucette, G. Pagliarello, and L. McIntyre, “Protocol management of severe traumatic brain injury in intensive care units: a systematic review,” Neurocrit. Care 18(1), 131–142 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menon, D. K.

C. Zweifel, G. Castellani, M. Czosnyka, A. Helmy, A. Manktelow, E. Carrera, K. M. Brady, P. J. Hutchinson, D. K. Menon, J. D. Pickard, and P. Smielewski, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients,” J. Neurotrauma 27(11), 1951–1958 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mesquita, R. C.

Migueis, M.

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milej, D.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, A. Gerega, B. Toczylowska, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, M. Botwicz, R. Maniewski, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, and A. Liebert, “Assessment of cerebral perfusion in post-traumatic brain injury patients with the use of ICG-bolus tracking method,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 555–565 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minkoff, D. L.

Morrison, L. B.

K. Verdecchia, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Assessment of the best flow model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy data acquired directly on the brain,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4288–4301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, C. D. d’Esterre, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Quantifying cerebral blood flow in an adult pig ischemia model by a depth-resolved dynamic contrast-enhanced optical method,” Neuroimage 94, 303–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moss, H. E.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mullen, M. T.

Murphy, B. D.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
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Nabavi, D. G.

A. Cenic, D. G. Nabavi, R. A. Craen, A. W. Gelb, and T. Y. Lee, “Dynamic CT measurement of cerebral blood flow: a validation study,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 20(1), 63–73 (1999).
[PubMed]

Naeini, J. G.

D. W. Brown, P. A. Picot, J. G. Naeini, R. Springett, D. T. Delpy, and T.-Y. Lee, “Quantitative near infrared spectroscopy measurement of cerebral hemodynamics in newborn piglets,” Pediatr. Res. 51(5), 564–570 (2002).
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Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
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Obrig, H.

H. Obrig and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive optical imaging of stroke,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A. 369(1955), 4470–4494 (2011).

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061708 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orsi, N. M.

Y. Z. Al-Tamimi, N. M. Orsi, A. C. Quinn, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, and S. A. Ross, “A review of delayed ischemic neurologic deficit following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: historical overview, current treatment, and pathophysiology,” World. Neurosurg. 73(6), 654–667 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Owen, E.

S. W. English, A. F. Turgeon, E. Owen, S. Doucette, G. Pagliarello, and L. McIntyre, “Protocol management of severe traumatic brain injury in intensive care units: a systematic review,” Neurocrit. Care 18(1), 131–142 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pagliarello, G.

S. W. English, A. F. Turgeon, E. Owen, S. Doucette, G. Pagliarello, and L. McIntyre, “Protocol management of severe traumatic brain injury in intensive care units: a systematic review,” Neurocrit. Care 18(1), 131–142 (2013).
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Parthasarathy, A. B.

D. Wang, A. B. Parthasarathy, W. B. Baker, K. Gannon, V. Kavuri, T. Ko, S. Schenkel, Z. Li, Z. Li, M. T. Mullen, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Fast blood flow monitoring in deep tissues with real-time software correlators,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 776–797 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2(3), 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 011009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 4053–4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelz, D.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickard, J. D.

C. Zweifel, G. Castellani, M. Czosnyka, A. Helmy, A. Manktelow, E. Carrera, K. M. Brady, P. J. Hutchinson, D. K. Menon, J. D. Pickard, and P. Smielewski, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients,” J. Neurotrauma 27(11), 1951–1958 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Kirkpatrick, P. Smielewski, M. Czosnyka, and J. D. Pickard, “Continuous monitoring of cortical perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry in ventilated patients with head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(11), 1382–1388 (1994).
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Picot, P. A.

D. W. Brown, P. A. Picot, J. G. Naeini, R. Springett, D. T. Delpy, and T.-Y. Lee, “Quantitative near infrared spectroscopy measurement of cerebral hemodynamics in newborn piglets,” Pediatr. Res. 51(5), 564–570 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinn, A. C.

Y. Z. Al-Tamimi, N. M. Orsi, A. C. Quinn, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, and S. A. Ross, “A review of delayed ischemic neurologic deficit following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: historical overview, current treatment, and pathophysiology,” World. Neurosurg. 73(6), 654–667 (2010).
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Roche-Labarbe, N.

P.-Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
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N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, A. Aggarwal, M. Dehaes, S. A. Carp, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32(3), 481–488 (2012).
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Rockstroh, B.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
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Ross, S. A.

Y. Z. Al-Tamimi, N. M. Orsi, A. C. Quinn, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, and S. A. Ross, “A review of delayed ischemic neurologic deficit following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: historical overview, current treatment, and pathophysiology,” World. Neurosurg. 73(6), 654–667 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, H.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahlas, D. J.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakadžic, S.

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanguinetti, B.

Sassaroli, A.

B. Hallacoglu, A. Sassaroli, and S. Fantini, “Optical characterization of Two-Layered Turbid Media for Non-Invasive, Absolute Oximetry in Cerebral and Extracerebral Tissue,” PLoS One 8(5), e64095 (2013).
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Sawosz, P.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, A. Gerega, B. Toczylowska, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, M. Botwicz, R. Maniewski, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, and A. Liebert, “Assessment of cerebral perfusion in post-traumatic brain injury patients with the use of ICG-bolus tracking method,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 555–565 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scalfani, M. T.

R. Dhar, M. T. Scalfani, S. Blackburn, A. R. Zazulia, T. Videen, and M. Diringer, “Relationship between angiographic vasospasm and regional hypoperfusion in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke 43(7), 1788–1794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schenkel, S.

Schenkel, S. S.

Schilling, L.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmiedek, P.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweizer, T. A.

A. L. de Oliveira Manoel, A. Goffi, T. R. Marotta, T. A. Schweizer, S. Abrahamson, and R. L. Macdonald, “The critical care management of poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage,” Crit. Care 20(1), 21 (2016).
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Selb, J.

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shang, Y.

Skipetrov, S. E.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Skipetrov and R. Maynard, “Dynamic multiple scattering of light in multilayer turbid media,” Phys. Lett. Sect. A Gen. Solid State Phys. 217(2–3), 181–185 (1996).

Smielewski, P.

C. Zweifel, G. Castellani, M. Czosnyka, A. Helmy, A. Manktelow, E. Carrera, K. M. Brady, P. J. Hutchinson, D. K. Menon, J. D. Pickard, and P. Smielewski, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients,” J. Neurotrauma 27(11), 1951–1958 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Kirkpatrick, P. Smielewski, M. Czosnyka, and J. D. Pickard, “Continuous monitoring of cortical perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry in ventilated patients with head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(11), 1382–1388 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, M.

M. A. Kirkman, G. Citerio, and M. Smith, “The intensive care management of acute ischemic stroke: an overview,” Intensive Care Med. 40(5), 640–653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Springett, R.

D. W. Brown, P. A. Picot, J. G. Naeini, R. Springett, D. T. Delpy, and T.-Y. Lee, “Quantitative near infrared spectroscopy measurement of cerebral hemodynamics in newborn piglets,” Pediatr. Res. 51(5), 564–570 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

St Lawrence, K.

K. Verdecchia, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Assessment of the best flow model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy data acquired directly on the brain,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4288–4301 (2015).
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M. Diop, J. Kishimoto, V. Toronov, D. S. C. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Development of a combined broadband near-infrared and diffusion correlation system for monitoring cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in preterm infants,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3907–3918 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, C. D. d’Esterre, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Quantifying cerebral blood flow in an adult pig ischemia model by a depth-resolved dynamic contrast-enhanced optical method,” Neuroimage 94, 303–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Diop and K. St Lawrence, “Improving the depth sensitivity of time-resolved measurements by extracting the distribution of times-of-flight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(3), 447–459 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Verdecchia, M. Diop, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Quantifying the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 27007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. Verdecchia, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a time-resolved near-infrared technique to yield absolute cerebral blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 2068–2081 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

H. Obrig and J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive optical imaging of stroke,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A. 369(1955), 4470–4494 (2011).

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061708 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinkellner, O.

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061708 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stevens, S. D.

Strangman, G. E.

G. E. Strangman, Q. Zhang, and Z. Li, “Scalp and skull influence on near infrared photon propagation in the Colin27 brain template,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 136–149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

Symons, S.

B. D. Murphy, A. J. Fox, D. H. Lee, D. J. Sahlas, S. E. Black, M. J. Hogan, S. B. Coutts, A. M. Demchuk, M. Goyal, R. I. Aviv, S. Symons, I. B. Gulka, V. Beletsky, D. Pelz, V. Hachinski, R. Chan, and T.-Y. Lee, “Identification of penumbra and infarct in acute ischemic stroke using computed tomography perfusion-derived blood flow and blood volume measurements,” Stroke 37(7), 1771–1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, K.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
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Thomé, C.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tichauer, K. M.

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toczylowska, B.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, A. Gerega, B. Toczylowska, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, M. Botwicz, R. Maniewski, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, and A. Liebert, “Assessment of cerebral perfusion in post-traumatic brain injury patients with the use of ICG-bolus tracking method,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 555–565 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toronov, V.

Tromberg, B. J.

Tsay, T. T.

Turgeon, A. F.

S. W. English, A. F. Turgeon, E. Owen, S. Doucette, G. Pagliarello, and L. McIntyre, “Protocol management of severe traumatic brain injury in intensive care units: a systematic review,” Neurocrit. Care 18(1), 131–142 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tzeng, S.-Y.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2(3), 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vajkoczy, P.

P. Vajkoczy, H. Roth, P. Horn, T. Lucke, C. Thomé, U. Hubner, G. T. Martin, C. Zappletal, E. Klar, L. Schilling, and P. Schmiedek, “Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe,” J. Neurosurg. 93(2), 265–274 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van de Ville, D.

Verdecchia, K.

Videen, T.

R. Dhar, M. T. Scalfani, S. Blackburn, A. R. Zazulia, T. Videen, and M. Diringer, “Relationship between angiographic vasospasm and regional hypoperfusion in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke 43(7), 1788–1794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vora, P. M.

Wabnitz, H.

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, J. B. Fiebach, R. Macdonald, and H. Obrig, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061708 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

Wang, J.

Weigl, W.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, A. Gerega, B. Toczylowska, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, M. Botwicz, R. Maniewski, E. Mayzner-Zawadzka, and A. Liebert, “Assessment of cerebral perfusion in post-traumatic brain injury patients with the use of ICG-bolus tracking method,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 555–565 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, R. L.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

D. Wang, A. B. Parthasarathy, W. B. Baker, K. Gannon, V. Kavuri, T. Ko, S. Schenkel, Z. Li, Z. Li, M. T. Mullen, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Fast blood flow monitoring in deep tissues with real-time software correlators,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 776–797 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2(3), 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for non-invasive, micro-vascular cerebral blood flow measurement,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 51–63 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 011009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 4053–4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
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T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
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C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(8), 2053–2065 (2001).
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D. Irwin, L. Dong, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, M. Kudrimoti, S. D. Stevens, and G. Yu, “Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1969–1985 (2011).
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M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
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D. Irwin, L. Dong, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, M. Kudrimoti, S. D. Stevens, and G. Yu, “Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1969–1985 (2011).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A wire diagram of the constructed two-layered phantom. With the box tipped on its side, cellulose could be added to either layer layer via the open side. The mobile Mylar membrane could be removed by the open side or inserted into slots at 5 or 10 mm relative to the surface that included the optical fibers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A diagram of the time course for a typical experiment. Blood gas analysis (BGA) was performed to confirm capnia level, where normo and hypo represent normocapnia and hypocapnia, respectively. Data acquisitions (DA) are listed in sequential order; TR NIRS (not shown in the diagram) is always acquired between CTP and DCS.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Coronal CT image of a pig’s head (A) and the corresponding blood flow map (B). The scalp (1), skull (2) and brain (3) ROIs are shown in white. Bar codes are given to illustrate relative x-ray attenuation (A) and blood flow in mL/min/100g (B).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Relative change in the measured diffusion coefficient as the viscosity of the tissue-mimicking phantom was increased. The label ‘expected’ refers to the homogeneous case (blue bars), and the labels ‘5 mm’ and ‘10 mm’ refer to thickness of the top layer for the two-layered case (red and green bars, respectively). For the two-layered experiments, cellulose was only added to the bottom layer. (A) Diffusion coefficient determined by analyzing the two-layered data with the homogeneous model (SDD = 30 mm). Diffusion coefficients for the bottom (B) and top (C) layers of a two-layered model applied to the same data used in (A). This analysis used data acquired at SDD of 20 and 30 mm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized intensity autocorrelation functions acquired during normocapnia (red curve) and hypocapnia (blue curve) at SDD of 20 mm (A) and 27 mm (B) with count rates of ~465 and ~55 kHz, respectively. The fit of the ML DCS model is illustrated by the black curve.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Scalp blood flow (SBF) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by CT, and the corresponding blood flow indices measured by DCS during normocapnia (red bars) and hypocapnia (blue bars). All values were averaged over their pre- and post- scalp incision measurements. FS and FB were obtained from the ML model analysis of DCS data acquired at SDDs of 20 and 27 mm. FHM was obtained by analyzing data from each SDD separately with the HM model (FHM,1 refers to 20 mm and FHM,2 refers to 27 mm). Significant differences observed between capnic conditions are represented by *.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (A) Box plot of relative flow change caused by reducing paCO2 from normocapnia to hypocapnia. Flow values of CBF, FB, FHM,1 and FHM,2 measured by CTP (N = 14), ML DCS (N = 11), DCSHM,1 (N = 14) and DCSHM,2 (N = 14), respectively. The center line, box edges, error bars, and the cross represent the median, 1st and 3rd quartiles, CI95%, and outliers, respectively. Significant changes compared to CBF are represented by *. (B) Bland-Altman plot comparing reductions in CBF and FB measured by CTP and ML DCS (N = 11). The mean difference between the two modalities, the standard error of the mean, and the CI95% are indicated by the solid line, the dotted line and the dashed line, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Blood flow dynamics during the transition from normocapnia to hypocapnia, which is illustrated by the solid black vertical line, from one experiment. Each g2(ρ,τ) curve was acquired for two seconds and analyzed separately by the ML DCS model to obtain time series of FB and FS. Data were acquired at a count rate of 554.3 ± 0.4 kHz and 101.5 ± 0.2 kHz at SDDs of 20 mm and 27 mm, respectively. The thickness of the scalp and the skull were 3.7 ± 0.4 mm and 6.0 ± 0.4 mm, respectively; Fskull = 0.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average values at normocapnia and hypocapnia for the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (paCO2,) and oxygen (paO2). * p<0.05 and ** p<0.001 between conditions. Data are presented as average ± SEM.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Average flow values (CBF and SBF, FB and FS) measured by CTP and ML DCS, respectively, for normocapnic and hypocapnic conditions. Significant differences between capnic conditions are indicated by *.

Equations (10)

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g 2 ( ρ,τ ) I( ρ,t )I( ρ,t+τ ) I ( ρ,t ) 2
g 2 ( ρ,τ )=1+β | G 1 ( ρ,z,τ ) | 2 I ( ρ,t ) 2
P i [ 2 μ P i 2 ( τ ) ] G 1 ( ρ,z,τ )=v( z z 0 )
μ P 2 i ( τ )= 3ν P i ( μ a i +2 μ s ' i k 0 2 αD i τ )
G 1 ( ρ,z,τ )= 3 μ s ' i 4π [ exp( μ P 1 r 1 ) r 1 exp( μ P 1 r 1 ) r 2 ]
G ˜ 1 0 ( s,z, τ )= G 1 0 ( ρ,z,τ ) e isρ d 2 ρ
G 1 0 ( ρ,z,τ )= 1 2π 0 G ˜ 1 0 ( s,z=0,τ ) sJ 0 ()ds
G ˜ 1 0 ( s,z, τ )= numerator denominator
numerator= S( 0,z z b ) × z 0 { µ ˜ P 1 P 1 cosh ( µ ˜ D 1 ( L 1 z b ) ) [ µ ˜ P 2 P 2 cosh( µ ˜ P 2 L 2 ) + µ ˜ 3 P 3 sinh( µ ˜ 2 L 2 ) ] + µ ˜ P 2 P 2 sinh( µ ˜ P 1 ( L 1 z b ) )[ µ ˜ P 3 P 3 cosh( µ ˜ P 2 L 2 )+ µ ˜ P 2 P 2 sinh( µ ˜ P 2 L 2 ) ] }
denominator=  µ ˜ P 2 P 2 cosh( µ ˜ P 2 L 2 ) [ µ ˜ P 1 cosh( µ ˜ P 1 L 1 )( P 1 + µ ˜ P 3 P 3 z 0 ) +sinh( µ ˜ P 1 L 1 )( µ ˜ P 3 P 3 + µ ˜ P 1 2 P 1 z 0 ) ] +sinh( µ ˜ P 2 L 2 ) [ µ ˜ P 1 cosh( µ ˜ P 1 L 1 ( µ ˜ P 3 P 1 P 3 +  µ ˜ P 2 2 P 2 2 z 0 ) ) +sinh( µ ˜ P 1 L 1 )( µ ˜ P 2 2 P 2 2 + µ ˜ P 1 2 µ ˜ P 3 P 1 P 3 z 0 ) ]

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