Abstract

We demonstrate noninvasive structural and microvascular contrast imaging of human skin in vivo, using phase difference swept source OCT angiography (pOCTA). The pOCTA system employs an akinetic, all-semiconductor, highly phase-stable swept laser source which operates at 1340 nm central wavelength, with 37 nm bandwidth (at 0 dB region) and 200 kHz A-scan rate. The phase sensitive detection does not need any external phase stabilizing implementations, due to the outstanding high phase linearity and sweep phase repeatability within 2 mrad. We compare the performance of phase based OCTA to speckle based OCTA for visualizing human vascular networks. pOCTA shows better contrast especially for deeper vascular details as compared to speckle based OCTA. The phase stability of the akinetic source allows the OCTA system to show decent vascular contrast only with 2 B-scans. We compare the performance of using 2 versus 4 B-scans for calculating the vascular contrast. Finally, the performance of a 100 nm bandwidth akinetic laser at 1310 nm is investigated for both OCT and OCTA.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (6)

T. E. Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 1(1), 1–15 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2161–2162 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiogrpahy,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, I. R. Ivascu, A. S. G. Singh, C. Blatter, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Intra-and inter-frame differential Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Sovremennye Tehnologii v Medicine 7, 34–42 (2015).

R. F. Stancu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Dual-mode-locking mechanism for an akinetic dispersive ring cavity swept source,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1322–1325 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. John, C. B. Burgner, B. Potsaid, M. E. Robertson, B. K. Lee, W. J. Choi, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and V. Jayaraman, “Wideband Electrically-Pumped 1050 nm MEMS-Tunable VCSEL for Ophthalmic Imaging,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 3461–3468 (2015).

2014 (5)

M. Bonesi, M. P. Minneman, J. Ensher, B. Zabihian, H. Sattmann, P. Boschert, E. Hoover, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Crawford, and W. Drexler, “Akinetic all-semiconductor programmable swept-source at 1550 nm and 1310 nm with centimeters coherence length,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2632–2655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-variance optical coherence tomography: a technique for noninvasive angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Blatter, and L. Schmetterer, “Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 41, 26–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(6), 931–935 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

Alex, A.

An, L.

Andre, R.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachmann, A.

Bajraszewski, T.

Barton, J. K.

Baumann, B.

Blatter, C.

T. Schmoll, I. R. Ivascu, A. S. G. Singh, C. Blatter, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Intra-and inter-frame differential Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Sovremennye Tehnologii v Medicine 7, 34–42 (2015).

R. A. Leitgeb, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Blatter, and L. Schmetterer, “Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 41, 26–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonesi, M.

Boschert, P.

Bouma, B.

Braaf, B.

Brecke, K. M.

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(6), 931–935 (2001).
[Crossref]

Burgner, C. B.

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Cadotte, D. W.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. C. Lee, A. Mariampillai, J. X. Z. Yu, D. W. Cadotte, B. C. Wilson, B. A. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(7), 1557–1564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlo, T. E.

T. E. Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 1(1), 1–15 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cense, B.

Chen, T.

Chen, Z.

Choi, W.

Choi, W. J.

Crawford, M.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Ding, Z.

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(6), 931–935 (2001).
[Crossref]

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

Ensher, J.

Fercher, A.

Fingler, J.

D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-variance optical coherence tomography: a technique for noninvasive angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-variance optical coherence tomography: a technique for noninvasive angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gorczynska, I.

Grajciar, B.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Hong, Y.

Hoover, E.

Huang, D.

Huber, R.

Ivascu, I. R.

T. Schmoll, I. R. Ivascu, A. S. G. Singh, C. Blatter, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Intra-and inter-frame differential Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Sovremennye Tehnologii v Medicine 7, 34–42 (2015).

Izatt, J. A.

Jayaraman, V.

Jian, Y.

J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

John, D. D.

Kamali, T.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kampik, A.

Khurana, M.

Kim, D. Y.

D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-variance optical coherence tomography: a technique for noninvasive angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, T.

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolbitsch, C.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Kumar, A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

Lee, B. K.

Lee, K. K. C.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

T. Schmoll, I. R. Ivascu, A. S. G. Singh, C. Blatter, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Intra-and inter-frame differential Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Sovremennye Tehnologii v Medicine 7, 34–42 (2015).

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Blatter, and L. Schmetterer, “Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 41, 26–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bonesi, M. P. Minneman, J. Ensher, B. Zabihian, H. Sattmann, P. Boschert, E. Hoover, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Crawford, and W. Drexler, “Akinetic all-semiconductor programmable swept-source at 1550 nm and 1310 nm with centimeters coherence length,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2632–2655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leung, M. K. K.

Liu, J. J.

Liu, M.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. D.

Luk, T. W.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahmud, M. S.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Malekafzali, A.

Mariampillai, A.

Milner, T. E.

Minneman, M. P.

Moriyama, E. H.

Morse, L. S.

D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-variance optical coherence tomography: a technique for noninvasive angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munce, N. R.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Neubauer, A.

Park, B.

Park, S. S.

D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-variance optical coherence tomography: a technique for noninvasive angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Potsaid, B.

Qin, J.

Ren, H.

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(6), 931–935 (2001).
[Crossref]

Reznicek, L.

Robertson, M. E.

Romano, A.

T. E. Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 1(1), 1–15 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sarunic, M. V.

J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

Schmetterer, L.

Schmoll, T.

T. Schmoll, I. R. Ivascu, A. S. G. Singh, C. Blatter, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Intra-and inter-frame differential Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Sovremennye Tehnologii v Medicine 7, 34–42 (2015).

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
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T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
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Schwartz, D. M.

D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-variance optical coherence tomography: a technique for noninvasive angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
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Sicam, V. A. D. P.

Singh, A. S. G.

T. Schmoll, I. R. Ivascu, A. S. G. Singh, C. Blatter, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Intra-and inter-frame differential Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Sovremennye Tehnologii v Medicine 7, 34–42 (2015).

Spaide, R. F.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiogrpahy,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
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R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2161–2162 (2015).
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Srinivas, S.

Stancu, R. F.

Standish, B. A.

Sun, C.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
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Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tearney, G.

Unterhuber, A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
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van Gemert, M. J.

van Meurs, J. C.

van Zeeburg, E.

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M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
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Waheed, N. K.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiogrpahy,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
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R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2161–2162 (2015).
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Wang, R. K.

Wang, X.

Wang, X. J.

Weingast, J.

Welch, A. J.

Werkmeister, R. M.

R. A. Leitgeb, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Blatter, and L. Schmetterer, “Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 41, 26–43 (2014).
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Werner, J. S.

D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-variance optical coherence tomography: a technique for noninvasive angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
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D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, B.

Wieser, W.

Wilson, B. C.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, K.

J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
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J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
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Yang, V. X.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
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D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-variance optical coherence tomography: a technique for noninvasive angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
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D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(6), 931–935 (2001).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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T. E. Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 1(1), 1–15 (2015).
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W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
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M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
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J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
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C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
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Ophthalmology (1)

D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-variance optical coherence tomography: a technique for noninvasive angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
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T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
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I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (6648 KB)      Visulization 1
» Visualization 2: AVI (1454 KB)      Visulization 2

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic representation of the imaging setup as used in the experiments. 80:20 – fiber-based single mode optical coupler, 80/20 splitting ratio; cr1, cr2 – circulator; p – polarization controller; c – collimator; R – retroreflector; M – mirror; x, y scan – 2-axis galvo-scan unit; L – imaging lens; DBP – dual-balanced photodetector; AMP – pre-amplifier; DAQ –data acquisition card. (b) full width at half maximum (FWHM) represents the lateral resolution of the system by measuring the edge spread function of a resolution target and then Gaussian fitting. (c) FWHM represents the axial resolution in air by measuring the line spread function of a mirror and then Gaussian fitting. (d) phase standard deviation (in 15 seconds) of the whole sweep.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Tomogram and phase difference with static phantom (rubber) (a) tomogram (512 pixels × 226 pixels, 8 mm × 3.5 mm). (b) phase difference (in radian) of consecutive two tomogram at same position (radian of phase difference is between –π and π). The red rectangle indicates the ROI for the phase stability analysis.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Tomogram and OCT angiograms based on phase signal at different depths. (a) healthy human palm (b) tomogram (8 × 8mm). (c) structure of skin [39]. (d)-(g) en-face view of z-projection of given depth (8 × 8mm, 512 × 512 pixels). (d) 210-235 μm. (e) 294-587 μm. (f) 587-839 μm. (g) 839-1007 μm. (h) 3-D rendering of angiographic volume (depth range: 294-1007 μm) (movie see Visualization 1).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Tomogram and OCT angiograms of finger nail region based on phase difference signal at different depths. (a) healthy human finger nail, the direction of the finger is the same as tomogram and angiogram. (b) tomogram. (c)-(f) en-face view of z-projection of given depth from top surface. (c) 295-442 μm. (d) 442-590 μm. (e) 590-885 μm. (f) 885-1007 μm. (g) 3-D rendering of angiographic volume (movie see Visualization 2). (h) fusion of 3-D rendering of angiographic volume and finger.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of speckle based angiography vs. phase based angiography of healthy human hand palm. (a), (b), (c) speckle based angiograms at different depths (294-587 μm. 587-839 μm and 839-1007 μm respectively), the size of all angiograms is 8 mm × 8 mm and 512 × 512 pixels. (d), (e), (f), phase based angiograms at the same depths like speckle based angiograms (294-587 μm, 587-839 μm and 839-1007 μm respectively). (g) zoom in the dashed rectangle in (a). (h) zoom in the rectangle in (d). (i) profile plotted along the green line in (g) and (h), where the increase of SNR in case of pOCTA can be verified. (j) improvement of SNR at three depths.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of 2 B-scans vs. 4 B–scans based on phase based angiography of healthy human palm. (a), (b), (c) 2 B-scans phase based angiograms at different depths (294-587 μm, 587-839 μm and 839-1007 μm respectively), the size of all angiograms is 8 mm × 8 mm, 512 × 512 pixels. (d), (e), (f), 4 B-scans phase based angiograms at the same depths like 2 B-scans phase based angiograms (294-587 μm, 587-839 μm and 839-1007 μm respectively). (g) zoom in the rectangle in (a). (h) zoom in the rectangle in (d). (i) profile plotted along the green line in (g) and (h), where increase of SNR in case of the 4 B-scans pOCTA can be verified. (j) improvement of SNR at three depths.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of phase based OCTA using a narrow bandwidth (37 nm) and a broad bandwidth laser (100 nm). (a) tomogram (8 × 3.6 mm) obtained with the narrow bandwidth laser. (b) tomogram with the broad bandwidth laser (8 × 3.6 mm). (c), (e), (g) phase based angiograms using narrow bandwidth laser at different depths (294-587 μm, 587-839 μm and 839-1007 μm respectively), the size of all angiograms is 6.5 × 4.5 mm, 419 × 281 pixels. (d), (f), (h) phase based angiograms using broad bandwidth laser at different depths (294-587 μm, 587-839 μm and 839-1007 μm respectively).

Equations (3)

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A( x,y,z )= 1 N1   i=0 N1 | log( T ( x,z ) i+1 )log( T ( x,z ) i ) |  | set of N tomograms  taken at y  
A( x,y,z )= 1 N1 i=0 N1 | Δφ ( x,z ) i |   | set of N tomograms  taken at y
SNR=10*log[ 0 n x 1 0 n y 1 [ r( x,y ) ] 2 0 n x 1 0 n y 1 [ r( x,y )t( x,y ) ] 2 ]

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