Abstract

A phase gradient angiography (PGA) method is proposed for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This method allows the use of phase information to map the microvasculature in tissue without the correction of bulk motion and laser trigger jitter induced phase artifacts. PGA can also be combined with the amplitude/intensity to improve the performance. Split-spectrum technique can further increase the signal to noise ratio by more than two times. In-vivo imaging of human retinal circulation is shown with a 70 kHz, 840 nm spectral domain OCT system and a 200 kHz, 1050 nm swept source OCT system. Four different OCT angiography methods are compared. The best performance was achieved with split-spectrum amplitude and phase-gradient angiography.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (6)

2011 (8)

Y. Jia and R. K. Wang, “Optical micro-angiography images structural and functional cerebral blood perfusion in mice with cranium left intact,” J. Biophotonics 4(1-2), 57–63 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11429–11440 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J. Biophotonics 4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A.-H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. D. P. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3657–3666 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

An, L.

Andre, R.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Blatter, C.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Braaf, B.

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Capps, A. G.

Cense, B.

Chen, C.-L.

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, Z.

G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2669–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2669–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3657–3666 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11429–11440 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and Z. Chen, “In vivo blood flow imaging by a swept laser source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7449–7457 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chiang, H. K.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chico-Calero, I.

Choi, B.

Choi, W.

Chou, L.

Cobbold, R. S. C.

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Dhalla, A.-H.

Duker, J. S.

Enfield, J.

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J. Biophotonics 4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

Fingler, J.

Fraser, S. E.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, S. S.

Gorczynska, I.

Gordon, M. L.

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Grajciar, B.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Hee, M. R.

Hendargo, H. C.

Hong, Y.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, O. Tan, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Postprocessing algorithms to minimize fixed-pattern artifact and reduce trigger jitter in swept source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9824–9834 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, B. Baumann, I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, A. E. Cable, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human retina with a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 338–340 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jayaraman, V.

Jia, W.

Jia, Y.

Jiang, J.

Jonathan, E.

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J. Biophotonics 4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

Khurana, M.

Kim, D. Y.

Klein, T.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Kuppermann, B. D.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurtz, R. M.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leahy, M.

Leahy, M. J.

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J. Biophotonics 4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

Lee, B.

Leitgeb, R. A.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leung, M. K.

Lin, A. J.

Lin, C. P.

Liu, G.

Liu, J. J.

Lu, C. D.

Makita, S.

Mariampillai, A.

McNabb, R. P.

Migacz, J. V.

Mok, A.

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moriyama, E. H.

Munce, N. R.

Nam, A. S.

Nassif, N.

Park, B.

Pechauer, A. D.

Peli, E.

Pierce, M.

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

Qi, W.

Rao, B.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Schmoll, T.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

Schwartz, D. M.

Shepherd, N.

Sicam, V. A. D. P.

Standish, B. A.

Subhash, H.

Swanson, E. A.

Tan, O.

Tearney, G.

Tokayer, J.

Tromberg, B. J.

Vakoc, B.

Vakoc, B. J.

van Meurs, J. C.

van Zeeburg, E.

Vermeer, K. A.

Vienola, K. V.

Vitkin, I. A.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. K.

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia and R. K. Wang, “Optical micro-angiography images structural and functional cerebral blood perfusion in mice with cranium left intact,” J. Biophotonics 4(1-2), 57–63 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Doppler optical micro-angiography for volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion in vivo,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8926–8940 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Werner, J. S.

White, B.

Wieser, W.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
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V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).
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Yamanari, M.

Yang, V. X.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
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V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).
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Yatagai, T.

Yazdanfar, S.

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G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3657–3666 (2011).
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L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016029 (2010).
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B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
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Yun, S.

Zacharias, L. C.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
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Zawadzki, R. J.

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V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (7)

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
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A. S. Nam, I. Chico-Calero, and B. J. Vakoc, “Complex differential variance algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 3822–3832 (2014).
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J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
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G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2669–2680 (2012).
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H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A.-H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
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G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2669–2680 (2012).
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I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. J. Zawadzki, A. G. Capps, and J. S. Werner, “Comparison of amplitude-decorrelation, speckle-variance and phase-variance OCT angiography methods for imaging the human retina and choroid,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 911–942 (2016).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Jia and R. K. Wang, “Optical micro-angiography images structural and functional cerebral blood perfusion in mice with cranium left intact,” J. Biophotonics 4(1-2), 57–63 (2011).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208(4-6), 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (14)

B. Park, M. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. de Boer, “Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(7), 782–793 (2003).
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G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11429–11440 (2011).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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R. K. Wang and L. An, “Doppler optical micro-angiography for volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion in vivo,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8926–8940 (2009).
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G. Liu, O. Tan, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Postprocessing algorithms to minimize fixed-pattern artifact and reduce trigger jitter in swept source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9824–9834 (2015).
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B. White, M. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
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S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
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G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3657–3666 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
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B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Angiography of the retina and the choroid with phase-resolved OCT using interval-optimized backstitched B-scans,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20516–20534 (2012).
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B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. D. P. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
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J. Zhang and Z. Chen, “In vivo blood flow imaging by a swept laser source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7449–7457 (2005).
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B. Vakoc, S. Yun, J. de Boer, G. Tearney, and B. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Procedures to calculate the amplitude combined phase gradient in a Fourier domain OCT system. Depth encoded complex OCT data are obtained from Fourier transform of the acquired fringes (may require addition calibration or dispersion compensation dependent on system used). The phase difference (or phase shift) between A-scans scans at the same location in sequential repeated B-scans is obtained. The axial gradient is calculated from the phase difference. This gradient is then combined with amplitude to calculate the decorrelation and then contrast.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Cross sectinal structure OCT (A) and OCTA images (B-E) from a healthy participant. The PGA shows high background noise (B). The three split-spectrum methods (SSPGA, SSADA and SSAPGA) show very similar results (C-E).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Averaged cross-sectional PGA (A), SSPGA (B), SSADA (C) and SSAPGA (D) OCTA images. (E) Axial profiles along the yellow lines in (A)-(D).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 3 × 3mm OCTA of human retinal circulation from PGA (A) and SSPGA (B), SSADA (C) and SSAPGA (D).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross-sectional OCT intensity (A, D) and OCTA images (B, C, E, F) from a healthy eye acquired with a SS-OCT system. Phase difference image (B, E) shows vertical line artifacts due to the depth dependent phase difference induced by the triggering jitter and bulk motion. Axial gradient of the phase difference image shows clear vessel boundaries (C, F).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 En face projection OCTA of human disc and retinal circulation acquired with a SS-OCT. SSPGA (A), SSADA (B) and SSAPGA (C) are used to process.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Blood flow phantom experiment to verify the proposed methods. OCT intensity image (A) of the flow phantom and OCTA images calculated from two sequential B-scan images at the same location using SSPGA (B), SSADA (C) and SSAPGA (D).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Quantatative comparison of different OCTA methods

Equations (13)

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S( x,z,t )=A( x,z,t ) exp( i ϕ( x,z,t ) ),
S( x,z,t+Δt )=A( x,z,t+Δt ) exp( i ϕ( x,z,t+Δt ) ),
Δ ϕ E ( x,z,t ) =ϕ( x,z,t+Δt )ϕ( x,z,t ),
Δ ϕ E (x,z,t)=Δ ϕ v (x,z,t)+Δ ϕ a (x,z,t)+Δ ϕ n (x,z,t),
G2( k )= G1( k+δΔk ),
F(  G2( k ) )=exp( j  2πzδ N )F(  G1( k ) ),
Δ ϕ E ( x,z,t )=Δ ϕ v (x,z,t)+Δ ϕ b (x,t)+2πδ(t)z/N+Δ ϕ n ( x,z,t ),
PGA( x,z,t )= d( Δ ϕ E ( x,z,t ) ) dz = d( Δ ϕ v ( x,z,t ) ) dz +  2πδ( t ) N +Δ ϕ n ( x,z,t ),
C f ( x,z )=1 1 R1 | r=1 R1      2 A    ( x,z,t+( r1 )Δt )A( x,z,t+rΔt )exp(jρPG(x,z,t+(r1)Δt) A  ( x,z,t+( r1 )Δt ) 2 + A   ( x,z,t+rΔt ) 2 |,
SSPGA( x,z )= 1 R1 1 M m=1 M r=1 R1 | P G m (x,z,t+(r1)Δt) |
SSAPG(x,z)= 1 1 R1 1 M | m=1 M r=1 R1 2 A m (x,z,t+(r1)Δt) A m (x,z,t+rΔtexp(jρP G m (x,z,t+(r1)Δt) [ A m (x,z,t+(r1)Δt)] 2 + A m (x,z,t+rΔt] 2 |,
SNR = average of the signal region standard deviation of the noise region .
C rms = 1 XY x=1 X y=1 Y [ V( x,y ) V ¯ ] 2 ,

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