Abstract

We demonstrate a micromotor balloon imaging catheter for ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) which provides wide area, circumferential structural and angiographic imaging of the esophagus without contrast agents. Using a 1310 nm MEMS tunable wavelength swept VCSEL light source, the system has a 1.2 MHz A-scan rate and ~8.5 µm axial resolution in tissue. The micromotor balloon catheter enables circumferential imaging of the esophagus at 240 frames per second (fps) with a ~30 µm (FWHM) spot size. Volumetric imaging is achieved by proximal pullback of the micromotor assembly within the balloon at 1.5 mm/sec. Volumetric data consisting of 4200 circumferential images of 5,000 A-scans each over a 2.6 cm length, covering a ~13 cm2 area is acquired in <18 seconds. A non-rigid image registration algorithm is used to suppress motion artifacts from non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD), cardiac motion or respiration. En face OCT images at various depths can be generated. OCT angiography (OCTA) is computed using intensity decorrelation between sequential pairs of circumferential scans and enables three-dimensional visualization of vasculature. Wide area volumetric OCT and OCTA imaging of the swine esophagus in vivo is demonstrated.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

3 August 2016: A correction was made to the body text.


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References

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2015 (5)

2014 (2)

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, M. G. Giacomelli, Z. Wang, K. Liang, T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Correction of rotational distortion for catheter-based en face OCT and OCT angiography,” Opt. Lett. 39(20), 5973–5976 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables 3-Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

P. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, A. Bansal, N. Gupta, W. Curvers, A. Rastogi, M. Singh, M. Hall, S. C. Mathur, S. B. Wani, B. Hoffman, S. Gaddam, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Standard endoscopy with random biopsies versus narrow band imaging targeted biopsies in Barrett’s oesophagus: a prospective, international, randomised controlled trial,” Gut 62(1), 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, W. Wieser, G. Springeling, R. Beurskens, C. T. Lancee, T. Pfeiffer, A. F. W. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging at 3200 frames per second,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1715–1717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

W. Kang, H. Wang, Y. Pan, M. W. Jenkins, G. A. Isenberg, A. Chak, M. Atkinson, D. Agrawal, Z. Hu, and A. M. Rollins, “Endoscopically guided spectral-domain OCT with double-balloon catheters,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17364–17372 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and R. Wang, “Autocorrelation optical coherence tomography for mapping transverse particle-flow velocity,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3538–3540 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neosquamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xi, L. Huo, Y. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Becker, M. Vieth, M. Bajbouj, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy for in vivo determination of microvessel density in Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 40(11), 888–891 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 156–158 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

M. A. Kara, M. Ennahachi, P. Fockens, F. J. W. ten Kate, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, “Detection and classification of the mucosal and vascular patterns (mucosal morphology) in Barrett’s esophagus by using narrow band imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(2), 155–166 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couvelard, F. Paraf, V. Gratio, J.-Y. Scoazec, D. Hénin, C. Degott, and J. F. Fléjou, “Angiogenesis in the neoplastic sequence of Barrett’s oesophagus. Correlation with VEGF expression,” J. Pathol. 192(1), 14–18 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neosquamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, D.

Aguirre, A.

Ahsen, O. O.

Arimura, Y.

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, M.

Awakawa, T.

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baac, H. W.

Bajbouj, M.

V. Becker, M. Vieth, M. Bajbouj, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy for in vivo determination of microvessel density in Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 40(11), 888–891 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bansal, A.

P. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, A. Bansal, N. Gupta, W. Curvers, A. Rastogi, M. Singh, M. Hall, S. C. Mathur, S. B. Wani, B. Hoffman, S. Gaddam, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Standard endoscopy with random biopsies versus narrow band imaging targeted biopsies in Barrett’s oesophagus: a prospective, international, randomised controlled trial,” Gut 62(1), 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barman, R.

Baumann, B.

Beaudette, K.

Becker, L.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neosquamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, V.

V. Becker, M. Vieth, M. Bajbouj, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy for in vivo determination of microvessel density in Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 40(11), 888–891 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, J. J.

P. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, A. Bansal, N. Gupta, W. Curvers, A. Rastogi, M. Singh, M. Hall, S. C. Mathur, S. B. Wani, B. Hoffman, S. Gaddam, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Standard endoscopy with random biopsies versus narrow band imaging targeted biopsies in Barrett’s oesophagus: a prospective, international, randomised controlled trial,” Gut 62(1), 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, J. J. G. H. M.

M. A. Kara, M. Ennahachi, P. Fockens, F. J. W. ten Kate, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, “Detection and classification of the mucosal and vascular patterns (mucosal morphology) in Barrett’s esophagus by using narrow band imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(2), 155–166 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beurskens, R.

Bezerra, H.

Z. Wang, M. Jenkins, G. Linderman, H. Bezerra, Y. Fujino, M. Costa, D. Wilson, and A. Rollins, “3-D Stent Detection in Intravascular OCT Using a Bayesian Network and Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(7), 1549–1561 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bock, R.

Boppart, S. A.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

K. Beaudette, H. W. Baac, W. J. Madore, M. Villiger, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Laser tissue coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through a double-clad fiber coupler,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1293–1303 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Uribe-Patarroyo and B. E. Bouma, “Rotational distortion correction in endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on speckle decorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 40(23), 5518–5521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables 3-Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlton, D. T.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carruth, R. W.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chak, A.

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cirocco, M.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cobb, M. J.

J. Xi, L. Huo, Y. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Compton, C. C.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Costa, M.

Z. Wang, M. Jenkins, G. Linderman, H. Bezerra, Y. Fujino, M. Costa, D. Wilson, and A. Rollins, “3-D Stent Detection in Intravascular OCT Using a Bayesian Network and Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(7), 1549–1561 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couvelard, A.

A. Couvelard, F. Paraf, V. Gratio, J.-Y. Scoazec, D. Hénin, C. Degott, and J. F. Fléjou, “Angiogenesis in the neoplastic sequence of Barrett’s oesophagus. Correlation with VEGF expression,” J. Pathol. 192(1), 14–18 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curvers, W.

P. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, A. Bansal, N. Gupta, W. Curvers, A. Rastogi, M. Singh, M. Hall, S. C. Mathur, S. B. Wani, B. Hoffman, S. Gaddam, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Standard endoscopy with random biopsies versus narrow band imaging targeted biopsies in Barrett’s oesophagus: a prospective, international, randomised controlled trial,” Gut 62(1), 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahlmann, A.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daniels, J. M. A.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

J. Li, M. de Groot, F. Helderman, J. Mo, J. M. A. Daniels, K. Grünberg, T. G. Sutedja, and J. F. de Boer, “High speed miniature motorized endoscopic probe for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24132–24138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Groot, M.

Degott, C.

A. Couvelard, F. Paraf, V. Gratio, J.-Y. Scoazec, D. Hénin, C. Degott, and J. F. Fléjou, “Angiogenesis in the neoplastic sequence of Barrett’s oesophagus. Correlation with VEGF expression,” J. Pathol. 192(1), 14–18 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doerr, C.

Drexler, W.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endo, T.

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enfield, J.

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J. Biophotonics 4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ennahachi, M.

M. A. Kara, M. Ennahachi, P. Fockens, F. J. W. ten Kate, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, “Detection and classification of the mucosal and vascular patterns (mucosal morphology) in Barrett’s esophagus by using narrow band imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(2), 155–166 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, J. A.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fienup, J. R.

Figueiredo, M.

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables 3-Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fléjou, J. F.

A. Couvelard, F. Paraf, V. Gratio, J.-Y. Scoazec, D. Hénin, C. Degott, and J. F. Fléjou, “Angiogenesis in the neoplastic sequence of Barrett’s oesophagus. Correlation with VEGF expression,” J. Pathol. 192(1), 14–18 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fockens, P.

P. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, A. Bansal, N. Gupta, W. Curvers, A. Rastogi, M. Singh, M. Hall, S. C. Mathur, S. B. Wani, B. Hoffman, S. Gaddam, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Standard endoscopy with random biopsies versus narrow band imaging targeted biopsies in Barrett’s oesophagus: a prospective, international, randomised controlled trial,” Gut 62(1), 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kara, M. Ennahachi, P. Fockens, F. J. W. ten Kate, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, “Detection and classification of the mucosal and vascular patterns (mucosal morphology) in Barrett’s esophagus by using narrow band imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(2), 155–166 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, H. L.

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

K. Liang, G. Traverso, H. C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, Z. Wang, B. Potsaid, M. Giacomelli, V. Jayaraman, R. Barman, A. Cable, H. Mashimo, R. Langer, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed en face OCT capsule for endoscopic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1146–1163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables 3-Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, M. G. Giacomelli, Z. Wang, K. Liang, T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Correction of rotational distortion for catheter-based en face OCT and OCT angiography,” Opt. Lett. 39(20), 5973–5976 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neosquamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
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Leahy, M. J.

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P. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, A. Bansal, N. Gupta, W. Curvers, A. Rastogi, M. Singh, M. Hall, S. C. Mathur, S. B. Wani, B. Hoffman, S. Gaddam, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Standard endoscopy with random biopsies versus narrow band imaging targeted biopsies in Barrett’s oesophagus: a prospective, international, randomised controlled trial,” Gut 62(1), 15–21 (2013).
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Mayer, M. A.

Meining, A.

V. Becker, M. Vieth, M. Bajbouj, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy for in vivo determination of microvessel density in Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 40(11), 888–891 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mino-Kenudson, M.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mo, J.

Moriyama, E. H.

Mukai, D. S.

Munce, N. R.

Mutinga, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nafe, B.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
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Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nielsen, T.

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, W.-Y.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
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Pan, Y.

Paraf, F.

A. Couvelard, F. Paraf, V. Gratio, J.-Y. Scoazec, D. Hénin, C. Degott, and J. F. Fléjou, “Angiogenesis in the neoplastic sequence of Barrett’s oesophagus. Correlation with VEGF expression,” J. Pathol. 192(1), 14–18 (2000).
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Park, S. Y.

Petersen, C.

Pfeiffer, T.

Pitris, C.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
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Potsaid, B.

Potsaid, B. M.

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables 3-Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
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Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
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Rastogi, A.

P. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, A. Bansal, N. Gupta, W. Curvers, A. Rastogi, M. Singh, M. Hall, S. C. Mathur, S. B. Wani, B. Hoffman, S. Gaddam, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Standard endoscopy with random biopsies versus narrow band imaging targeted biopsies in Barrett’s oesophagus: a prospective, international, randomised controlled trial,” Gut 62(1), 15–21 (2013).
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Rollins, A.

Z. Wang, M. Jenkins, G. Linderman, H. Bezerra, Y. Fujino, M. Costa, D. Wilson, and A. Rollins, “3-D Stent Detection in Intravascular OCT Using a Bayesian Network and Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(7), 1549–1561 (2015).
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Rollins, A. M.

Rosenberg, M.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
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Sasaki, S.

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
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Sauk, J. S.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, R. M.

V. Becker, M. Vieth, M. Bajbouj, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy for in vivo determination of microvessel density in Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 40(11), 888–891 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
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P. Herz, Y. Chen, A. Aguirre, J. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3532–3542 (2004).
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Schmitt, J. M.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neosquamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2009).
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Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scoazec, J.-Y.

A. Couvelard, F. Paraf, V. Gratio, J.-Y. Scoazec, D. Hénin, C. Degott, and J. F. Fléjou, “Angiogenesis in the neoplastic sequence of Barrett’s oesophagus. Correlation with VEGF expression,” J. Pathol. 192(1), 14–18 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, P.

P. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, A. Bansal, N. Gupta, W. Curvers, A. Rastogi, M. Singh, M. Hall, S. C. Mathur, S. B. Wani, B. Hoffman, S. Gaddam, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Standard endoscopy with random biopsies versus narrow band imaging targeted biopsies in Barrett’s oesophagus: a prospective, international, randomised controlled trial,” Gut 62(1), 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishko, M.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
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Shishkov, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, M.

P. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, A. Bansal, N. Gupta, W. Curvers, A. Rastogi, M. Singh, M. Hall, S. C. Mathur, S. B. Wani, B. Hoffman, S. Gaddam, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Standard endoscopy with random biopsies versus narrow band imaging targeted biopsies in Barrett’s oesophagus: a prospective, international, randomised controlled trial,” Gut 62(1), 15–21 (2013).
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Sivak, M. V.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
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Soomro, A.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
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Springeling, G.

Standish, B. A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stolte, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
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Su, J.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
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Subhash, H.

Sutedja, T. G.

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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Swanson, E.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, H.

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
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Tan, O.

Tang, S. J.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
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Tang, X.

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
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Tao, Y. K.

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables 3-Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
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T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
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Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
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M. A. Kara, M. Ennahachi, P. Fockens, F. J. W. ten Kate, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, “Detection and classification of the mucosal and vascular patterns (mucosal morphology) in Barrett’s esophagus by using narrow band imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(2), 155–166 (2006).
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Tokayer, J.

Tran, P. H.

Traverso, G.

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D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neosquamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2009).
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Tsai, T.-H.

Ung-Runyawee, R.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
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Uribe-Patarroyo, N.

Vakoc, B. J.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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Van Dam, J.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
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van Soest, G.

Vermeulen, D.

Vieth, M.

V. Becker, M. Vieth, M. Bajbouj, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy for in vivo determination of microvessel density in Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 40(11), 888–891 (2008).
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R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villiger, M.

Vitkin, I. A.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Wang, R.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Wani, S. B.

P. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, A. Bansal, N. Gupta, W. Curvers, A. Rastogi, M. Singh, M. Hall, S. C. Mathur, S. B. Wani, B. Hoffman, S. Gaddam, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Standard endoscopy with random biopsies versus narrow band imaging targeted biopsies in Barrett’s oesophagus: a prospective, international, randomised controlled trial,” Gut 62(1), 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wieser, W.

Willis, J.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D.

Z. Wang, M. Jenkins, G. Linderman, H. Bezerra, Y. Fujino, M. Costa, D. Wilson, and A. Rollins, “3-D Stent Detection in Intravascular OCT Using a Bayesian Network and Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(7), 1549–1561 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, R. C.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

Yachimski, P. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
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Yamamoto, H.

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
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Yamanari, M.

Yamashita, K.

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
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Yang, V. X. D.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
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Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yu, L.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
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Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
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D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neosquamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2009).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (7)

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
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J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
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K. Liang, G. Traverso, H. C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, Z. Wang, B. Potsaid, M. Giacomelli, V. Jayaraman, R. Barman, A. Cable, H. Mashimo, R. Langer, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed en face OCT capsule for endoscopic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1146–1163 (2015).
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J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
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M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
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Z. Wang, H. C. Lee, D. Vermeulen, L. Chen, T. Nielsen, S. Y. Park, A. Ghaemi, E. Swanson, C. Doerr, and J. Fujimoto, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source optical coherence tomography receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2562–2574 (2015).
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K. Beaudette, H. W. Baac, W. J. Madore, M. Villiger, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Laser tissue coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through a double-clad fiber coupler,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1293–1303 (2015).
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Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
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Endoscopy (3)

V. Becker, M. Vieth, M. Bajbouj, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy for in vivo determination of microvessel density in Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 40(11), 888–891 (2008).
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X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
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D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neosquamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (2)

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables 3-Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
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M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
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Gastrointest. Endosc. (8)

M. A. Kara, M. Ennahachi, P. Fockens, F. J. W. ten Kate, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, “Detection and classification of the mucosal and vascular patterns (mucosal morphology) in Barrett’s esophagus by using narrow band imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(2), 155–166 (2006).
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M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
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V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
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M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gut (1)

P. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, A. Bansal, N. Gupta, W. Curvers, A. Rastogi, M. Singh, M. Hall, S. C. Mathur, S. B. Wani, B. Hoffman, S. Gaddam, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Standard endoscopy with random biopsies versus narrow band imaging targeted biopsies in Barrett’s oesophagus: a prospective, international, randomised controlled trial,” Gut 62(1), 15–21 (2013).
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IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

Z. Wang, M. Jenkins, G. Linderman, H. Bezerra, Y. Fujino, M. Costa, D. Wilson, and A. Rollins, “3-D Stent Detection in Intravascular OCT Using a Bayesian Network and Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(7), 1549–1561 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
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J. Biophotonics (1)

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J. Biophotonics 4(9), 583–587 (2011).
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J. Pathol. (1)

A. Couvelard, F. Paraf, V. Gratio, J.-Y. Scoazec, D. Hénin, C. Degott, and J. F. Fléjou, “Angiogenesis in the neoplastic sequence of Barrett’s oesophagus. Correlation with VEGF expression,” J. Pathol. 192(1), 14–18 (2000).
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Nat. Med. (1)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
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Opt. Express (9)

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
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J. Li, M. de Groot, F. Helderman, J. Mo, J. M. A. Daniels, K. Grünberg, T. G. Sutedja, and J. F. de Boer, “High speed miniature motorized endoscopic probe for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24132–24138 (2012).
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W. Kang, H. Wang, Y. Pan, M. W. Jenkins, G. A. Isenberg, A. Chak, M. Atkinson, D. Agrawal, Z. Hu, and A. M. Rollins, “Endoscopically guided spectral-domain OCT with double-balloon catheters,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17364–17372 (2010).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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W. Kang, H. Wang, Z. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, G. A. Isenberg, A. Chak, and A. M. Rollins, “Motion artifacts associated with in vivo endoscopic OCT images of the esophagus,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20722–20735 (2011).
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S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
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R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
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P. Herz, Y. Chen, A. Aguirre, J. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3532–3542 (2004).
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S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4822–4828 (2004).
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Opt. Lett. (9)

Y. Wang and R. Wang, “Autocorrelation optical coherence tomography for mapping transverse particle-flow velocity,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3538–3540 (2010).
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T. Wang, W. Wieser, G. Springeling, R. Beurskens, C. T. Lancee, T. Pfeiffer, A. F. W. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging at 3200 frames per second,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1715–1717 (2013).
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O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, M. G. Giacomelli, Z. Wang, K. Liang, T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Correction of rotational distortion for catheter-based en face OCT and OCT angiography,” Opt. Lett. 39(20), 5973–5976 (2014).
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N. Uribe-Patarroyo and B. E. Bouma, “Rotational distortion correction in endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on speckle decorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 40(23), 5518–5521 (2015).
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M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 156–158 (2008).
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A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
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J. Xi, L. Huo, Y. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
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P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004).
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S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
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Science (1)

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V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. J. S. Heim, G. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760 kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMS-tunable VCSELs with >100nm tuning range,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),2011Conference on, 2011), 1–2.

R. Reif and R. K. Wang, “Optical Microangiography Based on Optical Coherence Tomography,” in Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications, W. Drexler and G. J. Fujimoto, eds. (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015), pp. 1373–1397.

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (11814 KB)      Video 1
» Visualization 2: AVI (13682 KB)      Video 2
» Visualization 3: AVI (22499 KB)      Video 3
» Visualization 4: AVI (20807 KB)      Video 4

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the ultrahigh speed endoscopic OCT system. HVA: high voltage amplifier; AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; MZI: Mach-Zehnder interferometer; C: circulator; P: photodetector; OC: optical clock, DA: differential amplifier; RM: reference mirror.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Micromotor balloon imaging catheter. (a, b) Schematics of the micromotor imaging catheter and the balloon sheath respectively. (c) Photograph of the distal end of the micromotor balloon imaging catheter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Correction of nonuniform rotational distortion (NURD) from the micromotor scanning and physiological motion. (a, b) Cross-sectional OCT image of the swine esophagus, where the esophagus was not fully in contact with the balloon catheter during imaging in (b). Multiple regions of interest (ROIs) were selected from locations of the metal struts (yellow box) and tissue structures in multiple zones (red boxes and red dots) to remove the motion artifacts in the images. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (axial) and 2 mm (lateral). EP: epithelium; LP: lamina propria. rφ: circumferential direction; r: radial (axial) direction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) White light endoscopy image showing the positioning of the micromotor balloon imaging catheter in the swine esophagus. Blue arrow: inflated balloon; red arrow: joint between proximal end of the balloon and plastic sheath. (b) X-ray showing the position of micromotor balloon catheter in the swine esophagus. Blue arrow: torque coil of the micromotor catheter; red arrow: distal optics assembly.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Demonstration of the NURD correction algorithm for en face OCT and OCT angiography (OCTA) images. (a, d), (b, e), and (c, f) Co-registered en face OCT and OCTA images of the lamina propria (LP) layer of the swine esophagus from 300 µm beneath tissue surface before and after motion correction using regions of interest (ROIs) from the metal struts alone compared with both metal struts and tissue sites, respectively. Insets: magnified view (2X) from the selected region (dashed boxes, a-c) demonstrated that NURD between neighboring frames was significantly reduced (red arrows). In OCTA, decorrelation noise and white line motion artifacts were reduced, and image contrast was improved after NURD correction (red arrows, e-f). rφ: circumferential direction; z: longitudinal pull back direction. The same signal thresholds were applied for (a), (b) and (c), as well as for (d), (e) and (f).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Micromotor balloon OCT of the swine esophagus in vivo. (a, b) Representative cross-sectional images in polar and Cartesian coordinates. The Cartesian image is shown with a 4:1 aspect ratio. (c) Magnified view (3X) of the cross-sectional OCT image from the region of interest (dashed box, (a)) shows epithelium (EP), lamina propria (LP), muscularis mucosa (MM), and submucosa (SM) of normal esophagus. Small vessels in the LP (star) are also visible. (d) Rendering of the esophagus. Blue arrow: shadowing from a large vessel. (Visualization 1). ST: circumferential regions blocked by metal struts. Scale bars in (a): 0.5 mm (axial) and 2 mm (lateral). rφ: circumferential direction; r: radial (axial) direction.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a, b) En face OCT of the swine esophagus from ~100 µm (mean projection from 75 to 125 µm) and 250 µm (mean projection from 225 to 275 µm) beloe surface correspond to the epithelium (EP) and the lamina propria (LP) layer, respectively. Tissue contact varied along the pullback direction (red arrows) because of cardiac motoin. Shadowing from the shallower vessels can be seen (blue arrows). (Visualization 2). rφ: circumferential direction; z: longitudinal direction.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a, b) En face OCTA of the swine esophagus from 100 µm (mean projection 75 to 125 µm) and 250 µm (mean projection from 225 to 275 µm) below tissue surface, corresponding to the epithelium (EP) and lamina propria (LP) layer, respectively. Tissue contact varied along the pullback direction (red arrows) from cardiac motion, resulting in high decorrelation near the tissue boundary. Microvascular networks are seen in the LP layer (blue arrows). (Visualization 3). (c) Cross-sectional OCTA image from the location in (a) marked by white dashed-dotted line. The locations of the microvasculature can be identified from regions exhibiting high decorrelation signals (red arrows). The depth locations of the en face OCTA images of the EP and LP layer (a, b) are marked by green and blue lines, respectively. (d, e) Magnified (3X) view of the OCTA from region of interest marked (b) where the small vessels can be observed more clearly (blue arrows). rφ: circumferential direction; z: longitudinal pull back direction; r: radial (axial) direction. Scale bars in (c): 0.25 mm (axial) and 2 mm (lateral).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a, b) Coregistered en face OCT and OCTA images of the swine distal esophagus including the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) from about 250 µm (mean projection from 225 to 275 µm) beneath tissue surface, corresponding to the lamina propria (LP) layer in the squamous mucosa. As a result of the opening after GEJ, the tissue contact was poor in the gastric mucosa (red arrows, (a, b)). Fine microvasculature in the LP layer can be observed in the squamous mucosa (blue arrows, (b)) (Visualization 4). rφ: circumferential direction; z: longitudinal direction.

Equations (1)

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D n ( x , z ) = 1 A n ( x , z ) A n + 1 ( x , z ) 1 2 [ A n 2 ( x , z ) + A n + 1 2 ( x , z ) ] .

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