Abstract

The pathology of Crohn’s disease (CD) is characterized by obstructing intestinal strictures because of inflammation (with high levels of hemoglobin), fibrosis (high levels of collagen), or a combination of both. The accurate characterization of the strictures is critical for the management of CD. This study examines the feasibility of characterizing intestinal strictures by Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) without extrapolation from superficial biopsies. Ex vivo normal rat colon tissue, inflammatory and fibrotic intestinal strictures in rat trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model were first differentiated by a PA-US parallel imaging system. Surgically removed human intestinal stricture specimens were afterwards imaged by a multiwavelength acoustic resolution PA microscope (ARPAM). The experiment results suggest that PAI is a potential tool for the diagnosis of the diseased conditions in intestinal strictures.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  36. B. T. Cox, S. R. Arridge, K. P. Köstli, and P. C. Beard, “Two-dimensional quantitative photoacoustic image reconstruction of absorption distributions in scattering media by use of a simple iterative method,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1866–1875 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The Functional Pitch of an Organ: Quantification of Tissue Texture with Photoacoustic Spectrum Analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chiorean, D. Schreiber-Dietrich, B. Braden, X. Cui, and C. F. Dietrich, “Transabdominal ultrasound for standardized measurement of bowel wall thickness in normal children and those with Crohn’s disease,” Med. Ultrason. 16(4), 319–324 (2014).
[PubMed]

J.-M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Dillman, R. W. Stidham, P. D. Higgins, D. S. Moons, L. A. Johnson, and J. M. Rubin, “US elastography-derived shear wave velocity helps distinguish acutely inflamed from fibrotic bowel in a Crohn disease animal model,” Radiology 267(3), 757–766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yuan, G. Xu, Y. Yu, Y. Zhou, P. L. Carson, X. Wang, and X. Liu, “Real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging system facilitated with graphics processing unit and code parallel optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic Tomography: In Vivo Imaging from Organelles to Organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cox, J. G. Laufer, S. R. Arridge, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061202 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

R. W. Stidham, J. Xu, L. A. Johnson, K. Kim, D. S. Moons, B. J. McKenna, J. M. Rubin, and P. D. Higgins, “Ultrasound elasticity imaging for detecting intestinal fibrosis and inflammation in rats and humans with Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology 141, 819–826 (2011).

H.-W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-Free Bond-Selective Imaging by Listening to Vibrationally Excited Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. W. Jones and S. R. G. Finlayson, “Trends in Surgery for Crohn's Disease in the Era of Infliximab,” Annals of Surgery 252, 307–312 (2010).

2009 (3)

P. Paolantonio, R. Ferrari, F. Vecchietti, S. Cucchiara, and A. Laghi, “Current status of MR imaging in the evaluation of IBD in a pediatric population of patients,” Eur. J. Radiol. 69(3), 418–424 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. C. Lawrance, C. J. Welman, P. Shipman, and K. Murray, “Correlation of MRI-determined small bowel Crohn’s disease categories with medical response and surgical pathology,” World J. Gastroenterol. 15(27), 3367–3375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cosnes, “Can we modulate the clinical course of inflammatory bowel diseases by our current treatment strategies?” Dig. Dis. 27(4), 516–521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

K. Kim, L. A. Johnson, C. Jia, J. C. Joyce, S. Rangwalla, P. D. R. Higgins, and J. M. Rubin, “Noninvasive Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging (UEI) of Crohn’s Disease: Animal Model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34(6), 902–912 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

K. H. Song and L. V. Wang, “Deep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 060503 (2007).

2006 (4)

C. Li, H. Zhao, B. Anderson, and H. Jiang, “Multispectral breast imaging using a ten-wavelength, 64 x 64 source/detector channels silicon photodiode-based diffuse optical tomography system,” Med. Phys. 33(3), 627–636 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography: Recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 231101 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. R. Lichtenstein, A. Olson, S. Travers, R. H. Diamond, D. M. Chen, M. L. Pritchard, B. G. Feagan, R. D. Cohen, B. A. Salzberg, S. B. Hanauer, and W. J. Sandborn, “Factors associated with the development of intestinal strictures or obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(5), 1030–1038 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. T. Cox, S. R. Arridge, K. P. Köstli, and P. C. Beard, “Two-dimensional quantitative photoacoustic image reconstruction of absorption distributions in scattering media by use of a simple iterative method,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1866–1875 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

H. Messmann, E. Endlicher, G. Freunek, P. Rümmele, J. Schölmerich, and R. Knüchel, “Fluorescence endoscopy for the detection of low and high grade dysplasia in ulcerative colitis using systemic or local 5-aminolaevulinic acid sensitisation,” Gut 52(7), 1003–1007 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

E. V. Loftus, P. Schoenfeld, and W. J. Sandborn, “The epidemiology and natural history of Crohn’s disease in population-based patient cohorts from North America: a systematic review,” Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 16(1), 51–60 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Boudiaf, P. Soyer, C. Terem, J. P. Pelage, E. Maissiat, and R. Rymer, “Ct Evaluation of Small Bowel Obstruction,” Radiographics 21(3), 613–624 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

R. D. Cohen, L. R. Larson, J. M. Roth, R. V. Becker, and L. L. Mummert, “The cost of hospitalization in Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95(2), 524–530 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Oberhuber, P. C. Stangl, H. Vogelsang, E. Schober, F. Herbst, and C. Gasche, “Significant association of strictures and internal fistula formation in Crohn’s disease,” Virchows Arch. 437(3), 293–297 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tarján, G. Tóth, T. Györke, A. Mester, K. Karlinger, and E. K. Makó, “Ultrasound in Crohn’s disease of the small bowel,” Eur. J. Radiol. 35(3), 176–182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47(1), 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

F. S. Foster, G. R. Lockwood, L. K. Ryan, K. A. Harasiewicz, L. Berube, and A. M. Rauth, “Principles and applications of ultrasound backscatter microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 40(5), 608–617 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. A. Jensen and N. B. Svendsen, “Calculation of pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized, and excited ultrasound transducers,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 39(2), 262–267 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. F. Graham, R. F. Diegelmann, C. O. Elson, W. J. Lindblad, N. Gotschalk, S. Gay, and R. Gay, “Collagen content and types in the intestinal strictures of Crohn’s disease,” Gastroenterology 94(2), 257–265 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

Anderson, B.

C. Li, H. Zhao, B. Anderson, and H. Jiang, “Multispectral breast imaging using a ten-wavelength, 64 x 64 source/detector channels silicon photodiode-based diffuse optical tomography system,” Med. Phys. 33(3), 627–636 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

Bambrick, M. L.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beard, P. C.

Becker, R. V.

R. D. Cohen, L. R. Larson, J. M. Roth, R. V. Becker, and L. L. Mummert, “The cost of hospitalization in Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95(2), 524–530 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berube, L.

F. S. Foster, G. R. Lockwood, L. K. Ryan, K. A. Harasiewicz, L. Berube, and A. M. Rauth, “Principles and applications of ultrasound backscatter microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 40(5), 608–617 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bevins, C. L.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudiaf, M.

M. Boudiaf, P. Soyer, C. Terem, J. P. Pelage, E. Maissiat, and R. Rymer, “Ct Evaluation of Small Bowel Obstruction,” Radiographics 21(3), 613–624 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braden, B.

L. Chiorean, D. Schreiber-Dietrich, B. Braden, X. Cui, and C. F. Dietrich, “Transabdominal ultrasound for standardized measurement of bowel wall thickness in normal children and those with Crohn’s disease,” Med. Ultrason. 16(4), 319–324 (2014).
[PubMed]

Carson, P. L.

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The Functional Pitch of an Organ: Quantification of Tissue Texture with Photoacoustic Spectrum Analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yuan, G. Xu, Y. Yu, Y. Zhou, P. L. Carson, X. Wang, and X. Liu, “Real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging system facilitated with graphics processing unit and code parallel optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chai, N.

H.-W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-Free Bond-Selective Imaging by Listening to Vibrationally Excited Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D. M.

G. R. Lichtenstein, A. Olson, S. Travers, R. H. Diamond, D. M. Chen, M. L. Pritchard, B. G. Feagan, R. D. Cohen, B. A. Salzberg, S. B. Hanauer, and W. J. Sandborn, “Factors associated with the development of intestinal strictures or obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(5), 1030–1038 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

J.-M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.-X.

H.-W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-Free Bond-Selective Imaging by Listening to Vibrationally Excited Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chiorean, L.

L. Chiorean, D. Schreiber-Dietrich, B. Braden, X. Cui, and C. F. Dietrich, “Transabdominal ultrasound for standardized measurement of bowel wall thickness in normal children and those with Crohn’s disease,” Med. Ultrason. 16(4), 319–324 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cirocco, M.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, R. D.

G. R. Lichtenstein, A. Olson, S. Travers, R. H. Diamond, D. M. Chen, M. L. Pritchard, B. G. Feagan, R. D. Cohen, B. A. Salzberg, S. B. Hanauer, and W. J. Sandborn, “Factors associated with the development of intestinal strictures or obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(5), 1030–1038 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Cohen, L. R. Larson, J. M. Roth, R. V. Becker, and L. L. Mummert, “The cost of hospitalization in Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95(2), 524–530 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connor, J. T.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cosnes, J.

J. Cosnes, “Can we modulate the clinical course of inflammatory bowel diseases by our current treatment strategies?” Dig. Dis. 27(4), 516–521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, B.

B. Cox, J. G. Laufer, S. R. Arridge, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061202 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, B. T.

Cucchiara, S.

P. Paolantonio, R. Ferrari, F. Vecchietti, S. Cucchiara, and A. Laghi, “Current status of MR imaging in the evaluation of IBD in a pediatric population of patients,” Eur. J. Radiol. 69(3), 418–424 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, X.

L. Chiorean, D. Schreiber-Dietrich, B. Braden, X. Cui, and C. F. Dietrich, “Transabdominal ultrasound for standardized measurement of bowel wall thickness in normal children and those with Crohn’s disease,” Med. Ultrason. 16(4), 319–324 (2014).
[PubMed]

Delaney, C. P.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diamond, R. H.

G. R. Lichtenstein, A. Olson, S. Travers, R. H. Diamond, D. M. Chen, M. L. Pritchard, B. G. Feagan, R. D. Cohen, B. A. Salzberg, S. B. Hanauer, and W. J. Sandborn, “Factors associated with the development of intestinal strictures or obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(5), 1030–1038 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diegelmann, R. F.

M. F. Graham, R. F. Diegelmann, C. O. Elson, W. J. Lindblad, N. Gotschalk, S. Gay, and R. Gay, “Collagen content and types in the intestinal strictures of Crohn’s disease,” Gastroenterology 94(2), 257–265 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dietrich, C. F.

L. Chiorean, D. Schreiber-Dietrich, B. Braden, X. Cui, and C. F. Dietrich, “Transabdominal ultrasound for standardized measurement of bowel wall thickness in normal children and those with Crohn’s disease,” Med. Ultrason. 16(4), 319–324 (2014).
[PubMed]

Dillman, J. R.

J. R. Dillman, R. W. Stidham, P. D. Higgins, D. S. Moons, L. A. Johnson, and J. M. Rubin, “US elastography-derived shear wave velocity helps distinguish acutely inflamed from fibrotic bowel in a Crohn disease animal model,” Radiology 267(3), 757–766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dou, W.

H.-W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-Free Bond-Selective Imaging by Listening to Vibrationally Excited Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elson, C. O.

M. F. Graham, R. F. Diegelmann, C. O. Elson, W. J. Lindblad, N. Gotschalk, S. Gay, and R. Gay, “Collagen content and types in the intestinal strictures of Crohn’s disease,” Gastroenterology 94(2), 257–265 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endlicher, E.

H. Messmann, E. Endlicher, G. Freunek, P. Rümmele, J. Schölmerich, and R. Knüchel, “Fluorescence endoscopy for the detection of low and high grade dysplasia in ulcerative colitis using systemic or local 5-aminolaevulinic acid sensitisation,” Gut 52(7), 1003–1007 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fazio, V. W.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feagan, B. G.

G. R. Lichtenstein, A. Olson, S. Travers, R. H. Diamond, D. M. Chen, M. L. Pritchard, B. G. Feagan, R. D. Cohen, B. A. Salzberg, S. B. Hanauer, and W. J. Sandborn, “Factors associated with the development of intestinal strictures or obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(5), 1030–1038 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldchtein, F.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, R.

P. Paolantonio, R. Ferrari, F. Vecchietti, S. Cucchiara, and A. Laghi, “Current status of MR imaging in the evaluation of IBD in a pediatric population of patients,” Eur. J. Radiol. 69(3), 418–424 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finlayson, S. R. G.

D. W. Jones and S. R. G. Finlayson, “Trends in Surgery for Crohn's Disease in the Era of Infliximab,” Annals of Surgery 252, 307–312 (2010).

Foster, F. S.

F. S. Foster, G. R. Lockwood, L. K. Ryan, K. A. Harasiewicz, L. Berube, and A. M. Rauth, “Principles and applications of ultrasound backscatter microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 40(5), 608–617 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freunek, G.

H. Messmann, E. Endlicher, G. Freunek, P. Rümmele, J. Schölmerich, and R. Knüchel, “Fluorescence endoscopy for the detection of low and high grade dysplasia in ulcerative colitis using systemic or local 5-aminolaevulinic acid sensitisation,” Gut 52(7), 1003–1007 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardiner, G.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gasche, C.

G. Oberhuber, P. C. Stangl, H. Vogelsang, E. Schober, F. Herbst, and C. Gasche, “Significant association of strictures and internal fistula formation in Crohn’s disease,” Virchows Arch. 437(3), 293–297 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gay, R.

M. F. Graham, R. F. Diegelmann, C. O. Elson, W. J. Lindblad, N. Gotschalk, S. Gay, and R. Gay, “Collagen content and types in the intestinal strictures of Crohn’s disease,” Gastroenterology 94(2), 257–265 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gay, S.

M. F. Graham, R. F. Diegelmann, C. O. Elson, W. J. Lindblad, N. Gotschalk, S. Gay, and R. Gay, “Collagen content and types in the intestinal strictures of Crohn’s disease,” Gastroenterology 94(2), 257–265 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gladkova, N.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, M. L.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gotschalk, N.

M. F. Graham, R. F. Diegelmann, C. O. Elson, W. J. Lindblad, N. Gotschalk, S. Gay, and R. Gay, “Collagen content and types in the intestinal strictures of Crohn’s disease,” Gastroenterology 94(2), 257–265 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graham, M. F.

M. F. Graham, R. F. Diegelmann, C. O. Elson, W. J. Lindblad, N. Gotschalk, S. Gay, and R. Gay, “Collagen content and types in the intestinal strictures of Crohn’s disease,” Gastroenterology 94(2), 257–265 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gramlich, T. L.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Györke, T.

Z. Tarján, G. Tóth, T. Györke, A. Mester, K. Karlinger, and E. K. Makó, “Ultrasound in Crohn’s disease of the small bowel,” Eur. J. Radiol. 35(3), 176–182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haber, G. B.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanauer, S. B.

G. R. Lichtenstein, A. Olson, S. Travers, R. H. Diamond, D. M. Chen, M. L. Pritchard, B. G. Feagan, R. D. Cohen, B. A. Salzberg, S. B. Hanauer, and W. J. Sandborn, “Factors associated with the development of intestinal strictures or obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(5), 1030–1038 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harasiewicz, K. A.

F. S. Foster, G. R. Lockwood, L. K. Ryan, K. A. Harasiewicz, L. Berube, and A. M. Rauth, “Principles and applications of ultrasound backscatter microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 40(5), 608–617 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herbst, F.

G. Oberhuber, P. C. Stangl, H. Vogelsang, E. Schober, F. Herbst, and C. Gasche, “Significant association of strictures and internal fistula formation in Crohn’s disease,” Virchows Arch. 437(3), 293–297 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Higgins, P. D.

J. R. Dillman, R. W. Stidham, P. D. Higgins, D. S. Moons, L. A. Johnson, and J. M. Rubin, “US elastography-derived shear wave velocity helps distinguish acutely inflamed from fibrotic bowel in a Crohn disease animal model,” Radiology 267(3), 757–766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Stidham, J. Xu, L. A. Johnson, K. Kim, D. S. Moons, B. J. McKenna, J. M. Rubin, and P. D. Higgins, “Ultrasound elasticity imaging for detecting intestinal fibrosis and inflammation in rats and humans with Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology 141, 819–826 (2011).

Higgins, P. D. R.

K. Kim, L. A. Johnson, C. Jia, J. C. Joyce, S. Rangwalla, P. D. R. Higgins, and J. M. Rubin, “Noninvasive Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging (UEI) of Crohn’s Disease: Animal Model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34(6), 902–912 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic Tomography: In Vivo Imaging from Organelles to Organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-Free Bond-Selective Imaging by Listening to Vibrationally Excited Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, H. K.

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
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L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
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Jensen, J. A.

J. A. Jensen and N. B. Svendsen, “Calculation of pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized, and excited ultrasound transducers,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 39(2), 262–267 (1992).
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Jia, C.

K. Kim, L. A. Johnson, C. Jia, J. C. Joyce, S. Rangwalla, P. D. R. Higgins, and J. M. Rubin, “Noninvasive Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging (UEI) of Crohn’s Disease: Animal Model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34(6), 902–912 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

C. Li, H. Zhao, B. Anderson, and H. Jiang, “Multispectral breast imaging using a ten-wavelength, 64 x 64 source/detector channels silicon photodiode-based diffuse optical tomography system,” Med. Phys. 33(3), 627–636 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography: Recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 231101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Johnson, L. A.

J. R. Dillman, R. W. Stidham, P. D. Higgins, D. S. Moons, L. A. Johnson, and J. M. Rubin, “US elastography-derived shear wave velocity helps distinguish acutely inflamed from fibrotic bowel in a Crohn disease animal model,” Radiology 267(3), 757–766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Stidham, J. Xu, L. A. Johnson, K. Kim, D. S. Moons, B. J. McKenna, J. M. Rubin, and P. D. Higgins, “Ultrasound elasticity imaging for detecting intestinal fibrosis and inflammation in rats and humans with Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology 141, 819–826 (2011).

K. Kim, L. A. Johnson, C. Jia, J. C. Joyce, S. Rangwalla, P. D. R. Higgins, and J. M. Rubin, “Noninvasive Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging (UEI) of Crohn’s Disease: Animal Model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34(6), 902–912 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, D. W.

D. W. Jones and S. R. G. Finlayson, “Trends in Surgery for Crohn's Disease in the Era of Infliximab,” Annals of Surgery 252, 307–312 (2010).

Joshi, B.

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The Functional Pitch of an Organ: Quantification of Tissue Texture with Photoacoustic Spectrum Analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joyce, J. C.

K. Kim, L. A. Johnson, C. Jia, J. C. Joyce, S. Rangwalla, P. D. R. Higgins, and J. M. Rubin, “Noninvasive Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging (UEI) of Crohn’s Disease: Animal Model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34(6), 902–912 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kandel, G.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kareta, M.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karlinger, K.

Z. Tarján, G. Tóth, T. Györke, A. Mester, K. Karlinger, and E. K. Makó, “Ultrasound in Crohn’s disease of the small bowel,” Eur. J. Radiol. 35(3), 176–182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

R. W. Stidham, J. Xu, L. A. Johnson, K. Kim, D. S. Moons, B. J. McKenna, J. M. Rubin, and P. D. Higgins, “Ultrasound elasticity imaging for detecting intestinal fibrosis and inflammation in rats and humans with Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology 141, 819–826 (2011).

K. Kim, L. A. Johnson, C. Jia, J. C. Joyce, S. Rangwalla, P. D. R. Higgins, and J. M. Rubin, “Noninvasive Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging (UEI) of Crohn’s Disease: Animal Model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34(6), 902–912 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knüchel, R.

H. Messmann, E. Endlicher, G. Freunek, P. Rümmele, J. Schölmerich, and R. Knüchel, “Fluorescence endoscopy for the detection of low and high grade dysplasia in ulcerative colitis using systemic or local 5-aminolaevulinic acid sensitisation,” Gut 52(7), 1003–1007 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kortan, P.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Köstli, K. P.

Ku, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laghi, A.

P. Paolantonio, R. Ferrari, F. Vecchietti, S. Cucchiara, and A. Laghi, “Current status of MR imaging in the evaluation of IBD in a pediatric population of patients,” Eur. J. Radiol. 69(3), 418–424 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larson, L. R.

R. D. Cohen, L. R. Larson, J. M. Roth, R. V. Becker, and L. L. Mummert, “The cost of hospitalization in Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95(2), 524–530 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lashner, B. A.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laufer, J. G.

B. Cox, J. G. Laufer, S. R. Arridge, and P. C. Beard, “Quantitative spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061202 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lawrance, I. C.

I. C. Lawrance, C. J. Welman, P. Shipman, and K. Murray, “Correlation of MRI-determined small bowel Crohn’s disease categories with medical response and surgical pathology,” World J. Gastroenterol. 15(27), 3367–3375 (2009).
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Li, C.

J.-M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, H. Zhao, B. Anderson, and H. Jiang, “Multispectral breast imaging using a ten-wavelength, 64 x 64 source/detector channels silicon photodiode-based diffuse optical tomography system,” Med. Phys. 33(3), 627–636 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lichtenstein, G. R.

G. R. Lichtenstein, A. Olson, S. Travers, R. H. Diamond, D. M. Chen, M. L. Pritchard, B. G. Feagan, R. D. Cohen, B. A. Salzberg, S. B. Hanauer, and W. J. Sandborn, “Factors associated with the development of intestinal strictures or obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(5), 1030–1038 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J. D.

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The Functional Pitch of an Organ: Quantification of Tissue Texture with Photoacoustic Spectrum Analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindblad, W. J.

M. F. Graham, R. F. Diegelmann, C. O. Elson, W. J. Lindblad, N. Gotschalk, S. Gay, and R. Gay, “Collagen content and types in the intestinal strictures of Crohn’s disease,” Gastroenterology 94(2), 257–265 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

J. Yuan, G. Xu, Y. Yu, Y. Zhou, P. L. Carson, X. Wang, and X. Liu, “Real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging system facilitated with graphics processing unit and code parallel optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lockwood, G. R.

F. S. Foster, G. R. Lockwood, L. K. Ryan, K. A. Harasiewicz, L. Berube, and A. M. Rauth, “Principles and applications of ultrasound backscatter microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 40(5), 608–617 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loftus, E. V.

E. V. Loftus, P. Schoenfeld, and W. J. Sandborn, “The epidemiology and natural history of Crohn’s disease in population-based patient cohorts from North America: a systematic review,” Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 16(1), 51–60 (2002).
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Lucht, R.

H.-W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-Free Bond-Selective Imaging by Listening to Vibrationally Excited Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maissiat, E.

M. Boudiaf, P. Soyer, C. Terem, J. P. Pelage, E. Maissiat, and R. Rymer, “Ct Evaluation of Small Bowel Obstruction,” Radiographics 21(3), 613–624 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makó, E. K.

Z. Tarján, G. Tóth, T. Györke, A. Mester, K. Karlinger, and E. K. Makó, “Ultrasound in Crohn’s disease of the small bowel,” Eur. J. Radiol. 35(3), 176–182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcon, N. E.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKenna, B. J.

R. W. Stidham, J. Xu, L. A. Johnson, K. Kim, D. S. Moons, B. J. McKenna, J. M. Rubin, and P. D. Higgins, “Ultrasound elasticity imaging for detecting intestinal fibrosis and inflammation in rats and humans with Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology 141, 819–826 (2011).

Meng, Z.-X.

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The Functional Pitch of an Organ: Quantification of Tissue Texture with Photoacoustic Spectrum Analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messmann, H.

H. Messmann, E. Endlicher, G. Freunek, P. Rümmele, J. Schölmerich, and R. Knüchel, “Fluorescence endoscopy for the detection of low and high grade dysplasia in ulcerative colitis using systemic or local 5-aminolaevulinic acid sensitisation,” Gut 52(7), 1003–1007 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mester, A.

Z. Tarján, G. Tóth, T. Györke, A. Mester, K. Karlinger, and E. K. Makó, “Ultrasound in Crohn’s disease of the small bowel,” Eur. J. Radiol. 35(3), 176–182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moons, D. S.

J. R. Dillman, R. W. Stidham, P. D. Higgins, D. S. Moons, L. A. Johnson, and J. M. Rubin, “US elastography-derived shear wave velocity helps distinguish acutely inflamed from fibrotic bowel in a Crohn disease animal model,” Radiology 267(3), 757–766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Stidham, J. Xu, L. A. Johnson, K. Kim, D. S. Moons, B. J. McKenna, J. M. Rubin, and P. D. Higgins, “Ultrasound elasticity imaging for detecting intestinal fibrosis and inflammation in rats and humans with Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology 141, 819–826 (2011).

Mummert, L. L.

R. D. Cohen, L. R. Larson, J. M. Roth, R. V. Becker, and L. L. Mummert, “The cost of hospitalization in Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95(2), 524–530 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murray, K.

I. C. Lawrance, C. J. Welman, P. Shipman, and K. Murray, “Correlation of MRI-determined small bowel Crohn’s disease categories with medical response and surgical pathology,” World J. Gastroenterol. 15(27), 3367–3375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oberhuber, G.

G. Oberhuber, P. C. Stangl, H. Vogelsang, E. Schober, F. Herbst, and C. Gasche, “Significant association of strictures and internal fistula formation in Crohn’s disease,” Virchows Arch. 437(3), 293–297 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olson, A.

G. R. Lichtenstein, A. Olson, S. Travers, R. H. Diamond, D. M. Chen, M. L. Pritchard, B. G. Feagan, R. D. Cohen, B. A. Salzberg, S. B. Hanauer, and W. J. Sandborn, “Factors associated with the development of intestinal strictures or obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(5), 1030–1038 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paolantonio, P.

P. Paolantonio, R. Ferrari, F. Vecchietti, S. Cucchiara, and A. Laghi, “Current status of MR imaging in the evaluation of IBD in a pediatric population of patients,” Eur. J. Radiol. 69(3), 418–424 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelage, J. P.

M. Boudiaf, P. Soyer, C. Terem, J. P. Pelage, E. Maissiat, and R. Rymer, “Ct Evaluation of Small Bowel Obstruction,” Radiographics 21(3), 613–624 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[Crossref]

Pritchard, M. L.

G. R. Lichtenstein, A. Olson, S. Travers, R. H. Diamond, D. M. Chen, M. L. Pritchard, B. G. Feagan, R. D. Cohen, B. A. Salzberg, S. B. Hanauer, and W. J. Sandborn, “Factors associated with the development of intestinal strictures or obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(5), 1030–1038 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rangwalla, S.

K. Kim, L. A. Johnson, C. Jia, J. C. Joyce, S. Rangwalla, P. D. R. Higgins, and J. M. Rubin, “Noninvasive Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging (UEI) of Crohn’s Disease: Animal Model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34(6), 902–912 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rauth, A. M.

F. S. Foster, G. R. Lockwood, L. K. Ryan, K. A. Harasiewicz, L. Berube, and A. M. Rauth, “Principles and applications of ultrasound backscatter microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 40(5), 608–617 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Remzi, F. H.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47(1), 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, J. M.

R. D. Cohen, L. R. Larson, J. M. Roth, R. V. Becker, and L. L. Mummert, “The cost of hospitalization in Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95(2), 524–530 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubin, J. M.

J. R. Dillman, R. W. Stidham, P. D. Higgins, D. S. Moons, L. A. Johnson, and J. M. Rubin, “US elastography-derived shear wave velocity helps distinguish acutely inflamed from fibrotic bowel in a Crohn disease animal model,” Radiology 267(3), 757–766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Stidham, J. Xu, L. A. Johnson, K. Kim, D. S. Moons, B. J. McKenna, J. M. Rubin, and P. D. Higgins, “Ultrasound elasticity imaging for detecting intestinal fibrosis and inflammation in rats and humans with Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology 141, 819–826 (2011).

K. Kim, L. A. Johnson, C. Jia, J. C. Joyce, S. Rangwalla, P. D. R. Higgins, and J. M. Rubin, “Noninvasive Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging (UEI) of Crohn’s Disease: Animal Model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34(6), 902–912 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rümmele, P.

H. Messmann, E. Endlicher, G. Freunek, P. Rümmele, J. Schölmerich, and R. Knüchel, “Fluorescence endoscopy for the detection of low and high grade dysplasia in ulcerative colitis using systemic or local 5-aminolaevulinic acid sensitisation,” Gut 52(7), 1003–1007 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryan, L. K.

F. S. Foster, G. R. Lockwood, L. K. Ryan, K. A. Harasiewicz, L. Berube, and A. M. Rauth, “Principles and applications of ultrasound backscatter microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 40(5), 608–617 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rymer, R.

M. Boudiaf, P. Soyer, C. Terem, J. P. Pelage, E. Maissiat, and R. Rymer, “Ct Evaluation of Small Bowel Obstruction,” Radiographics 21(3), 613–624 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salzberg, B. A.

G. R. Lichtenstein, A. Olson, S. Travers, R. H. Diamond, D. M. Chen, M. L. Pritchard, B. G. Feagan, R. D. Cohen, B. A. Salzberg, S. B. Hanauer, and W. J. Sandborn, “Factors associated with the development of intestinal strictures or obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(5), 1030–1038 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandborn, W. J.

G. R. Lichtenstein, A. Olson, S. Travers, R. H. Diamond, D. M. Chen, M. L. Pritchard, B. G. Feagan, R. D. Cohen, B. A. Salzberg, S. B. Hanauer, and W. J. Sandborn, “Factors associated with the development of intestinal strictures or obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(5), 1030–1038 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. V. Loftus, P. Schoenfeld, and W. J. Sandborn, “The epidemiology and natural history of Crohn’s disease in population-based patient cohorts from North America: a systematic review,” Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 16(1), 51–60 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schober, E.

G. Oberhuber, P. C. Stangl, H. Vogelsang, E. Schober, F. Herbst, and C. Gasche, “Significant association of strictures and internal fistula formation in Crohn’s disease,” Virchows Arch. 437(3), 293–297 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schoenfeld, P.

E. V. Loftus, P. Schoenfeld, and W. J. Sandborn, “The epidemiology and natural history of Crohn’s disease in population-based patient cohorts from North America: a systematic review,” Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 16(1), 51–60 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schölmerich, J.

H. Messmann, E. Endlicher, G. Freunek, P. Rümmele, J. Schölmerich, and R. Knüchel, “Fluorescence endoscopy for the detection of low and high grade dysplasia in ulcerative colitis using systemic or local 5-aminolaevulinic acid sensitisation,” Gut 52(7), 1003–1007 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schreiber-Dietrich, D.

L. Chiorean, D. Schreiber-Dietrich, B. Braden, X. Cui, and C. F. Dietrich, “Transabdominal ultrasound for standardized measurement of bowel wall thickness in normal children and those with Crohn’s disease,” Med. Ultrason. 16(4), 319–324 (2014).
[PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E.

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47(1), 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, B.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shipman, P.

I. C. Lawrance, C. J. Welman, P. Shipman, and K. Murray, “Correlation of MRI-determined small bowel Crohn’s disease categories with medical response and surgical pathology,” World J. Gastroenterol. 15(27), 3367–3375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

J.-M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, K. H.

K. H. Song and L. V. Wang, “Deep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 060503 (2007).

Soyer, P.

M. Boudiaf, P. Soyer, C. Terem, J. P. Pelage, E. Maissiat, and R. Rymer, “Ct Evaluation of Small Bowel Obstruction,” Radiographics 21(3), 613–624 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stangl, P. C.

G. Oberhuber, P. C. Stangl, H. Vogelsang, E. Schober, F. Herbst, and C. Gasche, “Significant association of strictures and internal fistula formation in Crohn’s disease,” Virchows Arch. 437(3), 293–297 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stidham, R. W.

J. R. Dillman, R. W. Stidham, P. D. Higgins, D. S. Moons, L. A. Johnson, and J. M. Rubin, “US elastography-derived shear wave velocity helps distinguish acutely inflamed from fibrotic bowel in a Crohn disease animal model,” Radiology 267(3), 757–766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Stidham, J. Xu, L. A. Johnson, K. Kim, D. S. Moons, B. J. McKenna, J. M. Rubin, and P. D. Higgins, “Ultrasound elasticity imaging for detecting intestinal fibrosis and inflammation in rats and humans with Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology 141, 819–826 (2011).

Stoica, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sturek, M.

H.-W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-Free Bond-Selective Imaging by Listening to Vibrationally Excited Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svendsen, N. B.

J. A. Jensen and N. B. Svendsen, “Calculation of pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized, and excited ultrasound transducers,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 39(2), 262–267 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, S. J.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tarján, Z.

Z. Tarján, G. Tóth, T. Györke, A. Mester, K. Karlinger, and E. K. Makó, “Ultrasound in Crohn’s disease of the small bowel,” Eur. J. Radiol. 35(3), 176–182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terem, C.

M. Boudiaf, P. Soyer, C. Terem, J. P. Pelage, E. Maissiat, and R. Rymer, “Ct Evaluation of Small Bowel Obstruction,” Radiographics 21(3), 613–624 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tóth, G.

Z. Tarján, G. Tóth, T. Györke, A. Mester, K. Karlinger, and E. K. Makó, “Ultrasound in Crohn’s disease of the small bowel,” Eur. J. Radiol. 35(3), 176–182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Travers, S.

G. R. Lichtenstein, A. Olson, S. Travers, R. H. Diamond, D. M. Chen, M. L. Pritchard, B. G. Feagan, R. D. Cohen, B. A. Salzberg, S. B. Hanauer, and W. J. Sandborn, “Factors associated with the development of intestinal strictures or obstructions in patients with Crohn’s disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(5), 1030–1038 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trolli, P.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Umulis, D.

H.-W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-Free Bond-Selective Imaging by Listening to Vibrationally Excited Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vecchietti, F.

P. Paolantonio, R. Ferrari, F. Vecchietti, S. Cucchiara, and A. Laghi, “Current status of MR imaging in the evaluation of IBD in a pediatric population of patients,” Eur. J. Radiol. 69(3), 418–424 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogelsang, H.

G. Oberhuber, P. C. Stangl, H. Vogelsang, E. Schober, F. Herbst, and C. Gasche, “Significant association of strictures and internal fistula formation in Crohn’s disease,” Virchows Arch. 437(3), 293–297 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.-W.

H.-W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-Free Bond-Selective Imaging by Listening to Vibrationally Excited Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

J.-M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic Tomography: In Vivo Imaging from Organelles to Organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-Free Bond-Selective Imaging by Listening to Vibrationally Excited Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Song and L. V. Wang, “Deep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 060503 (2007).

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

H.-W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-Free Bond-Selective Imaging by Listening to Vibrationally Excited Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The Functional Pitch of an Organ: Quantification of Tissue Texture with Photoacoustic Spectrum Analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yuan, G. Xu, Y. Yu, Y. Zhou, P. L. Carson, X. Wang, and X. Liu, “Real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging system facilitated with graphics processing unit and code parallel optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[Crossref]

Welman, C. J.

I. C. Lawrance, C. J. Welman, P. Shipman, and K. Murray, “Correlation of MRI-determined small bowel Crohn’s disease categories with medical response and surgical pathology,” World J. Gastroenterol. 15(27), 3367–3375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G.

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The Functional Pitch of an Organ: Quantification of Tissue Texture with Photoacoustic Spectrum Analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yuan, G. Xu, Y. Yu, Y. Zhou, P. L. Carson, X. Wang, and X. Liu, “Real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging system facilitated with graphics processing unit and code parallel optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

R. W. Stidham, J. Xu, L. A. Johnson, K. Kim, D. S. Moons, B. J. McKenna, J. M. Rubin, and P. D. Higgins, “Ultrasound elasticity imaging for detecting intestinal fibrosis and inflammation in rats and humans with Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology 141, 819–826 (2011).

Yang, J.-M.

J.-M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, V. X. D.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

J. Yuan, G. Xu, Y. Yu, Y. Zhou, P. L. Carson, X. Wang, and X. Liu, “Real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging system facilitated with graphics processing unit and code parallel optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, J.

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The Functional Pitch of an Organ: Quantification of Tissue Texture with Photoacoustic Spectrum Analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yuan, G. Xu, Y. Yu, Y. Zhou, P. L. Carson, X. Wang, and X. Liu, “Real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging system facilitated with graphics processing unit and code parallel optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography: Recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 231101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

C. Li, H. Zhao, B. Anderson, and H. Jiang, “Multispectral breast imaging using a ten-wavelength, 64 x 64 source/detector channels silicon photodiode-based diffuse optical tomography system,” Med. Phys. 33(3), 627–636 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

J.-M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

J. Yuan, G. Xu, Y. Yu, Y. Zhou, P. L. Carson, X. Wang, and X. Liu, “Real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging system facilitated with graphics processing unit and code parallel optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuccaro, G.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Relative optical absorption spectra of major chemical components in biological tissue [12, 13]. The vertical dashed lines mark the relatively higher optical absorption of hemoglobin, lipid and collagen at 532, 1220 and around 1310 nm, respectively. a.u. = arbitrary units. Hb. = Hemoglobin.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experiment setup for rat colon tissue imaging. The sample tissue specimen was flattened and laid at the bottom of a sample holder submerged in water. Laser was delivered from the opening of the sample holder. PA waves were coupled into the wall of the sample tube and propagate into water. An US probe acquires the PA signals. A PA-US imaging system acquires both the PA and US images of the samples.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematics of a prototype PAI system. Lens 1: plano-convex lens with f=6 cm . Lens 2: plano-convex lens with f=1 cm . Tran.: transducer. Amp.: amplifier. P/R: pulser/receiver. Sync.: synchronization. Blue ripples represent the PA signals. Red pattern above the sample is the beam profile formed by a ring of fibers. The PC screen shows the PA image of the vasculatures in a mouse ear acquired during the initial test of the system.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (A) Estimated beam profile on the surface of sample. (B) Monte Carlo simulated 2D light fluence distribution in the plane including the transducer focusing axis at wavelength of 532 nm (absorption coefficient μ a =0.07 c m 1 , reduced scattering coefficient μ s ' =15.3 c m 1 , scattering anisotropy g=0.95 ). (C) 2D light fluence distribution at wavelength of 1220 nm ( μ a =1.29 c m 1 , μ s ' =5.5 c m 1 , g=0.95 ). (D) 2D light fluence distribution at wavelength of 1310 nm ( μ a =1.09 c m 1 , μ s ' =5.0 c m 1 , g=0.95 ). (E) Light fluence distribution along the transducer focusing axis (red dashed lines in B-D). (F) Simulated acoustic intensity map of the focused transducer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PA and US measurement of bowel wall tissues from normal and acute TNBS rats at 532 nm. (A) Representative photographs of ex vivo colon from normal and acute TNBS rats. The distal colon for imaging is denoted by black boxes. (B) US and PA images of the distal colons in (A). (C) Statistics of the average pixel intensity of 3 normal control versus 3 acute inflammatory samples. The upper and lower edges of the boxes are the 25th and 75th percentiles, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 PA and US measurement of acute vs. chronic inflammatory intestinal strictures in TNBS rat at 1370 nm. (A) Photographs of ex vivo colon from representative acute and chronic inflammatory samples. The distal colons for imaging are denoted by black boxes. (B) US and PA images of the distal colons in (A). (C) Statistics of the average pixel intensity of 10 pure inflammation samples versus 9 mixed inflamed and fibrotic bowel wall tissue samples. The boxplot approach in Fig. 5(C) is used here again. The dashed lines extend to the most extreme data points and do not consider outliers. The outliers are plotted as “+”.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Representative PA molecular component images (A)(B) and histology images (B)(D) of human intestinal strictures. MC: mucosal layer; MS: muscle layer. The specimens were scanned at 532, 1220 and 1310 nm. The relative concentrations of hemoglobin, collagen and lipid were inversely solved by Eq. (1) and encoded in (A) and (C) in red, green and blue, respectively. The color scales were normalized to the maximum concentration of hemoglobin. Both samples have collagen components, which is confirmed in (B)(D) with Masson’s trichrome staining. The inflammations in the samples were confirmed by H&E staining, as shown in the insertions in (B) and (D) in red boxes. The insertions were taken at 20x magnification. Spatial correlations between the histology and the PA images are marked by green arrows (high collagen concentration), red arrows and dashed contours (neovasculatrues containing hemoglobin), and blue arrows (lipid deposition caused by edema). The porcine gel for fixing the samples with very low collagen concentration was also stained in blue yet with uniform texture and marked by black arrows.

Equations (2)

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A i = j c j μ ji
[ c Hb c cg c lp ]= [ μ Hb532 μ cg532 μ lp532 μ Hb1220 μ cg1220 μ lp1220 μ Hb1310 μ cg1310 μ lp1310 ] 1 ×[ A 532 A 1220 A 1310 ]

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