Abstract

Although there is increasing interest in the investigation of cone reflectance variability, little is understood about its characteristics over long time scales. Cone detection and its automation is now becoming a fundamental step in the assessment and monitoring of the health of the retina and in the understanding of the photoreceptor physiology. In this work we provide an insight into the cone reflectance variability over time scales ranging from minutes to three years on the same eye, and for large areas of the retina (≥ 2.0 × 2.0 degrees) at two different retinal eccentricities using a commercial adaptive optics (AO) flood illumination retinal camera. We observed that the difference in reflectance observed in the cones increases with the time separation between the data acquisitions and this may have a negative impact on algorithms attempting to track cones over time. In addition, we determined that displacements of the light source within 0.35 mm of the pupil center, which is the farthest location from the pupil center used by operators of the AO camera to acquire high-quality images of the cone mosaic in clinical studies, does not significantly affect the cone detection and density estimation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2015 (5)

L. Ziccardi, D. Giannini, G. Lombardo, S. Serrao, R. Dell’Omo, A. Nicoletti, M. Bertelli, and M. Lombardo, “Multimodal approach to monitoring and investigating cone structure and function in an inherited macular dystrophy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160, 301–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Miloudi, F. Rossant, I. Bloch, C. Chaumette, A. Leseigneur, J. A. Sahel, S. Meimon, S. Mrejen, and M. Paques, “The negative cone mosaic: A new manifestation of the optical stiles-crawford effect in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 7043–7050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jacob, M. Paques, V. Krivosic, B. Dupas, A. Couturier, C. Kulcsar, R. Tadayoni, P. Massin, and A. Gaudric, “Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 118–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. S. Bruce, W. M. Harmening, B. R. Langston, W. S. Tuten, A. Roorda, and L. C. Sincich, “Normal perceptual sensitivity arising from weakly reflective cone photoreceptors normal perceptual sensitivity of weakly reflective cones,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4431–4438 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mariotti and N. Devaney, “Performance analysis of cone detection algorithms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 497–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

B. Vohnsen, “Directional sensitivity of the retina: A layered scattering model of outer-segment photoreceptor pigments,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 1569–1587 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, and G. Lombardo, “Technical factors influencing cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images,” PLoS ONE 9, 7402 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, G. Lombardo, M. Varano, B. Boccassini, M. Stirpe, and S. Serrao, “Adaptive optics imaging of parafoveal cones in type 1 diabetes,” Retina 34, 546–557 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. N. Muthiah, C. Gias, F. K. Chen, J. Zhong, Z. McClelland, F. B. Sallo, T. Peto, P. J. Coffey, and L. da Cruz, “Cone photoreceptor definition on adaptive optics retinal imaging”, Br J Ophthalmol,  98(8), 1073–1079 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

G. Ramaswamy and N. Devaney, “Pre-processing, registration and selection of adaptive optics corrected retinal images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 527–539 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, N. Devaney, M. Parravano, and G. Lombardo, “Adaptive optics technology for high-resolution retinal imaging,” Sensors (Switzerland) 13, 334–366 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Bedggood and A. Metha, “Optical imaging of human cone photoreceptors directly following the capture of light”, PLoS ONE 8, e79251 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, and G. Lombardo, “Eccentricity dependent changes of density, spacing and packing arrangement of parafoveal cones,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 516–526 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, Y. Lokhnygina, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, J. Carroll, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic cone photoreceptor segmentation using graph theory and dynamic programming,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 924–937 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

P. Bedggood and A. Metha, “Variability in bleach kinetics and amount of photopigment between individual foveal cones,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3673–3681 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, S. Lee, and D. T. Miller, “Phase-sensitive imaging of the outer retina using optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 104–124 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

2010 (3)

R. Jonnal, J. Besecker, J. Derby, O. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18, 5257–5270 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging: emerging clinical applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 930 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. Gail Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: High-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Research 50, 810–817 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (5)

2006 (1)

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080–2092 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4580–4592 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “Optical fiber properties of individual human cones,” J. Vis.,  2, 404–412 (2002).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

S. Panda-Jonas, J. B. Jonas, and M. Jakobczyk-Zmija, “Retinal photoreceptor density decreases with age,” Ophthalmology 102, 1853–1859 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. Delori, and A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human-cone-photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  12, 2329–2338 (1995).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 65, 229–236 (1953).
[Crossref]

Babcock, H. W.

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 65, 229–236 (1953).
[Crossref]

Bedggood, P.

P. Bedggood and A. Metha, “Optical imaging of human cone photoreceptors directly following the capture of light”, PLoS ONE 8, e79251 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bedggood and A. Metha, “Variability in bleach kinetics and amount of photopigment between individual foveal cones,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3673–3681 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berg, E.

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertelli, M.

L. Ziccardi, D. Giannini, G. Lombardo, S. Serrao, R. Dell’Omo, A. Nicoletti, M. Bertelli, and M. Lombardo, “Multimodal approach to monitoring and investigating cone structure and function in an inherited macular dystrophy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160, 301–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Besecker, J.

Bloch, I.

C. Miloudi, F. Rossant, I. Bloch, C. Chaumette, A. Leseigneur, J. A. Sahel, S. Meimon, S. Mrejen, and M. Paques, “The negative cone mosaic: A new manifestation of the optical stiles-crawford effect in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 7043–7050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boccassini, B.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, G. Lombardo, M. Varano, B. Boccassini, M. Stirpe, and S. Serrao, “Adaptive optics imaging of parafoveal cones in type 1 diabetes,” Retina 34, 546–557 (2014).
[Crossref]

Branham, K. E.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283–3291 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brilliant, M.

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruce, K. S.

K. S. Bruce, W. M. Harmening, B. R. Langston, W. S. Tuten, A. Roorda, and L. C. Sincich, “Normal perceptual sensitivity arising from weakly reflective cone photoreceptors normal perceptual sensitivity of weakly reflective cones,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4431–4438 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Carroll, J.

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, Y. Lokhnygina, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, J. Carroll, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic cone photoreceptor segmentation using graph theory and dynamic programming,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 924–937 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, A. Pavaskar, J. Rha, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Spatial and temporal variation of rod photoreceptor reflectance in the human retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2577–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging: emerging clinical applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 930 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. Gail Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: High-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Research 50, 810–817 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rha, B. Schroeder, P. Godara, and J. Carroll, “Variable optical activation of human cone photoreceptors visualized using a short coherence light source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3782–3784 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chaumette, C.

C. Miloudi, F. Rossant, I. Bloch, C. Chaumette, A. Leseigneur, J. A. Sahel, S. Meimon, S. Mrejen, and M. Paques, “The negative cone mosaic: A new manifestation of the optical stiles-crawford effect in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 7043–7050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F. K.

M. N. Muthiah, C. Gias, F. K. Chen, J. Zhong, Z. McClelland, F. B. Sallo, T. Peto, P. J. Coffey, and L. da Cruz, “Cone photoreceptor definition on adaptive optics retinal imaging”, Br J Ophthalmol,  98(8), 1073–1079 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, S. J.

Choi, S. S.

B. Xue, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, and J. S. Werner, “Photoreceptor counting and montaging of en-face retinal images from an adaptive optics fundus camera,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1364–1372 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080–2092 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coffey, P. J.

M. N. Muthiah, C. Gias, F. K. Chen, J. Zhong, Z. McClelland, F. B. Sallo, T. Peto, P. J. Coffey, and L. da Cruz, “Cone photoreceptor definition on adaptive optics retinal imaging”, Br J Ophthalmol,  98(8), 1073–1079 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connor, T.

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, R.

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, R. F.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
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R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, A. Pavaskar, J. Rha, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Spatial and temporal variation of rod photoreceptor reflectance in the human retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2577–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couturier, A.

J. Jacob, M. Paques, V. Krivosic, B. Dupas, A. Couturier, C. Kulcsar, R. Tadayoni, P. Massin, and A. Gaudric, “Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 118–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

da Cruz, L.

M. N. Muthiah, C. Gias, F. K. Chen, J. Zhong, Z. McClelland, F. B. Sallo, T. Peto, P. J. Coffey, and L. da Cruz, “Cone photoreceptor definition on adaptive optics retinal imaging”, Br J Ophthalmol,  98(8), 1073–1079 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dell’Omo, R.

L. Ziccardi, D. Giannini, G. Lombardo, S. Serrao, R. Dell’Omo, A. Nicoletti, M. Bertelli, and M. Lombardo, “Multimodal approach to monitoring and investigating cone structure and function in an inherited macular dystrophy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160, 301–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delori, F.

Derby, J.

Devaney, N.

L. Mariotti and N. Devaney, “Performance analysis of cone detection algorithms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 497–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Ramaswamy and N. Devaney, “Pre-processing, registration and selection of adaptive optics corrected retinal images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 527–539 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, N. Devaney, M. Parravano, and G. Lombardo, “Adaptive optics technology for high-resolution retinal imaging,” Sensors (Switzerland) 13, 334–366 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Mariotti and N. Devaney, “Cone detection and blood vessel segmentation on AO retinal images,” in IRISH MACHINE VISION & IMAGE PROCESSING Conference proceedings 2015, R. Dahyot, G. Lacey, K. Dawson-Howe, F. Pitié, and D. Moloney, eds. (Irish Pattern Recognition & Classification Society, 2015), pp. 126–128.

Diederichs, M. A.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doble, N.

B. Xue, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, and J. S. Werner, “Photoreceptor counting and montaging of en-face retinal images from an adaptive optics fundus camera,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1364–1372 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080–2092 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubis, A. M.

S. J. Chiu, Y. Lokhnygina, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, J. Carroll, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic cone photoreceptor segmentation using graph theory and dynamic programming,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 924–937 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, A. Pavaskar, J. Rha, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Spatial and temporal variation of rod photoreceptor reflectance in the human retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2577–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. Gail Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: High-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Research 50, 810–817 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging: emerging clinical applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 930 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubra, A.

S. J. Chiu, Y. Lokhnygina, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, J. Carroll, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic cone photoreceptor segmentation using graph theory and dynamic programming,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 924–937 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, A. Pavaskar, J. Rha, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Spatial and temporal variation of rod photoreceptor reflectance in the human retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2577–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ducoli, P.

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, and G. Lombardo, “Eccentricity dependent changes of density, spacing and packing arrangement of parafoveal cones,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 516–526 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duncan, J. L.

D. Merino, J. L. Duncan, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Observation of cone and rod photoreceptors in normal subjects and patients using a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2189–2201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging: emerging clinical applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 930 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283–3291 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dupas, B.

J. Jacob, M. Paques, V. Krivosic, B. Dupas, A. Couturier, C. Kulcsar, R. Tadayoni, P. Massin, and A. Gaudric, “Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 118–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

Elsner, A. E.

Farsiu, S.

Felberer, F.

Fishman, G. A.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gail Summers, C.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. Gail Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: High-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Research 50, 810–817 (2010).
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Gandhi, J.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283–3291 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Gaudric, A.

J. Jacob, M. Paques, V. Krivosic, B. Dupas, A. Couturier, C. Kulcsar, R. Tadayoni, P. Massin, and A. Gaudric, “Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 118–123 (2015).
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Genead, M. A.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giannini, D.

L. Ziccardi, D. Giannini, G. Lombardo, S. Serrao, R. Dell’Omo, A. Nicoletti, M. Bertelli, and M. Lombardo, “Multimodal approach to monitoring and investigating cone structure and function in an inherited macular dystrophy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160, 301–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gias, C.

M. N. Muthiah, C. Gias, F. K. Chen, J. Zhong, Z. McClelland, F. B. Sallo, T. Peto, P. J. Coffey, and L. da Cruz, “Cone photoreceptor definition on adaptive optics retinal imaging”, Br J Ophthalmol,  98(8), 1073–1079 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Godara, P.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging: emerging clinical applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 930 (2010).
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J. Rha, B. Schroeder, P. Godara, and J. Carroll, “Variable optical activation of human cone photoreceptors visualized using a short coherence light source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3782–3784 (2009).
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Götzinger, E.

Han, D. P.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hardy, J. L.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080–2092 (2006).
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Harmening, W. M.

K. S. Bruce, W. M. Harmening, B. R. Langston, W. S. Tuten, A. Roorda, and L. C. Sincich, “Normal perceptual sensitivity arising from weakly reflective cone photoreceptors normal perceptual sensitivity of weakly reflective cones,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4431–4438 (2015).
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Hofer, H.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4580–4592 (2003).
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M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
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Izatt, J. A.

Jacob, J.

J. Jacob, M. Paques, V. Krivosic, B. Dupas, A. Couturier, C. Kulcsar, R. Tadayoni, P. Massin, and A. Gaudric, “Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 118–123 (2015).
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Jakobczyk-Zmija, M.

S. Panda-Jonas, J. B. Jonas, and M. Jakobczyk-Zmija, “Retinal photoreceptor density decreases with age,” Ophthalmology 102, 1853–1859 (1995).
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Jonas, J. B.

S. Panda-Jonas, J. B. Jonas, and M. Jakobczyk-Zmija, “Retinal photoreceptor density decreases with age,” Ophthalmology 102, 1853–1859 (1995).
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Jones, S. M.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080–2092 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jonnal, R.

Jonnal, R. S.

Keltner, J. L.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080–2092 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitchner, T.

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kocaoglu, O.

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Krivosic, V.

J. Jacob, M. Paques, V. Krivosic, B. Dupas, A. Couturier, C. Kulcsar, R. Tadayoni, P. Massin, and A. Gaudric, “Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 118–123 (2015).
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Kroisamer, J.

Kulcsar, C.

J. Jacob, M. Paques, V. Krivosic, B. Dupas, A. Couturier, C. Kulcsar, R. Tadayoni, P. Massin, and A. Gaudric, “Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 118–123 (2015).
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Land, M.

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langston, B. R.

K. S. Bruce, W. M. Harmening, B. R. Langston, W. S. Tuten, A. Roorda, and L. C. Sincich, “Normal perceptual sensitivity arising from weakly reflective cone photoreceptors normal perceptual sensitivity of weakly reflective cones,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4431–4438 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

Leseigneur, A.

C. Miloudi, F. Rossant, I. Bloch, C. Chaumette, A. Leseigneur, J. A. Sahel, S. Meimon, S. Mrejen, and M. Paques, “The negative cone mosaic: A new manifestation of the optical stiles-crawford effect in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 7043–7050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, K. Y.

Lokhnygina, Y.

Lombardo, G.

L. Ziccardi, D. Giannini, G. Lombardo, S. Serrao, R. Dell’Omo, A. Nicoletti, M. Bertelli, and M. Lombardo, “Multimodal approach to monitoring and investigating cone structure and function in an inherited macular dystrophy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160, 301–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, and G. Lombardo, “Technical factors influencing cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images,” PLoS ONE 9, 7402 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, G. Lombardo, M. Varano, B. Boccassini, M. Stirpe, and S. Serrao, “Adaptive optics imaging of parafoveal cones in type 1 diabetes,” Retina 34, 546–557 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, N. Devaney, M. Parravano, and G. Lombardo, “Adaptive optics technology for high-resolution retinal imaging,” Sensors (Switzerland) 13, 334–366 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, and G. Lombardo, “Eccentricity dependent changes of density, spacing and packing arrangement of parafoveal cones,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 516–526 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lombardo, M.

L. Ziccardi, D. Giannini, G. Lombardo, S. Serrao, R. Dell’Omo, A. Nicoletti, M. Bertelli, and M. Lombardo, “Multimodal approach to monitoring and investigating cone structure and function in an inherited macular dystrophy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160, 301–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, and G. Lombardo, “Technical factors influencing cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images,” PLoS ONE 9, 7402 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, G. Lombardo, M. Varano, B. Boccassini, M. Stirpe, and S. Serrao, “Adaptive optics imaging of parafoveal cones in type 1 diabetes,” Retina 34, 546–557 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, N. Devaney, M. Parravano, and G. Lombardo, “Adaptive optics technology for high-resolution retinal imaging,” Sensors (Switzerland) 13, 334–366 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, and G. Lombardo, “Eccentricity dependent changes of density, spacing and packing arrangement of parafoveal cones,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 516–526 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariotti, L.

L. Mariotti and N. Devaney, “Performance analysis of cone detection algorithms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 497–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Mariotti and N. Devaney, “Cone detection and blood vessel segmentation on AO retinal images,” in IRISH MACHINE VISION & IMAGE PROCESSING Conference proceedings 2015, R. Dahyot, G. Lacey, K. Dawson-Howe, F. Pitié, and D. Moloney, eds. (Irish Pattern Recognition & Classification Society, 2015), pp. 126–128.

Massin, P.

J. Jacob, M. Paques, V. Krivosic, B. Dupas, A. Couturier, C. Kulcsar, R. Tadayoni, P. Massin, and A. Gaudric, “Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 118–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

McAllister, J. T.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. Gail Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: High-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Research 50, 810–817 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McAnany, J. J.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McClelland, Z.

M. N. Muthiah, C. Gias, F. K. Chen, J. Zhong, Z. McClelland, F. B. Sallo, T. Peto, P. J. Coffey, and L. da Cruz, “Cone photoreceptor definition on adaptive optics retinal imaging”, Br J Ophthalmol,  98(8), 1073–1079 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meimon, S.

C. Miloudi, F. Rossant, I. Bloch, C. Chaumette, A. Leseigneur, J. A. Sahel, S. Meimon, S. Mrejen, and M. Paques, “The negative cone mosaic: A new manifestation of the optical stiles-crawford effect in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 7043–7050 (2015).
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Metha, A.

P. Bedggood and A. Metha, “Optical imaging of human cone photoreceptors directly following the capture of light”, PLoS ONE 8, e79251 (2013).
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P. Bedggood and A. Metha, “Variability in bleach kinetics and amount of photopigment between individual foveal cones,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3673–3681 (2012).
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Michaelides, M.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, D.

Miller, D. T.

Miloudi, C.

C. Miloudi, F. Rossant, I. Bloch, C. Chaumette, A. Leseigneur, J. A. Sahel, S. Meimon, S. Mrejen, and M. Paques, “The negative cone mosaic: A new manifestation of the optical stiles-crawford effect in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 7043–7050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, A. T.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mrejen, S.

C. Miloudi, F. Rossant, I. Bloch, C. Chaumette, A. Leseigneur, J. A. Sahel, S. Meimon, S. Mrejen, and M. Paques, “The negative cone mosaic: A new manifestation of the optical stiles-crawford effect in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 7043–7050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muthiah, M. N.

M. N. Muthiah, C. Gias, F. K. Chen, J. Zhong, Z. McClelland, F. B. Sallo, T. Peto, P. J. Coffey, and L. da Cruz, “Cone photoreceptor definition on adaptive optics retinal imaging”, Br J Ophthalmol,  98(8), 1073–1079 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakanishi, C.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283–3291 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicoletti, A.

L. Ziccardi, D. Giannini, G. Lombardo, S. Serrao, R. Dell’Omo, A. Nicoletti, M. Bertelli, and M. Lombardo, “Multimodal approach to monitoring and investigating cone structure and function in an inherited macular dystrophy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160, 301–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olivier, S. S.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080–2092 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ostler, S.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. Gail Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: High-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Research 50, 810–817 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Othman, M.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283–3291 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Page, C.

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pallikaris, A.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4580–4592 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panda-Jonas, S.

S. Panda-Jonas, J. B. Jonas, and M. Jakobczyk-Zmija, “Retinal photoreceptor density decreases with age,” Ophthalmology 102, 1853–1859 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paques, M.

J. Jacob, M. Paques, V. Krivosic, B. Dupas, A. Couturier, C. Kulcsar, R. Tadayoni, P. Massin, and A. Gaudric, “Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 118–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Miloudi, F. Rossant, I. Bloch, C. Chaumette, A. Leseigneur, J. A. Sahel, S. Meimon, S. Mrejen, and M. Paques, “The negative cone mosaic: A new manifestation of the optical stiles-crawford effect in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 7043–7050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parravano, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, G. Lombardo, M. Varano, B. Boccassini, M. Stirpe, and S. Serrao, “Adaptive optics imaging of parafoveal cones in type 1 diabetes,” Retina 34, 546–557 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, N. Devaney, M. Parravano, and G. Lombardo, “Adaptive optics technology for high-resolution retinal imaging,” Sensors (Switzerland) 13, 334–366 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pavaskar, A.

Peto, T.

M. N. Muthiah, C. Gias, F. K. Chen, J. Zhong, Z. McClelland, F. B. Sallo, T. Peto, P. J. Coffey, and L. da Cruz, “Cone photoreceptor definition on adaptive optics retinal imaging”, Br J Ophthalmol,  98(8), 1073–1079 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

Ramaswamy, G.

G. Ramaswamy and N. Devaney, “Pre-processing, registration and selection of adaptive optics corrected retinal images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 527–539 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rativa, D.

Rha, J.

Roorda, A.

K. S. Bruce, W. M. Harmening, B. R. Langston, W. S. Tuten, A. Roorda, and L. C. Sincich, “Normal perceptual sensitivity arising from weakly reflective cone photoreceptors normal perceptual sensitivity of weakly reflective cones,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4431–4438 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Merino, J. L. Duncan, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Observation of cone and rod photoreceptors in normal subjects and patients using a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2189–2201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging: emerging clinical applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 930 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li and A. Roorda, “Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics retinal images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1358–1363 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283–3291 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “Optical fiber properties of individual human cones,” J. Vis.,  2, 404–412 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rossant, F.

C. Miloudi, F. Rossant, I. Bloch, C. Chaumette, A. Leseigneur, J. A. Sahel, S. Meimon, S. Mrejen, and M. Paques, “The negative cone mosaic: A new manifestation of the optical stiles-crawford effect in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 7043–7050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahel, J. A.

C. Miloudi, F. Rossant, I. Bloch, C. Chaumette, A. Leseigneur, J. A. Sahel, S. Meimon, S. Mrejen, and M. Paques, “The negative cone mosaic: A new manifestation of the optical stiles-crawford effect in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 7043–7050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sallo, F. B.

M. N. Muthiah, C. Gias, F. K. Chen, J. Zhong, Z. McClelland, F. B. Sallo, T. Peto, P. J. Coffey, and L. da Cruz, “Cone photoreceptor definition on adaptive optics retinal imaging”, Br J Ophthalmol,  98(8), 1073–1079 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

Schroeder, B.

Sergouniotis, P. I.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serrao, S.

L. Ziccardi, D. Giannini, G. Lombardo, S. Serrao, R. Dell’Omo, A. Nicoletti, M. Bertelli, and M. Lombardo, “Multimodal approach to monitoring and investigating cone structure and function in an inherited macular dystrophy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160, 301–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, and G. Lombardo, “Technical factors influencing cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images,” PLoS ONE 9, 7402 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, G. Lombardo, M. Varano, B. Boccassini, M. Stirpe, and S. Serrao, “Adaptive optics imaging of parafoveal cones in type 1 diabetes,” Retina 34, 546–557 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, N. Devaney, M. Parravano, and G. Lombardo, “Adaptive optics technology for high-resolution retinal imaging,” Sensors (Switzerland) 13, 334–366 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, and G. Lombardo, “Eccentricity dependent changes of density, spacing and packing arrangement of parafoveal cones,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 516–526 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sincich, L. C.

K. S. Bruce, W. M. Harmening, B. R. Langston, W. S. Tuten, A. Roorda, and L. C. Sincich, “Normal perceptual sensitivity arising from weakly reflective cone photoreceptors normal perceptual sensitivity of weakly reflective cones,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4431–4438 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepien, K.

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepien, K. E.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. Gail Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: High-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Research 50, 810–817 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stirpe, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, G. Lombardo, M. Varano, B. Boccassini, M. Stirpe, and S. Serrao, “Adaptive optics imaging of parafoveal cones in type 1 diabetes,” Retina 34, 546–557 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stone, E. M.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Streb, M. R.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swaroop, A.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283–3291 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szabo, A.

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tadayoni, R.

J. Jacob, M. Paques, V. Krivosic, B. Dupas, A. Couturier, C. Kulcsar, R. Tadayoni, P. Massin, and A. Gaudric, “Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 118–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tait, D. M.

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. Gail Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: High-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Research 50, 810–817 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiruveedhula, P.

Tuten, W. S.

K. S. Bruce, W. M. Harmening, B. R. Langston, W. S. Tuten, A. Roorda, and L. C. Sincich, “Normal perceptual sensitivity arising from weakly reflective cone photoreceptors normal perceptual sensitivity of weakly reflective cones,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4431–4438 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varano, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, G. Lombardo, M. Varano, B. Boccassini, M. Stirpe, and S. Serrao, “Adaptive optics imaging of parafoveal cones in type 1 diabetes,” Retina 34, 546–557 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vohnsen, B.

Wang, Q.

Webster, A. R.

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

B. Xue, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, and J. S. Werner, “Photoreceptor counting and montaging of en-face retinal images from an adaptive optics fundus camera,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1364–1372 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080–2092 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4580–4592 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “Optical fiber properties of individual human cones,” J. Vis.,  2, 404–412 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wolberg, G.

G. Wolberg and S. Zokai, “Robust image registration using log-polar transform,” in 2000 International Conference on Image Processing, (IEEE, 2000), vol. 1, pp. 493–496.

Wu, S.

Xiang, Q.

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, B.

Young, J.

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhong, J.

M. N. Muthiah, C. Gias, F. K. Chen, J. Zhong, Z. McClelland, F. B. Sallo, T. Peto, P. J. Coffey, and L. da Cruz, “Cone photoreceptor definition on adaptive optics retinal imaging”, Br J Ophthalmol,  98(8), 1073–1079 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziccardi, L.

L. Ziccardi, D. Giannini, G. Lombardo, S. Serrao, R. Dell’Omo, A. Nicoletti, M. Bertelli, and M. Lombardo, “Multimodal approach to monitoring and investigating cone structure and function in an inherited macular dystrophy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160, 301–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zokai, S.

G. Wolberg and S. Zokai, “Robust image registration using log-polar transform,” in 2000 International Conference on Image Processing, (IEEE, 2000), vol. 1, pp. 493–496.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

P. Godara, R. F. Cooper, P. I. Sergouniotis, M. A. Diederichs, M. R. Streb, M. A. Genead, J. J. McAnany, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, A. M. Dubis, M. Neitz, A. Dubra, E. M. Stone, G. A. Fishman, D. P. Han, M. Michaelides, and J. Carroll, “Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154, 987–1001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ziccardi, D. Giannini, G. Lombardo, S. Serrao, R. Dell’Omo, A. Nicoletti, M. Bertelli, and M. Lombardo, “Multimodal approach to monitoring and investigating cone structure and function in an inherited macular dystrophy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160, 301–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jacob, M. Paques, V. Krivosic, B. Dupas, A. Couturier, C. Kulcsar, R. Tadayoni, P. Massin, and A. Gaudric, “Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 118–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (7)

M. Pircher, J. Kroisamer, F. Felberer, H. Sattmann, E. Götzinger, and C. Hitzenberger, “Temporal changes of human cone photoreceptors observed in vivo with SLO/OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 100–112 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Rativa and B. Vohnsen, “Analysis of individual cone-photoreceptor directionality using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1423–1431 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Merino, J. L. Duncan, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Observation of cone and rod photoreceptors in normal subjects and patients using a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2189–2201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, A. Pavaskar, J. Rha, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Spatial and temporal variation of rod photoreceptor reflectance in the human retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2577–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, S. Lee, and D. T. Miller, “Phase-sensitive imaging of the outer retina using optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 104–124 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, Y. Lokhnygina, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, J. Carroll, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic cone photoreceptor segmentation using graph theory and dynamic programming,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 924–937 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Vohnsen, “Directional sensitivity of the retina: A layered scattering model of outer-segment photoreceptor pigments,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 1569–1587 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br J Ophthalmol (1)

M. N. Muthiah, C. Gias, F. K. Chen, J. Zhong, Z. McClelland, F. B. Sallo, T. Peto, P. J. Coffey, and L. da Cruz, “Cone photoreceptor definition on adaptive optics retinal imaging”, Br J Ophthalmol,  98(8), 1073–1079 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (6)

C. Miloudi, F. Rossant, I. Bloch, C. Chaumette, A. Leseigneur, J. A. Sahel, S. Meimon, S. Mrejen, and M. Paques, “The negative cone mosaic: A new manifestation of the optical stiles-crawford effect in normal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 7043–7050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Bruce, W. M. Harmening, B. R. Langston, W. S. Tuten, A. Roorda, and L. C. Sincich, “Normal perceptual sensitivity arising from weakly reflective cone photoreceptors normal perceptual sensitivity of weakly reflective cones,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4431–4438 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4580–4592 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bedggood and A. Metha, “Variability in bleach kinetics and amount of photopigment between individual foveal cones,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 3673–3681 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080–2092 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283–3291 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Vis. (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “Optical fiber properties of individual human cones,” J. Vis.,  2, 404–412 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (2)

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, and G. Lombardo, “Eccentricity dependent changes of density, spacing and packing arrangement of parafoveal cones,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 516–526 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ramaswamy and N. Devaney, “Pre-processing, registration and selection of adaptive optics corrected retinal images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 527–539 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

S. Panda-Jonas, J. B. Jonas, and M. Jakobczyk-Zmija, “Retinal photoreceptor density decreases with age,” Ophthalmology 102, 1853–1859 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging: emerging clinical applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 930 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Land, R. Cooper, J. Young, E. Berg, T. Kitchner, Q. Xiang, A. Szabo, L. Ivacic, K. Stepien, C. Page, J. Carroll, T. Connor, and M. Brilliant, “Cone structure in subjects with known genetic relative risk for amd,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91, 939–949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE (2)

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, and G. Lombardo, “Technical factors influencing cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images,” PLoS ONE 9, 7402 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Bedggood and A. Metha, “Optical imaging of human cone photoreceptors directly following the capture of light”, PLoS ONE 8, e79251 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (1)

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 65, 229–236 (1953).
[Crossref]

Retina (1)

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, G. Lombardo, M. Varano, B. Boccassini, M. Stirpe, and S. Serrao, “Adaptive optics imaging of parafoveal cones in type 1 diabetes,” Retina 34, 546–557 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Switzerland) (1)

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, N. Devaney, M. Parravano, and G. Lombardo, “Adaptive optics technology for high-resolution retinal imaging,” Sensors (Switzerland) 13, 334–366 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vision Research (1)

J. T. McAllister, A. M. Dubis, D. M. Tait, S. Ostler, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, C. Gail Summers, and J. Carroll, “Arrested development: High-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism,” Vision Research 50, 810–817 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. Wolberg and S. Zokai, “Robust image registration using log-polar transform,” in 2000 International Conference on Image Processing, (IEEE, 2000), vol. 1, pp. 493–496.

L. Mariotti and N. Devaney, “Cone detection and blood vessel segmentation on AO retinal images,” in IRISH MACHINE VISION & IMAGE PROCESSING Conference proceedings 2015, R. Dahyot, G. Lacey, K. Dawson-Howe, F. Pitié, and D. Moloney, eds. (Irish Pattern Recognition & Classification Society, 2015), pp. 126–128.

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Data File 1: CSV (2 KB)      Overview of the image data set and of the sub-set divisions
» Data File 2: CSV (1 KB)      Cone matching percentages for all the single images compared to the average image at their eccentricity
» Visualization 1: MP4 (1217 KB)      Time series at 2.5 degrees after registration and normalization
» Visualization 2: MP4 (1112 KB)      Time series at 4 degrees after registration and normalization

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Screen shot of the anterior segment image of the viewer interface of the AO flood illuminated retinal camera showing the placement of the entry beam (green cross) in the right eye of the subject. The four white dots are the first Purkinje images of the cornea, which are taken by the AO camera operators as reference points for collecting high-quality images of the photoreceptor mosaic. The “on-center” represents the illumination position passing through the center of the pupil; in the “off-center” position, the illumination is 0.35 mm temporal from the pupil center. The corneal reflections allow images of the retina to be captured using the same illumination position over time.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Example of detection on the same portion of two images obtained from the same frame series. In the upper image, the frames were not corrected for the flat-field prior to registration, in the image below the frames were divided by the flat-field image and then registered. The cone map on the right is the sum of the two cone maps resulting from the separate detections on the two images. The difference between the combined cone map and the two individual cone maps is less than 4% of the cones.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 One frame of the time series at 2.5 degrees after registration and normalization ( Visualization 1). An overview of the data set and the sub-set division is available in Data File 1.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 First frame of the time series at 4.0 degrees after registration and normalization ( Visualization 2). An overview of the data set and the sub-set division is available in Data File 1.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Detail of detection and segmentation of cones at the same location of a single image (left) and the average image (right). The cones that are detected and segmented on the average image but not on the single image are shown in pink.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Top row: histograms of the cone intensity in the first and second image of the “Days” series at 2.5 degrees. Bottom: histogram of the difference between the intensity of the cones in the second and the first image fitted with a Gaussian distribution, for which the parameters are shown on the right. These histograms are shown as representative of the results on all the images.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Flow chart of the entire analysis process. The processing algorithms enclosed in the left and right grey boxes were performed for all the images and for the two series of images at the two retinal locations respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Average images at 4.0 degrees (left) and 2.5 degrees (right) with the grid of 200 × 200 pixel (160 × 160μm) windows in the image series in which the parameters were calculated. The selected windows are highlighted and marked with numbers. The same numbers are used in the plot legend in Fig. 9.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Bland-Altman plot of the cone density at 2.5 (circles) and 4.0 degrees (squares) in selected windows. The plot shows the mean of the differences (continuous lines) and ± 1.96 SD (dashed lines) of the cone density between the two illumination positions. The numbers represent the sampling windows shown in Fig. 8.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Matching of cones performed on pairs of images as a function of the time between the two images, at 2.5 degrees and at 4.0 degrees. The x-axis is in logarithmic scale. The plots show how the percentage of matching decreases as the time increases with a logarithmic trend (linear fits on logarithmic scale).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Histogram of the mean cone intensity (as measured inside the segmentations) on the average images at 2.5 degrees and 4.0 degrees. The intensity values are measured after the total intensity normalization.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Standard deviation of the difference in cone reflectance as a function of time at 2.5 degrees and 4.0 degrees. The x-axis is in logarithmic scale. The standard deviation is calculated from the Gaussian fit of the histograms of the intensity difference of all the cones with respect to their intensity value in the first image of the different time series. It can be seen that the variability of cone reflectance increases logarithmically with time (linear fits on logarithmic scale). The variation in cone reflectance between images acquired more than one year apart is more than the double the variation observed on the cone mosaic on the same day.

Equations (1)

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I norm = 1 x = 1 M y = 1 N I ( x , y ) M N

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