Abstract

Filopodia are highly organized cellular membrane structures that facilitate intercellular communication. Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a newly developed cancer treatment that causes necrotic cell death. Three-dimensional low-coherent quantitative phase microscopy (3D LC-QPM) is based on a newly established low-coherent interference microscope designed to obtain serial topographic images of the cellular membrane. Herein, we report rapid involution of filopodia after NIR-PIT using 3D LC-QPM. For 3T3/HER2 cells, the number of filopodia decreased immediately after treatment with significant differences. Volume and relative height of 3T3/HER2 cells increased immediately after NIR light exposure, but significant differences were not observed. Thus, disappearance of filopodia, evaluated by 3D LC-QPM, is an early indicator of cell membrane damage after NIR-PIT.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (2)

G. Jacquemet, H. Hamidi, and J. Ivaska, “Filopodia in cell adhesion, 3D migration and cancer cell invasion,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 36, 23–31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uchugonova, W. Cao, R. M. Hoffman, and K. Koenig, “Comparison of label-free and GFP multiphoton imaging of hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells in mouse whiskers,” Cell Cycle 14(21), 3430–3433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

K. Sato, R. Watanabe, H. Hanaoka, T. Harada, T. Nakajima, I. Kim, C. H. Paik, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Photoimmunotherapy: comparative effectiveness of two monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Mol. Oncol. 8(3), 620–632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shirasu, H. Yamada, H. Shibaguchi, M. Kuroki, and M. Kuroki, “Potent and specific antitumor effect of CEA-targeted photoimmunotherapy,” Int. J. Cancer 135(11), 2697–2710 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

T. Shibue, M. W. Brooks, and R. A. Weinberg, “An integrin-linked machinery of cytoskeletal regulation that enables experimental tumor initiation and metastatic colonization,” Cancer Cell 24(4), 481–498 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Momiyama, A. Suetsugu, H. Kimura, T. Chishima, M. Bouvet, I. Endo, and R. M. Hoffman, “Dynamic subcellular imaging of cancer cell mitosis in the brain of live mice,” Anticancer Res. 33(4), 1367–1371 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. Uchugonova, R. M. Hoffman, and K. Koenig, “Stem cell imaging in living animals,” Imaging Microscopy 3, 44–46 (2013).

K. Sano, T. Nakajima, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Markedly enhanced permeability and retention effects induced by photo-immunotherapy of tumors,” ACS Nano 7(1), 717–724 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

Y. Wan, H. Otsuna, C. B. Chien, and C. Hansen, “FluoRender: An Application of 2D Image Space Methods for 3D and 4D Confocal Microscopy Data Visualization in Neurobiology Research,” IEEE Pac. Vis. Symp. 865, 201–208 (2012).
[PubMed]

N. Sugiyama, Y. Asai, T. Yamauchi, T. Kataoka, T. Ikeda, H. Iwai, T. Sakurai, and Y. Mizuguchi, “Label-free characterization of living human induced pluripotent stem cells by subcellular topographic imaging technique using full-field quantitative phase microscopy coupled with interference reflection microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 2175–2183 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Petrie and K. M. Yamada, “At the leading edge of three-dimensional cell migration,” J. Cell Sci. 125(24), 5917–5926 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, K. Sano, M. Mitsunaga, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Real-time monitoring of in vivo acute necrotic cancer cell death induced by near infrared photoimmunotherapy using fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Cancer Res. 72(18), 4622–4628 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mitsunaga, T. Nakajima, K. Sano, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Near-infrared theranostic photoimmunotherapy (PIT): repeated exposure of light enhances the effect of immunoconjugate,” Bioconjug. Chem. 23(3), 604–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

M. Mitsunaga, M. Ogawa, N. Kosaka, L. T. Rosenblum, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Cancer cell-selective in vivo near infrared photoimmunotherapy targeting specific membrane molecules,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1685–1691 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arjonen, R. Kaukonen, and J. Ivaska, “Filopodia and adhesion in cancer cell motility,” Cell Adhes. Migr. 5(5), 421–430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nürnberg, T. Kitzing, and R. Grosse, “Nucleating actin for invasion,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 11(3), 177–187 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Muller, K. H. Vousden, and J. C. Norman, “p53 and its mutants in tumor cell migration and invasion,” J. Cell Biol. 192(2), 209–218 (2011).
[PubMed]

P. Saharinen, L. Eklund, K. Pulkki, P. Bono, and K. Alitalo, “VEGF and angiopoietin signaling in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis,” Trends Mol. Med. 17(7), 347–362 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamauchi, H. Iwai, and Y. Yamashita, “Label-free imaging of intracellular motility by low-coherent quantitative phase microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5536–5550 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

H. M. Eilken and R. H. Adams, “Dynamics of endothelial cell behavior in sprouting angiogenesis,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 22(5), 617–625 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2006 (3)

R. M. Hoffman and M. Yang, “Subcellular imaging in the live mouse,” Nat. Protoc. 1(2), 775–782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, M. Xu, N. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, M. Bouvet, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of real-time subcellular dynamic multicolor imaging of cancer-cell trafficking in live mice with a variable-magnification whole-mouse imaging system,” Cancer Res. 66(8), 4208–4214 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Faix and K. Rottner, “The making of filopodia,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18(1), 18–25 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

R. M. Hoffman, “In vivo imaging with fluorescent proteins: the new cell biology,” Acta Histochem. 106(2), 77–87 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yamamoto, P. Jiang, M. Yang, M. Xu, K. Yamauchi, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, G. M. Wahl, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Cellular dynamics visualized in live cells in vitro and in vivo by differential dual-color nuclear-cytoplasmic fluorescent-protein expression,” Cancer Res. 64(12), 4251–4256 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, J. S. Berg, Z. Li, Y. Wang, P. Lang, A. D. Sousa, A. Bhaskar, R. E. Cheney, and S. Strömblad, “Myosin-X provides a motor-based link between integrins and the cytoskeleton,” Nat. Cell Biol. 6(6), 523–531 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Ziegler and P. Groscurth, “Morphological features of cell death,” News Physiol. Sci. 19(3), 124–128 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. C. Willingham, “Cytochemical methods for the detection of apoptosis,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 47(9), 1101–1109 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Chalfie, Y. Tu, G. Euskirchen, W. W. Ward, and D. C. Prasher, “Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression,” Science 263(5148), 802–805 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

J. F. Kerr, “Shrinkage necrosis: a distinct mode of cellular death,” J. Pathol. 105(1), 13–20 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, R. H.

H. M. Eilken and R. H. Adams, “Dynamics of endothelial cell behavior in sprouting angiogenesis,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 22(5), 617–625 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alitalo, K.

P. Saharinen, L. Eklund, K. Pulkki, P. Bono, and K. Alitalo, “VEGF and angiopoietin signaling in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis,” Trends Mol. Med. 17(7), 347–362 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amoh, Y.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arjonen, A.

A. Arjonen, R. Kaukonen, and J. Ivaska, “Filopodia and adhesion in cancer cell motility,” Cell Adhes. Migr. 5(5), 421–430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asai, Y.

Berg, J. S.

H. Zhang, J. S. Berg, Z. Li, Y. Wang, P. Lang, A. D. Sousa, A. Bhaskar, R. E. Cheney, and S. Strömblad, “Myosin-X provides a motor-based link between integrins and the cytoskeleton,” Nat. Cell Biol. 6(6), 523–531 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhaskar, A.

H. Zhang, J. S. Berg, Z. Li, Y. Wang, P. Lang, A. D. Sousa, A. Bhaskar, R. E. Cheney, and S. Strömblad, “Myosin-X provides a motor-based link between integrins and the cytoskeleton,” Nat. Cell Biol. 6(6), 523–531 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bono, P.

P. Saharinen, L. Eklund, K. Pulkki, P. Bono, and K. Alitalo, “VEGF and angiopoietin signaling in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis,” Trends Mol. Med. 17(7), 347–362 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouvet, M.

M. Momiyama, A. Suetsugu, H. Kimura, T. Chishima, M. Bouvet, I. Endo, and R. M. Hoffman, “Dynamic subcellular imaging of cancer cell mitosis in the brain of live mice,” Anticancer Res. 33(4), 1367–1371 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, M. Xu, N. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, M. Bouvet, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of real-time subcellular dynamic multicolor imaging of cancer-cell trafficking in live mice with a variable-magnification whole-mouse imaging system,” Cancer Res. 66(8), 4208–4214 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brooks, M. W.

T. Shibue, M. W. Brooks, and R. A. Weinberg, “An integrin-linked machinery of cytoskeletal regulation that enables experimental tumor initiation and metastatic colonization,” Cancer Cell 24(4), 481–498 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

A. Uchugonova, W. Cao, R. M. Hoffman, and K. Koenig, “Comparison of label-free and GFP multiphoton imaging of hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells in mouse whiskers,” Cell Cycle 14(21), 3430–3433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chalfie, M.

M. Chalfie, Y. Tu, G. Euskirchen, W. W. Ward, and D. C. Prasher, “Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression,” Science 263(5148), 802–805 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheney, R. E.

H. Zhang, J. S. Berg, Z. Li, Y. Wang, P. Lang, A. D. Sousa, A. Bhaskar, R. E. Cheney, and S. Strömblad, “Myosin-X provides a motor-based link between integrins and the cytoskeleton,” Nat. Cell Biol. 6(6), 523–531 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chien, C. B.

Y. Wan, H. Otsuna, C. B. Chien, and C. Hansen, “FluoRender: An Application of 2D Image Space Methods for 3D and 4D Confocal Microscopy Data Visualization in Neurobiology Research,” IEEE Pac. Vis. Symp. 865, 201–208 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chishima, T.

M. Momiyama, A. Suetsugu, H. Kimura, T. Chishima, M. Bouvet, I. Endo, and R. M. Hoffman, “Dynamic subcellular imaging of cancer cell mitosis in the brain of live mice,” Anticancer Res. 33(4), 1367–1371 (2013).
[PubMed]

Choyke, P. L.

K. Sato, R. Watanabe, H. Hanaoka, T. Harada, T. Nakajima, I. Kim, C. H. Paik, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Photoimmunotherapy: comparative effectiveness of two monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Mol. Oncol. 8(3), 620–632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sano, T. Nakajima, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Markedly enhanced permeability and retention effects induced by photo-immunotherapy of tumors,” ACS Nano 7(1), 717–724 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, K. Sano, M. Mitsunaga, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Real-time monitoring of in vivo acute necrotic cancer cell death induced by near infrared photoimmunotherapy using fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Cancer Res. 72(18), 4622–4628 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mitsunaga, T. Nakajima, K. Sano, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Near-infrared theranostic photoimmunotherapy (PIT): repeated exposure of light enhances the effect of immunoconjugate,” Bioconjug. Chem. 23(3), 604–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mitsunaga, M. Ogawa, N. Kosaka, L. T. Rosenblum, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Cancer cell-selective in vivo near infrared photoimmunotherapy targeting specific membrane molecules,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1685–1691 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eilken, H. M.

H. M. Eilken and R. H. Adams, “Dynamics of endothelial cell behavior in sprouting angiogenesis,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 22(5), 617–625 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eklund, L.

P. Saharinen, L. Eklund, K. Pulkki, P. Bono, and K. Alitalo, “VEGF and angiopoietin signaling in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis,” Trends Mol. Med. 17(7), 347–362 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endo, I.

M. Momiyama, A. Suetsugu, H. Kimura, T. Chishima, M. Bouvet, I. Endo, and R. M. Hoffman, “Dynamic subcellular imaging of cancer cell mitosis in the brain of live mice,” Anticancer Res. 33(4), 1367–1371 (2013).
[PubMed]

Euskirchen, G.

M. Chalfie, Y. Tu, G. Euskirchen, W. W. Ward, and D. C. Prasher, “Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression,” Science 263(5148), 802–805 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faix, J.

J. Faix and K. Rottner, “The making of filopodia,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18(1), 18–25 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groscurth, P.

U. Ziegler and P. Groscurth, “Morphological features of cell death,” News Physiol. Sci. 19(3), 124–128 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grosse, R.

A. Nürnberg, T. Kitzing, and R. Grosse, “Nucleating actin for invasion,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 11(3), 177–187 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamidi, H.

G. Jacquemet, H. Hamidi, and J. Ivaska, “Filopodia in cell adhesion, 3D migration and cancer cell invasion,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 36, 23–31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanaoka, H.

K. Sato, R. Watanabe, H. Hanaoka, T. Harada, T. Nakajima, I. Kim, C. H. Paik, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Photoimmunotherapy: comparative effectiveness of two monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Mol. Oncol. 8(3), 620–632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, C.

Y. Wan, H. Otsuna, C. B. Chien, and C. Hansen, “FluoRender: An Application of 2D Image Space Methods for 3D and 4D Confocal Microscopy Data Visualization in Neurobiology Research,” IEEE Pac. Vis. Symp. 865, 201–208 (2012).
[PubMed]

Harada, T.

K. Sato, R. Watanabe, H. Hanaoka, T. Harada, T. Nakajima, I. Kim, C. H. Paik, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Photoimmunotherapy: comparative effectiveness of two monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Mol. Oncol. 8(3), 620–632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffman, R. M.

A. Uchugonova, W. Cao, R. M. Hoffman, and K. Koenig, “Comparison of label-free and GFP multiphoton imaging of hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells in mouse whiskers,” Cell Cycle 14(21), 3430–3433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Ivaska, J.

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Jacquemet, G.

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K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, M. Xu, N. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, M. Bouvet, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of real-time subcellular dynamic multicolor imaging of cancer-cell trafficking in live mice with a variable-magnification whole-mouse imaging system,” Cancer Res. 66(8), 4208–4214 (2006).
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K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
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N. Yamamoto, P. Jiang, M. Yang, M. Xu, K. Yamauchi, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, G. M. Wahl, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Cellular dynamics visualized in live cells in vitro and in vivo by differential dual-color nuclear-cytoplasmic fluorescent-protein expression,” Cancer Res. 64(12), 4251–4256 (2004).
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Kaukonen, R.

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M. Momiyama, A. Suetsugu, H. Kimura, T. Chishima, M. Bouvet, I. Endo, and R. M. Hoffman, “Dynamic subcellular imaging of cancer cell mitosis in the brain of live mice,” Anticancer Res. 33(4), 1367–1371 (2013).
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A. Nürnberg, T. Kitzing, and R. Grosse, “Nucleating actin for invasion,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 11(3), 177–187 (2011).
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K. Sato, R. Watanabe, H. Hanaoka, T. Harada, T. Nakajima, I. Kim, C. H. Paik, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Photoimmunotherapy: comparative effectiveness of two monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Mol. Oncol. 8(3), 620–632 (2014).
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M. Mitsunaga, T. Nakajima, K. Sano, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Near-infrared theranostic photoimmunotherapy (PIT): repeated exposure of light enhances the effect of immunoconjugate,” Bioconjug. Chem. 23(3), 604–609 (2012).
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Koenig, K.

A. Uchugonova, W. Cao, R. M. Hoffman, and K. Koenig, “Comparison of label-free and GFP multiphoton imaging of hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells in mouse whiskers,” Cell Cycle 14(21), 3430–3433 (2015).
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A. Uchugonova, R. M. Hoffman, and K. Koenig, “Stem cell imaging in living animals,” Imaging Microscopy 3, 44–46 (2013).

Kosaka, N.

M. Mitsunaga, M. Ogawa, N. Kosaka, L. T. Rosenblum, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Cancer cell-selective in vivo near infrared photoimmunotherapy targeting specific membrane molecules,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1685–1691 (2011).
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Kuroki, M.

N. Shirasu, H. Yamada, H. Shibaguchi, M. Kuroki, and M. Kuroki, “Potent and specific antitumor effect of CEA-targeted photoimmunotherapy,” Int. J. Cancer 135(11), 2697–2710 (2014).
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N. Shirasu, H. Yamada, H. Shibaguchi, M. Kuroki, and M. Kuroki, “Potent and specific antitumor effect of CEA-targeted photoimmunotherapy,” Int. J. Cancer 135(11), 2697–2710 (2014).
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H. Zhang, J. S. Berg, Z. Li, Y. Wang, P. Lang, A. D. Sousa, A. Bhaskar, R. E. Cheney, and S. Strömblad, “Myosin-X provides a motor-based link between integrins and the cytoskeleton,” Nat. Cell Biol. 6(6), 523–531 (2004).
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H. Zhang, J. S. Berg, Z. Li, Y. Wang, P. Lang, A. D. Sousa, A. Bhaskar, R. E. Cheney, and S. Strömblad, “Myosin-X provides a motor-based link between integrins and the cytoskeleton,” Nat. Cell Biol. 6(6), 523–531 (2004).
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Mitsunaga, M.

T. Nakajima, K. Sano, M. Mitsunaga, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Real-time monitoring of in vivo acute necrotic cancer cell death induced by near infrared photoimmunotherapy using fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Cancer Res. 72(18), 4622–4628 (2012).
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M. Mitsunaga, T. Nakajima, K. Sano, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Near-infrared theranostic photoimmunotherapy (PIT): repeated exposure of light enhances the effect of immunoconjugate,” Bioconjug. Chem. 23(3), 604–609 (2012).
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M. Mitsunaga, M. Ogawa, N. Kosaka, L. T. Rosenblum, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Cancer cell-selective in vivo near infrared photoimmunotherapy targeting specific membrane molecules,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1685–1691 (2011).
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Miwa, M.

Mizuguchi, Y.

Momiyama, M.

M. Momiyama, A. Suetsugu, H. Kimura, T. Chishima, M. Bouvet, I. Endo, and R. M. Hoffman, “Dynamic subcellular imaging of cancer cell mitosis in the brain of live mice,” Anticancer Res. 33(4), 1367–1371 (2013).
[PubMed]

Moossa, A. R.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, M. Xu, N. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, M. Bouvet, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of real-time subcellular dynamic multicolor imaging of cancer-cell trafficking in live mice with a variable-magnification whole-mouse imaging system,” Cancer Res. 66(8), 4208–4214 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. A. Muller, K. H. Vousden, and J. C. Norman, “p53 and its mutants in tumor cell migration and invasion,” J. Cell Biol. 192(2), 209–218 (2011).
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K. Sato, R. Watanabe, H. Hanaoka, T. Harada, T. Nakajima, I. Kim, C. H. Paik, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Photoimmunotherapy: comparative effectiveness of two monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Mol. Oncol. 8(3), 620–632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sano, T. Nakajima, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Markedly enhanced permeability and retention effects induced by photo-immunotherapy of tumors,” ACS Nano 7(1), 717–724 (2013).
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M. Mitsunaga, T. Nakajima, K. Sano, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Near-infrared theranostic photoimmunotherapy (PIT): repeated exposure of light enhances the effect of immunoconjugate,” Bioconjug. Chem. 23(3), 604–609 (2012).
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T. Nakajima, K. Sano, M. Mitsunaga, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Real-time monitoring of in vivo acute necrotic cancer cell death induced by near infrared photoimmunotherapy using fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Cancer Res. 72(18), 4622–4628 (2012).
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P. A. Muller, K. H. Vousden, and J. C. Norman, “p53 and its mutants in tumor cell migration and invasion,” J. Cell Biol. 192(2), 209–218 (2011).
[PubMed]

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A. Nürnberg, T. Kitzing, and R. Grosse, “Nucleating actin for invasion,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 11(3), 177–187 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Mitsunaga, M. Ogawa, N. Kosaka, L. T. Rosenblum, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Cancer cell-selective in vivo near infrared photoimmunotherapy targeting specific membrane molecules,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1685–1691 (2011).
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Y. Wan, H. Otsuna, C. B. Chien, and C. Hansen, “FluoRender: An Application of 2D Image Space Methods for 3D and 4D Confocal Microscopy Data Visualization in Neurobiology Research,” IEEE Pac. Vis. Symp. 865, 201–208 (2012).
[PubMed]

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K. Sato, R. Watanabe, H. Hanaoka, T. Harada, T. Nakajima, I. Kim, C. H. Paik, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Photoimmunotherapy: comparative effectiveness of two monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Mol. Oncol. 8(3), 620–632 (2014).
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M. Chalfie, Y. Tu, G. Euskirchen, W. W. Ward, and D. C. Prasher, “Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression,” Science 263(5148), 802–805 (1994).
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M. Mitsunaga, M. Ogawa, N. Kosaka, L. T. Rosenblum, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Cancer cell-selective in vivo near infrared photoimmunotherapy targeting specific membrane molecules,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1685–1691 (2011).
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Sano, K.

K. Sano, T. Nakajima, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Markedly enhanced permeability and retention effects induced by photo-immunotherapy of tumors,” ACS Nano 7(1), 717–724 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mitsunaga, T. Nakajima, K. Sano, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Near-infrared theranostic photoimmunotherapy (PIT): repeated exposure of light enhances the effect of immunoconjugate,” Bioconjug. Chem. 23(3), 604–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, K. Sano, M. Mitsunaga, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Real-time monitoring of in vivo acute necrotic cancer cell death induced by near infrared photoimmunotherapy using fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Cancer Res. 72(18), 4622–4628 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. Sato, R. Watanabe, H. Hanaoka, T. Harada, T. Nakajima, I. Kim, C. H. Paik, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Photoimmunotherapy: comparative effectiveness of two monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Mol. Oncol. 8(3), 620–632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Shirasu, H. Yamada, H. Shibaguchi, M. Kuroki, and M. Kuroki, “Potent and specific antitumor effect of CEA-targeted photoimmunotherapy,” Int. J. Cancer 135(11), 2697–2710 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Shibue, M. W. Brooks, and R. A. Weinberg, “An integrin-linked machinery of cytoskeletal regulation that enables experimental tumor initiation and metastatic colonization,” Cancer Cell 24(4), 481–498 (2013).
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N. Shirasu, H. Yamada, H. Shibaguchi, M. Kuroki, and M. Kuroki, “Potent and specific antitumor effect of CEA-targeted photoimmunotherapy,” Int. J. Cancer 135(11), 2697–2710 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Zhang, J. S. Berg, Z. Li, Y. Wang, P. Lang, A. D. Sousa, A. Bhaskar, R. E. Cheney, and S. Strömblad, “Myosin-X provides a motor-based link between integrins and the cytoskeleton,” Nat. Cell Biol. 6(6), 523–531 (2004).
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H. Zhang, J. S. Berg, Z. Li, Y. Wang, P. Lang, A. D. Sousa, A. Bhaskar, R. E. Cheney, and S. Strömblad, “Myosin-X provides a motor-based link between integrins and the cytoskeleton,” Nat. Cell Biol. 6(6), 523–531 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Momiyama, A. Suetsugu, H. Kimura, T. Chishima, M. Bouvet, I. Endo, and R. M. Hoffman, “Dynamic subcellular imaging of cancer cell mitosis in the brain of live mice,” Anticancer Res. 33(4), 1367–1371 (2013).
[PubMed]

Sugiyama, N.

Tomita, K.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, M. Xu, N. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, M. Bouvet, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of real-time subcellular dynamic multicolor imaging of cancer-cell trafficking in live mice with a variable-magnification whole-mouse imaging system,” Cancer Res. 66(8), 4208–4214 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yamamoto, P. Jiang, M. Yang, M. Xu, K. Yamauchi, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, G. M. Wahl, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Cellular dynamics visualized in live cells in vitro and in vivo by differential dual-color nuclear-cytoplasmic fluorescent-protein expression,” Cancer Res. 64(12), 4251–4256 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuchiya, H.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, M. Xu, N. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, M. Bouvet, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of real-time subcellular dynamic multicolor imaging of cancer-cell trafficking in live mice with a variable-magnification whole-mouse imaging system,” Cancer Res. 66(8), 4208–4214 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yamamoto, P. Jiang, M. Yang, M. Xu, K. Yamauchi, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, G. M. Wahl, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Cellular dynamics visualized in live cells in vitro and in vivo by differential dual-color nuclear-cytoplasmic fluorescent-protein expression,” Cancer Res. 64(12), 4251–4256 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuji, K.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
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Tu, Y.

M. Chalfie, Y. Tu, G. Euskirchen, W. W. Ward, and D. C. Prasher, “Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression,” Science 263(5148), 802–805 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uchugonova, A.

A. Uchugonova, W. Cao, R. M. Hoffman, and K. Koenig, “Comparison of label-free and GFP multiphoton imaging of hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells in mouse whiskers,” Cell Cycle 14(21), 3430–3433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uchugonova, R. M. Hoffman, and K. Koenig, “Stem cell imaging in living animals,” Imaging Microscopy 3, 44–46 (2013).

Vousden, K. H.

P. A. Muller, K. H. Vousden, and J. C. Norman, “p53 and its mutants in tumor cell migration and invasion,” J. Cell Biol. 192(2), 209–218 (2011).
[PubMed]

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N. Yamamoto, P. Jiang, M. Yang, M. Xu, K. Yamauchi, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, G. M. Wahl, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Cellular dynamics visualized in live cells in vitro and in vivo by differential dual-color nuclear-cytoplasmic fluorescent-protein expression,” Cancer Res. 64(12), 4251–4256 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, Y.

Y. Wan, H. Otsuna, C. B. Chien, and C. Hansen, “FluoRender: An Application of 2D Image Space Methods for 3D and 4D Confocal Microscopy Data Visualization in Neurobiology Research,” IEEE Pac. Vis. Symp. 865, 201–208 (2012).
[PubMed]

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H. Zhang, J. S. Berg, Z. Li, Y. Wang, P. Lang, A. D. Sousa, A. Bhaskar, R. E. Cheney, and S. Strömblad, “Myosin-X provides a motor-based link between integrins and the cytoskeleton,” Nat. Cell Biol. 6(6), 523–531 (2004).
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M. Chalfie, Y. Tu, G. Euskirchen, W. W. Ward, and D. C. Prasher, “Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression,” Science 263(5148), 802–805 (1994).
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K. Sato, R. Watanabe, H. Hanaoka, T. Harada, T. Nakajima, I. Kim, C. H. Paik, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Photoimmunotherapy: comparative effectiveness of two monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Mol. Oncol. 8(3), 620–632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinberg, R. A.

T. Shibue, M. W. Brooks, and R. A. Weinberg, “An integrin-linked machinery of cytoskeletal regulation that enables experimental tumor initiation and metastatic colonization,” Cancer Cell 24(4), 481–498 (2013).
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K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, M. Xu, N. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, M. Bouvet, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of real-time subcellular dynamic multicolor imaging of cancer-cell trafficking in live mice with a variable-magnification whole-mouse imaging system,” Cancer Res. 66(8), 4208–4214 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yamamoto, P. Jiang, M. Yang, M. Xu, K. Yamauchi, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, G. M. Wahl, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Cellular dynamics visualized in live cells in vitro and in vivo by differential dual-color nuclear-cytoplasmic fluorescent-protein expression,” Cancer Res. 64(12), 4251–4256 (2004).
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Yamada, H.

N. Shirasu, H. Yamada, H. Shibaguchi, M. Kuroki, and M. Kuroki, “Potent and specific antitumor effect of CEA-targeted photoimmunotherapy,” Int. J. Cancer 135(11), 2697–2710 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, K. M.

R. J. Petrie and K. M. Yamada, “At the leading edge of three-dimensional cell migration,” J. Cell Sci. 125(24), 5917–5926 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, N.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, M. Xu, N. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, M. Bouvet, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of real-time subcellular dynamic multicolor imaging of cancer-cell trafficking in live mice with a variable-magnification whole-mouse imaging system,” Cancer Res. 66(8), 4208–4214 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yamamoto, P. Jiang, M. Yang, M. Xu, K. Yamauchi, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, G. M. Wahl, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Cellular dynamics visualized in live cells in vitro and in vivo by differential dual-color nuclear-cytoplasmic fluorescent-protein expression,” Cancer Res. 64(12), 4251–4256 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, Y.

Yamauchi, K.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, M. Xu, N. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, M. Bouvet, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of real-time subcellular dynamic multicolor imaging of cancer-cell trafficking in live mice with a variable-magnification whole-mouse imaging system,” Cancer Res. 66(8), 4208–4214 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yamamoto, P. Jiang, M. Yang, M. Xu, K. Yamauchi, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, G. M. Wahl, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Cellular dynamics visualized in live cells in vitro and in vivo by differential dual-color nuclear-cytoplasmic fluorescent-protein expression,” Cancer Res. 64(12), 4251–4256 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamauchi, T.

Yang, M.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, M. Xu, N. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, M. Bouvet, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of real-time subcellular dynamic multicolor imaging of cancer-cell trafficking in live mice with a variable-magnification whole-mouse imaging system,” Cancer Res. 66(8), 4208–4214 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Hoffman and M. Yang, “Subcellular imaging in the live mouse,” Nat. Protoc. 1(2), 775–782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yamamoto, P. Jiang, M. Yang, M. Xu, K. Yamauchi, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, G. M. Wahl, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Cellular dynamics visualized in live cells in vitro and in vivo by differential dual-color nuclear-cytoplasmic fluorescent-protein expression,” Cancer Res. 64(12), 4251–4256 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, J. S. Berg, Z. Li, Y. Wang, P. Lang, A. D. Sousa, A. Bhaskar, R. E. Cheney, and S. Strömblad, “Myosin-X provides a motor-based link between integrins and the cytoskeleton,” Nat. Cell Biol. 6(6), 523–531 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziegler, U.

U. Ziegler and P. Groscurth, “Morphological features of cell death,” News Physiol. Sci. 19(3), 124–128 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

K. Sano, T. Nakajima, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Markedly enhanced permeability and retention effects induced by photo-immunotherapy of tumors,” ACS Nano 7(1), 717–724 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Histochem. (1)

R. M. Hoffman, “In vivo imaging with fluorescent proteins: the new cell biology,” Acta Histochem. 106(2), 77–87 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anticancer Res. (1)

M. Momiyama, A. Suetsugu, H. Kimura, T. Chishima, M. Bouvet, I. Endo, and R. M. Hoffman, “Dynamic subcellular imaging of cancer cell mitosis in the brain of live mice,” Anticancer Res. 33(4), 1367–1371 (2013).
[PubMed]

Bioconjug. Chem. (1)

M. Mitsunaga, T. Nakajima, K. Sano, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Near-infrared theranostic photoimmunotherapy (PIT): repeated exposure of light enhances the effect of immunoconjugate,” Bioconjug. Chem. 23(3), 604–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Cancer Cell (1)

T. Shibue, M. W. Brooks, and R. A. Weinberg, “An integrin-linked machinery of cytoskeletal regulation that enables experimental tumor initiation and metastatic colonization,” Cancer Cell 24(4), 481–498 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (4)

T. Nakajima, K. Sano, M. Mitsunaga, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Real-time monitoring of in vivo acute necrotic cancer cell death induced by near infrared photoimmunotherapy using fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Cancer Res. 72(18), 4622–4628 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yamamoto, P. Jiang, M. Yang, M. Xu, K. Yamauchi, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, G. M. Wahl, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Cellular dynamics visualized in live cells in vitro and in vivo by differential dual-color nuclear-cytoplasmic fluorescent-protein expression,” Cancer Res. 64(12), 4251–4256 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, “Real-time in vivo dual-color imaging of intracapillary cancer cell and nucleus deformation and migration,” Cancer Res. 65(10), 4246–4252 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, M. Xu, N. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, M. Bouvet, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of real-time subcellular dynamic multicolor imaging of cancer-cell trafficking in live mice with a variable-magnification whole-mouse imaging system,” Cancer Res. 66(8), 4208–4214 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell Adhes. Migr. (1)

A. Arjonen, R. Kaukonen, and J. Ivaska, “Filopodia and adhesion in cancer cell motility,” Cell Adhes. Migr. 5(5), 421–430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell Cycle (1)

A. Uchugonova, W. Cao, R. M. Hoffman, and K. Koenig, “Comparison of label-free and GFP multiphoton imaging of hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells in mouse whiskers,” Cell Cycle 14(21), 3430–3433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (3)

J. Faix and K. Rottner, “The making of filopodia,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18(1), 18–25 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Eilken and R. H. Adams, “Dynamics of endothelial cell behavior in sprouting angiogenesis,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 22(5), 617–625 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Jacquemet, H. Hamidi, and J. Ivaska, “Filopodia in cell adhesion, 3D migration and cancer cell invasion,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 36, 23–31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Pac. Vis. Symp. (1)

Y. Wan, H. Otsuna, C. B. Chien, and C. Hansen, “FluoRender: An Application of 2D Image Space Methods for 3D and 4D Confocal Microscopy Data Visualization in Neurobiology Research,” IEEE Pac. Vis. Symp. 865, 201–208 (2012).
[PubMed]

Imaging Microscopy (1)

A. Uchugonova, R. M. Hoffman, and K. Koenig, “Stem cell imaging in living animals,” Imaging Microscopy 3, 44–46 (2013).

Int. J. Cancer (1)

N. Shirasu, H. Yamada, H. Shibaguchi, M. Kuroki, and M. Kuroki, “Potent and specific antitumor effect of CEA-targeted photoimmunotherapy,” Int. J. Cancer 135(11), 2697–2710 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cell Biol. (1)

P. A. Muller, K. H. Vousden, and J. C. Norman, “p53 and its mutants in tumor cell migration and invasion,” J. Cell Biol. 192(2), 209–218 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Cell Sci. (1)

R. J. Petrie and K. M. Yamada, “At the leading edge of three-dimensional cell migration,” J. Cell Sci. 125(24), 5917–5926 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. C. Willingham, “Cytochemical methods for the detection of apoptosis,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 47(9), 1101–1109 (1999).
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J. Pathol. (1)

J. F. Kerr, “Shrinkage necrosis: a distinct mode of cellular death,” J. Pathol. 105(1), 13–20 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mol. Oncol. (1)

K. Sato, R. Watanabe, H. Hanaoka, T. Harada, T. Nakajima, I. Kim, C. H. Paik, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Photoimmunotherapy: comparative effectiveness of two monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Mol. Oncol. 8(3), 620–632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Cell Biol. (1)

H. Zhang, J. S. Berg, Z. Li, Y. Wang, P. Lang, A. D. Sousa, A. Bhaskar, R. E. Cheney, and S. Strömblad, “Myosin-X provides a motor-based link between integrins and the cytoskeleton,” Nat. Cell Biol. 6(6), 523–531 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

M. Mitsunaga, M. Ogawa, N. Kosaka, L. T. Rosenblum, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Cancer cell-selective in vivo near infrared photoimmunotherapy targeting specific membrane molecules,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1685–1691 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

R. M. Hoffman and M. Yang, “Subcellular imaging in the live mouse,” Nat. Protoc. 1(2), 775–782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Cancer (1)

A. Nürnberg, T. Kitzing, and R. Grosse, “Nucleating actin for invasion,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 11(3), 177–187 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

News Physiol. Sci. (1)

U. Ziegler and P. Groscurth, “Morphological features of cell death,” News Physiol. Sci. 19(3), 124–128 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Science (1)

M. Chalfie, Y. Tu, G. Euskirchen, W. W. Ward, and D. C. Prasher, “Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression,” Science 263(5148), 802–805 (1994).
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Trends Mol. Med. (1)

P. Saharinen, L. Eklund, K. Pulkki, P. Bono, and K. Alitalo, “VEGF and angiopoietin signaling in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis,” Trends Mol. Med. 17(7), 347–362 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. M. Hoffman, In vivo Cellular Imaging Using Fluorescent Proteins: Methods and Protocols (Humana Press, 2012)

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (741 KB)      Change in number of filopodia on 3T3/HER2 cells after NIR light exposure
» Visualization 2: AVI (1535 KB)      Change in number of filopodia on 3T3/HER2 cells without NIR light exposure
» Visualization 3: AVI (1239 KB)      Change of filopodia on MDA-MB-468 cells after NIR light exposure
» Visualization 4: AVI (1022 KB)      Change of filopodia on MDA-MB-468 cells without NIR light exposure

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Filopodia were detected on 3T3/HER2 and MDA-MB-468 cell. Filopodia of 3T3/HER2 cell were long while those of MDA-MB-468 cell were short. Filopodia were not detected on A431, SKOV3 and N87 cells.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Change in number of filopodia on 3T3/HER2 cells after NIR light exposure. In the NIR-PIT group the number of filopodia decreased after NIR light exposure reaching significance at all time points (p = 0.015 at 5 min, <0.01 at 10 and 15 min after NIR-light exposure) (see Visualization 1). On the other hand, in the control group the number of filopodia was unchanged (see Visualization 2).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Change in visual score of filopodia on MDA-MB-468 cells after NIR light exposure. In the NIR-PIT group the visual score of filopodia decreased rapidly after NIR light exposure reaching significance at all time points (p = 0.01 at 5, 10 and 15 min after NIR-light exposure) (see Visualization 3). On the other hand, in the control group the visual score of filopodia was unchanged (see Visualization 4).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Morphological changes of 3T3/HER2 cells after NIR-PIT. In the NIR-PIT group cell volume and relative height of cell increased gradually after NIR light exposure although the changes did not reach significance. In the control group cell volume, bottom area of cell, and relative height of cell did not change after NIR light exposure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Morphological changes of MDA-MB-468 cells after NIR-PIT. In the NIR-PIT group cell volume did not change after NIR light exposure. On the other hand, the bottom area of cell attachment decreased while relative height of cell increased gradually after NIR light exposure. However, these findings did not reach significance. In the control group volume, bottom area, and relative height of cell did not change after NIR light exposure.

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