Abstract

The conjunctiva is a densely vascularized mucus membrane covering the sclera of the eye with a unique advantage of accessibility for direct visualization and non-invasive imaging. The purpose of this study is to apply an automated quantitative method for discrimination of different stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) using conjunctival microvasculature images. Fine structural analysis of conjunctival microvasculature images was performed by ordinary least square regression and Fisher linear discriminant analysis. Conjunctival images between groups of non-diabetic and diabetic subjects at different stages of DR were discriminated. The automated method’s discriminate rates were higher than those determined by human observers. The method allowed sensitive and rapid discrimination by assessment of conjunctival microvasculature images and can be potentially useful for DR screening and monitoring.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

M. M. Khansari, J. Wanek, A. E. Felder, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Automated Assessment of Hemodynamics in the Conjunctival Microvasculature Network,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(2), 605–611 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. O’Neill, R. Penn, M. Werner, and J. Thomas, “A theory of fine structure image models with an application to detection and classification of dementia,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(3), 356–367 (2015).
[PubMed]

N. Stuebiger, W. Smiddy, J. Wang, H. Jiang, and D. C. DeBuc, “Assesment of Conjunctival Microangiopathy in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus Using the Retinal Function Imager,” J. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 6(1), 400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

H. Jiang, J. Zhong, D. C. DeBuc, A. Tao, Z. Xu, B. L. Lam, C. Liu, and J. Wang, “Functional slit lamp biomicroscopy for imaging bulbar conjunctival microvasculature in contact lens wearers,” Microvasc. Res. 92, 62–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. van Zijderveld, C. Ince, and R. O. Schlingemann, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging of conjunctival microcirculation,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(5), 773–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

H. Jiang, Y. Ye, D. C. DeBuc, B. L. Lam, T. Rundek, A. Tao, Y. Shao, and J. Wang, “Human conjunctival microvasculature assessed with a retinal function imager (RFI),” Microvasc. Res. 85, 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

B. Antal and A. Hajdu, “An ensemble-based system for microaneurysm detection and diabetic retinopathy grading,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(6), 1720–1726 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Z. C. Azemin, D. K. Kumar, T. Y. Wong, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, R. Kawasaki, and H. Wu, “Age-related rarefaction in the fractal dimension of retinal vessel,” Neurobiol. Aging 33(1), 194 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

W. J. To, D. G. Telander, M. E. Lloyd, P. C. Chen, and A. T. Cheung, “Correlation of conjunctival microangiopathy with retinopathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 47(2), 131–141 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (4)

M. Shahidi, J. Wanek, B. Gaynes, and T. Wu, “Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular circulation of the human eye,” Microvasc. Res. 79(2), 109–113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cheung, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, Q. P. Lau, H. Hamzah, M. Ho, and T. Y. Wong, “A new method to measure peripheral retinal vascular caliber over an extended area,” Microcirculation 17(7), 495–503 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Grauslund, A. Green, R. Kawasaki, L. Hodgson, A. K. Sjølie, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular fractals and microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes,” Ophthalmology 117(7), 1400–1405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. Bernardes, S. Nunes, I. Pereira, T. Torrent, A. Rosa, D. Coelho, and J. Cunha-Vaz, “Computer-assisted microaneurysm turnover in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 223(5), 284–291 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. Liew, J. J. Wang, N. Cheung, Y. P. Zhang, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, P. Mitchell, G. Tikellis, B. Taylor, and T. Y. Wong, “The retinal vasculature as a fractal: methodology, reliability, and relationship to blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 1951–1956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, S. A. Barman, E. G. Woodward, and T. J. Ellis, “Diabetes and the tortuosity of vessels of the bulbar conjunctiva,” Ophthalmology 115(6), e27–e32 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. Devaraj, A. T. Cheung, I. Jialal, S. C. Griffen, D. Nguyen, N. Glaser, and T. Aoki, “Evidence of increased inflammation and microcirculatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes and their role in microvascular complications,” Diabetes 56(11), 2790–2796 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Koutsiaris, S. V. Tachmitzi, N. Batis, M. G. Kotoula, C. H. Karabatsas, E. Tsironi, and D. Z. Chatzoulis, “Volume flow and wall shear stress quantification in the human conjunctival capillaries and post-capillary venules in vivo,” Biorheology 44(5-6), 375–386 (2007).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, T. J. Ellis, and E. G. Woodward, “Vascular response of the bulbar conjunctiva to diabetes and elevated blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1801–1808 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

A. T. Cheung, A. R. Price, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, J. Gut, E. C. Larkin, P. C. Chen, and D. M. Wilson, “Microvascular abnormalities in pediatric diabetic patients,” Microvasc. Res. 63(3), 252–258 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Cheung, P. C. Chen, E. C. Larkin, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, F. Tablin, and T. Wun, “Microvascular abnormalities in sickle cell disease: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study,” Blood 99(11), 3999–4005 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. T. Cheung, S. Ramanujam, D. A. Greer, L. F. Kumagai, and T. T. Aoki, “Microvascular abnormalities in the bulbar conjunctiva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Endocr. Pract. 7(5), 358–363 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. T. Cheung, R. V. Perez, and P. C. Chen, “Improvements in diabetic microangiopathy after successful simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study on the conjunctival microcirculation,” Transplantation 68(7), 927–932 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

D. M. Worthen, B. M. Fenton, P. Rosen, and B. Zweifach, “Morphometry of diabetic conjunctival blood vessels,” Ophthalmology 88(7), 655–657 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abràmoff, M. D.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antal, B.

B. Antal and A. Hajdu, “An ensemble-based system for microaneurysm detection and diabetic retinopathy grading,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(6), 1720–1726 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoki, T.

S. Devaraj, A. T. Cheung, I. Jialal, S. C. Griffen, D. Nguyen, N. Glaser, and T. Aoki, “Evidence of increased inflammation and microcirculatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes and their role in microvascular complications,” Diabetes 56(11), 2790–2796 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoki, T. T.

A. T. Cheung, S. Ramanujam, D. A. Greer, L. F. Kumagai, and T. T. Aoki, “Microvascular abnormalities in the bulbar conjunctiva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Endocr. Pract. 7(5), 358–363 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azemin, M. Z. C.

M. Z. C. Azemin, D. K. Kumar, T. Y. Wong, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, R. Kawasaki, and H. Wu, “Age-related rarefaction in the fractal dimension of retinal vessel,” Neurobiol. Aging 33(1), 194 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barman, S. A.

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, S. A. Barman, E. G. Woodward, and T. J. Ellis, “Diabetes and the tortuosity of vessels of the bulbar conjunctiva,” Ophthalmology 115(6), e27–e32 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batis, N.

A. G. Koutsiaris, S. V. Tachmitzi, N. Batis, M. G. Kotoula, C. H. Karabatsas, E. Tsironi, and D. Z. Chatzoulis, “Volume flow and wall shear stress quantification in the human conjunctival capillaries and post-capillary venules in vivo,” Biorheology 44(5-6), 375–386 (2007).
[PubMed]

Bernardes, R.

R. Bernardes, S. Nunes, I. Pereira, T. Torrent, A. Rosa, D. Coelho, and J. Cunha-Vaz, “Computer-assisted microaneurysm turnover in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 223(5), 284–291 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camardo, N.

M. M. Khansari, J. Wanek, A. E. Felder, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Automated Assessment of Hemodynamics in the Conjunctival Microvasculature Network,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(2), 605–611 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chatzoulis, D. Z.

A. G. Koutsiaris, S. V. Tachmitzi, N. Batis, M. G. Kotoula, C. H. Karabatsas, E. Tsironi, and D. Z. Chatzoulis, “Volume flow and wall shear stress quantification in the human conjunctival capillaries and post-capillary venules in vivo,” Biorheology 44(5-6), 375–386 (2007).
[PubMed]

Chen, P. C.

W. J. To, D. G. Telander, M. E. Lloyd, P. C. Chen, and A. T. Cheung, “Correlation of conjunctival microangiopathy with retinopathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 47(2), 131–141 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. T. Cheung, A. R. Price, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, J. Gut, E. C. Larkin, P. C. Chen, and D. M. Wilson, “Microvascular abnormalities in pediatric diabetic patients,” Microvasc. Res. 63(3), 252–258 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Cheung, P. C. Chen, E. C. Larkin, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, F. Tablin, and T. Wun, “Microvascular abnormalities in sickle cell disease: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study,” Blood 99(11), 3999–4005 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Cheung, R. V. Perez, and P. C. Chen, “Improvements in diabetic microangiopathy after successful simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study on the conjunctival microcirculation,” Transplantation 68(7), 927–932 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, A. T.

W. J. To, D. G. Telander, M. E. Lloyd, P. C. Chen, and A. T. Cheung, “Correlation of conjunctival microangiopathy with retinopathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 47(2), 131–141 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Devaraj, A. T. Cheung, I. Jialal, S. C. Griffen, D. Nguyen, N. Glaser, and T. Aoki, “Evidence of increased inflammation and microcirculatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes and their role in microvascular complications,” Diabetes 56(11), 2790–2796 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Cheung, A. R. Price, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, J. Gut, E. C. Larkin, P. C. Chen, and D. M. Wilson, “Microvascular abnormalities in pediatric diabetic patients,” Microvasc. Res. 63(3), 252–258 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Cheung, P. C. Chen, E. C. Larkin, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, F. Tablin, and T. Wun, “Microvascular abnormalities in sickle cell disease: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study,” Blood 99(11), 3999–4005 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Cheung, S. Ramanujam, D. A. Greer, L. F. Kumagai, and T. T. Aoki, “Microvascular abnormalities in the bulbar conjunctiva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Endocr. Pract. 7(5), 358–363 (2001).
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A. T. Cheung, R. V. Perez, and P. C. Chen, “Improvements in diabetic microangiopathy after successful simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study on the conjunctival microcirculation,” Transplantation 68(7), 927–932 (1999).
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Cheung, C. Y.

C. Y. Cheung, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, Q. P. Lau, H. Hamzah, M. Ho, and T. Y. Wong, “A new method to measure peripheral retinal vascular caliber over an extended area,” Microcirculation 17(7), 495–503 (2010).
[PubMed]

Cheung, N.

G. Liew, J. J. Wang, N. Cheung, Y. P. Zhang, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, P. Mitchell, G. Tikellis, B. Taylor, and T. Y. Wong, “The retinal vasculature as a fractal: methodology, reliability, and relationship to blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 1951–1956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cochener, B.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
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Coelho, D.

R. Bernardes, S. Nunes, I. Pereira, T. Torrent, A. Rosa, D. Coelho, and J. Cunha-Vaz, “Computer-assisted microaneurysm turnover in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 223(5), 284–291 (2009).
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Cunha-Vaz, J.

R. Bernardes, S. Nunes, I. Pereira, T. Torrent, A. Rosa, D. Coelho, and J. Cunha-Vaz, “Computer-assisted microaneurysm turnover in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 223(5), 284–291 (2009).
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DeBuc, D. C.

N. Stuebiger, W. Smiddy, J. Wang, H. Jiang, and D. C. DeBuc, “Assesment of Conjunctival Microangiopathy in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus Using the Retinal Function Imager,” J. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 6(1), 400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, J. Zhong, D. C. DeBuc, A. Tao, Z. Xu, B. L. Lam, C. Liu, and J. Wang, “Functional slit lamp biomicroscopy for imaging bulbar conjunctival microvasculature in contact lens wearers,” Microvasc. Res. 92, 62–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Y. Ye, D. C. DeBuc, B. L. Lam, T. Rundek, A. Tao, Y. Shao, and J. Wang, “Human conjunctival microvasculature assessed with a retinal function imager (RFI),” Microvasc. Res. 85, 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devaraj, S.

S. Devaraj, A. T. Cheung, I. Jialal, S. C. Griffen, D. Nguyen, N. Glaser, and T. Aoki, “Evidence of increased inflammation and microcirculatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes and their role in microvascular complications,” Diabetes 56(11), 2790–2796 (2007).
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Ducoli, P.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
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Duong, P. L.

A. T. Cheung, A. R. Price, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, J. Gut, E. C. Larkin, P. C. Chen, and D. M. Wilson, “Microvascular abnormalities in pediatric diabetic patients,” Microvasc. Res. 63(3), 252–258 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Cheung, P. C. Chen, E. C. Larkin, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, F. Tablin, and T. Wun, “Microvascular abnormalities in sickle cell disease: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study,” Blood 99(11), 3999–4005 (2002).
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Ellis, T. J.

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, S. A. Barman, E. G. Woodward, and T. J. Ellis, “Diabetes and the tortuosity of vessels of the bulbar conjunctiva,” Ophthalmology 115(6), e27–e32 (2008).
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C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, T. J. Ellis, and E. G. Woodward, “Vascular response of the bulbar conjunctiva to diabetes and elevated blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1801–1808 (2005).
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Felder, A. E.

M. M. Khansari, J. Wanek, A. E. Felder, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Automated Assessment of Hemodynamics in the Conjunctival Microvasculature Network,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(2), 605–611 (2016).
[PubMed]

Fenton, B. M.

D. M. Worthen, B. M. Fenton, P. Rosen, and B. Zweifach, “Morphometry of diabetic conjunctival blood vessels,” Ophthalmology 88(7), 655–657 (1981).
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Flaxel, C. J.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleming, A. D.

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Folk, J. C.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gain, P.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, S. S.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaynes, B.

M. Shahidi, J. Wanek, B. Gaynes, and T. Wu, “Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular circulation of the human eye,” Microvasc. Res. 79(2), 109–113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glaser, N.

S. Devaraj, A. T. Cheung, I. Jialal, S. C. Griffen, D. Nguyen, N. Glaser, and T. Aoki, “Evidence of increased inflammation and microcirculatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes and their role in microvascular complications,” Diabetes 56(11), 2790–2796 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goatman, K. A.

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grauslund, J.

J. Grauslund, A. Green, R. Kawasaki, L. Hodgson, A. K. Sjølie, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular fractals and microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes,” Ophthalmology 117(7), 1400–1405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, A.

J. Grauslund, A. Green, R. Kawasaki, L. Hodgson, A. K. Sjølie, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular fractals and microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes,” Ophthalmology 117(7), 1400–1405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greer, D. A.

A. T. Cheung, S. Ramanujam, D. A. Greer, L. F. Kumagai, and T. T. Aoki, “Microvascular abnormalities in the bulbar conjunctiva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Endocr. Pract. 7(5), 358–363 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffen, S. C.

S. Devaraj, A. T. Cheung, I. Jialal, S. C. Griffen, D. Nguyen, N. Glaser, and T. Aoki, “Evidence of increased inflammation and microcirculatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes and their role in microvascular complications,” Diabetes 56(11), 2790–2796 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gut, J.

A. T. Cheung, A. R. Price, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, J. Gut, E. C. Larkin, P. C. Chen, and D. M. Wilson, “Microvascular abnormalities in pediatric diabetic patients,” Microvasc. Res. 63(3), 252–258 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajdu, A.

B. Antal and A. Hajdu, “An ensemble-based system for microaneurysm detection and diabetic retinopathy grading,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(6), 1720–1726 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamzah, H.

C. Y. Cheung, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, Q. P. Lau, H. Hamzah, M. Ho, and T. Y. Wong, “A new method to measure peripheral retinal vascular caliber over an extended area,” Microcirculation 17(7), 495–503 (2010).
[PubMed]

Han, D. P.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, M.

C. Y. Cheung, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, Q. P. Lau, H. Hamzah, M. Ho, and T. Y. Wong, “A new method to measure peripheral retinal vascular caliber over an extended area,” Microcirculation 17(7), 495–503 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hodgson, L.

J. Grauslund, A. Green, R. Kawasaki, L. Hodgson, A. K. Sjølie, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular fractals and microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes,” Ophthalmology 117(7), 1400–1405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, W.

C. Y. Cheung, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, Q. P. Lau, H. Hamzah, M. Ho, and T. Y. Wong, “A new method to measure peripheral retinal vascular caliber over an extended area,” Microcirculation 17(7), 495–503 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. Liew, J. J. Wang, N. Cheung, Y. P. Zhang, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, P. Mitchell, G. Tikellis, B. Taylor, and T. Y. Wong, “The retinal vasculature as a fractal: methodology, reliability, and relationship to blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 1951–1956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, T. S.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ince, C.

R. van Zijderveld, C. Ince, and R. O. Schlingemann, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging of conjunctival microcirculation,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(5), 773–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ishibazawa, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jialal, I.

S. Devaraj, A. T. Cheung, I. Jialal, S. C. Griffen, D. Nguyen, N. Glaser, and T. Aoki, “Evidence of increased inflammation and microcirculatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes and their role in microvascular complications,” Diabetes 56(11), 2790–2796 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

N. Stuebiger, W. Smiddy, J. Wang, H. Jiang, and D. C. DeBuc, “Assesment of Conjunctival Microangiopathy in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus Using the Retinal Function Imager,” J. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 6(1), 400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, J. Zhong, D. C. DeBuc, A. Tao, Z. Xu, B. L. Lam, C. Liu, and J. Wang, “Functional slit lamp biomicroscopy for imaging bulbar conjunctival microvasculature in contact lens wearers,” Microvasc. Res. 92, 62–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Y. Ye, D. C. DeBuc, B. L. Lam, T. Rundek, A. Tao, Y. Shao, and J. Wang, “Human conjunctival microvasculature assessed with a retinal function imager (RFI),” Microvasc. Res. 85, 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karabatsas, C. H.

A. G. Koutsiaris, S. V. Tachmitzi, N. Batis, M. G. Kotoula, C. H. Karabatsas, E. Tsironi, and D. Z. Chatzoulis, “Volume flow and wall shear stress quantification in the human conjunctival capillaries and post-capillary venules in vivo,” Biorheology 44(5-6), 375–386 (2007).
[PubMed]

Kawasaki, R.

M. Z. C. Azemin, D. K. Kumar, T. Y. Wong, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, R. Kawasaki, and H. Wu, “Age-related rarefaction in the fractal dimension of retinal vessel,” Neurobiol. Aging 33(1), 194 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grauslund, A. Green, R. Kawasaki, L. Hodgson, A. K. Sjølie, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular fractals and microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes,” Ophthalmology 117(7), 1400–1405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khansari, M. M.

M. M. Khansari, J. Wanek, A. E. Felder, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Automated Assessment of Hemodynamics in the Conjunctival Microvasculature Network,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(2), 605–611 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kotoula, M. G.

A. G. Koutsiaris, S. V. Tachmitzi, N. Batis, M. G. Kotoula, C. H. Karabatsas, E. Tsironi, and D. Z. Chatzoulis, “Volume flow and wall shear stress quantification in the human conjunctival capillaries and post-capillary venules in vivo,” Biorheology 44(5-6), 375–386 (2007).
[PubMed]

Koutsiaris, A. G.

A. G. Koutsiaris, S. V. Tachmitzi, N. Batis, M. G. Kotoula, C. H. Karabatsas, E. Tsironi, and D. Z. Chatzoulis, “Volume flow and wall shear stress quantification in the human conjunctival capillaries and post-capillary venules in vivo,” Biorheology 44(5-6), 375–386 (2007).
[PubMed]

Kumagai, L. F.

A. T. Cheung, S. Ramanujam, D. A. Greer, L. F. Kumagai, and T. T. Aoki, “Microvascular abnormalities in the bulbar conjunctiva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Endocr. Pract. 7(5), 358–363 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, D. K.

M. Z. C. Azemin, D. K. Kumar, T. Y. Wong, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, R. Kawasaki, and H. Wu, “Age-related rarefaction in the fractal dimension of retinal vessel,” Neurobiol. Aging 33(1), 194 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, B. L.

H. Jiang, J. Zhong, D. C. DeBuc, A. Tao, Z. Xu, B. L. Lam, C. Liu, and J. Wang, “Functional slit lamp biomicroscopy for imaging bulbar conjunctival microvasculature in contact lens wearers,” Microvasc. Res. 92, 62–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Y. Ye, D. C. DeBuc, B. L. Lam, T. Rundek, A. Tao, Y. Shao, and J. Wang, “Human conjunctival microvasculature assessed with a retinal function imager (RFI),” Microvasc. Res. 85, 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamard, M.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larkin, E. C.

A. T. Cheung, A. R. Price, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, J. Gut, E. C. Larkin, P. C. Chen, and D. M. Wilson, “Microvascular abnormalities in pediatric diabetic patients,” Microvasc. Res. 63(3), 252–258 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Cheung, P. C. Chen, E. C. Larkin, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, F. Tablin, and T. Wun, “Microvascular abnormalities in sickle cell disease: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study,” Blood 99(11), 3999–4005 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, Q. P.

C. Y. Cheung, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, Q. P. Lau, H. Hamzah, M. Ho, and T. Y. Wong, “A new method to measure peripheral retinal vascular caliber over an extended area,” Microcirculation 17(7), 495–503 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lauer, A. K.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M. L.

C. Y. Cheung, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, Q. P. Lau, H. Hamzah, M. Ho, and T. Y. Wong, “A new method to measure peripheral retinal vascular caliber over an extended area,” Microcirculation 17(7), 495–503 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. Liew, J. J. Wang, N. Cheung, Y. P. Zhang, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, P. Mitchell, G. Tikellis, B. Taylor, and T. Y. Wong, “The retinal vasculature as a fractal: methodology, reliability, and relationship to blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 1951–1956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leese, G. P.

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liew, G.

G. Liew, J. J. Wang, N. Cheung, Y. P. Zhang, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, P. Mitchell, G. Tikellis, B. Taylor, and T. Y. Wong, “The retinal vasculature as a fractal: methodology, reliability, and relationship to blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 1951–1956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

H. Jiang, J. Zhong, D. C. DeBuc, A. Tao, Z. Xu, B. L. Lam, C. Liu, and J. Wang, “Functional slit lamp biomicroscopy for imaging bulbar conjunctival microvasculature in contact lens wearers,” Microvasc. Res. 92, 62–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Lloyd, M. E.

W. J. To, D. G. Telander, M. E. Lloyd, P. C. Chen, and A. T. Cheung, “Correlation of conjunctival microangiopathy with retinopathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 47(2), 131–141 (2011).
[PubMed]

Lombardo, G.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lombardo, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massin, P.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McClintic, S. M.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNamee, P.

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, P.

M. Z. C. Azemin, D. K. Kumar, T. Y. Wong, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, R. Kawasaki, and H. Wu, “Age-related rarefaction in the fractal dimension of retinal vessel,” Neurobiol. Aging 33(1), 194 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cheung, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, Q. P. Lau, H. Hamzah, M. Ho, and T. Y. Wong, “A new method to measure peripheral retinal vascular caliber over an extended area,” Microcirculation 17(7), 495–503 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. Liew, J. J. Wang, N. Cheung, Y. P. Zhang, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, P. Mitchell, G. Tikellis, B. Taylor, and T. Y. Wong, “The retinal vasculature as a fractal: methodology, reliability, and relationship to blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 1951–1956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moga, D. C.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagaoka, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newsom, R. S.

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, S. A. Barman, E. G. Woodward, and T. J. Ellis, “Diabetes and the tortuosity of vessels of the bulbar conjunctiva,” Ophthalmology 115(6), e27–e32 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, T. J. Ellis, and E. G. Woodward, “Vascular response of the bulbar conjunctiva to diabetes and elevated blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1801–1808 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, D.

S. Devaraj, A. T. Cheung, I. Jialal, S. C. Griffen, D. Nguyen, N. Glaser, and T. Aoki, “Evidence of increased inflammation and microcirculatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes and their role in microvascular complications,” Diabetes 56(11), 2790–2796 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niemeijer, M.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nunes, S.

R. Bernardes, S. Nunes, I. Pereira, T. Torrent, A. Rosa, D. Coelho, and J. Cunha-Vaz, “Computer-assisted microaneurysm turnover in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 223(5), 284–291 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Neill, W.

W. O’Neill, R. Penn, M. Werner, and J. Thomas, “A theory of fine structure image models with an application to detection and classification of dementia,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(3), 356–367 (2015).
[PubMed]

Olson, J. A.

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Omae, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Owen, C. G.

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, S. A. Barman, E. G. Woodward, and T. J. Ellis, “Diabetes and the tortuosity of vessels of the bulbar conjunctiva,” Ophthalmology 115(6), e27–e32 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, T. J. Ellis, and E. G. Woodward, “Vascular response of the bulbar conjunctiva to diabetes and elevated blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1801–1808 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parravano, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pechauer, A. D.

Penn, R.

W. O’Neill, R. Penn, M. Werner, and J. Thomas, “A theory of fine structure image models with an application to detection and classification of dementia,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(3), 356–367 (2015).
[PubMed]

Pennesi, M. E.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pereira, I.

R. Bernardes, S. Nunes, I. Pereira, T. Torrent, A. Rosa, D. Coelho, and J. Cunha-Vaz, “Computer-assisted microaneurysm turnover in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 223(5), 284–291 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perez, R. V.

A. T. Cheung, R. V. Perez, and P. C. Chen, “Improvements in diabetic microangiopathy after successful simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study on the conjunctival microcirculation,” Transplantation 68(7), 927–932 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Philip, S.

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prescott, G. J.

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Price, A. R.

A. T. Cheung, A. R. Price, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, J. Gut, E. C. Larkin, P. C. Chen, and D. M. Wilson, “Microvascular abnormalities in pediatric diabetic patients,” Microvasc. Res. 63(3), 252–258 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quellec, G.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, S.

A. T. Cheung, A. R. Price, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, J. Gut, E. C. Larkin, P. C. Chen, and D. M. Wilson, “Microvascular abnormalities in pediatric diabetic patients,” Microvasc. Res. 63(3), 252–258 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Cheung, P. C. Chen, E. C. Larkin, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, F. Tablin, and T. Wun, “Microvascular abnormalities in sickle cell disease: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study,” Blood 99(11), 3999–4005 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Cheung, S. Ramanujam, D. A. Greer, L. F. Kumagai, and T. T. Aoki, “Microvascular abnormalities in the bulbar conjunctiva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Endocr. Pract. 7(5), 358–363 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosa, A.

R. Bernardes, S. Nunes, I. Pereira, T. Torrent, A. Rosa, D. Coelho, and J. Cunha-Vaz, “Computer-assisted microaneurysm turnover in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 223(5), 284–291 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, P.

D. M. Worthen, B. M. Fenton, P. Rosen, and B. Zweifach, “Morphometry of diabetic conjunctival blood vessels,” Ophthalmology 88(7), 655–657 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudnicka, A. R.

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, S. A. Barman, E. G. Woodward, and T. J. Ellis, “Diabetes and the tortuosity of vessels of the bulbar conjunctiva,” Ophthalmology 115(6), e27–e32 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, T. J. Ellis, and E. G. Woodward, “Vascular response of the bulbar conjunctiva to diabetes and elevated blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1801–1808 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rundek, T.

H. Jiang, Y. Ye, D. C. DeBuc, B. L. Lam, T. Rundek, A. Tao, Y. Shao, and J. Wang, “Human conjunctival microvasculature assessed with a retinal function imager (RFI),” Microvasc. Res. 85, 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, S. R.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlingemann, R. O.

R. van Zijderveld, C. Ince, and R. O. Schlingemann, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging of conjunctival microcirculation,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(5), 773–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

Scotland, G. S.

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serrao, S.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shahidi, M.

M. M. Khansari, J. Wanek, A. E. Felder, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Automated Assessment of Hemodynamics in the Conjunctival Microvasculature Network,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(2), 605–611 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Shahidi, J. Wanek, B. Gaynes, and T. Wu, “Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular circulation of the human eye,” Microvasc. Res. 79(2), 109–113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, Y.

H. Jiang, Y. Ye, D. C. DeBuc, B. L. Lam, T. Rundek, A. Tao, Y. Shao, and J. Wang, “Human conjunctival microvasculature assessed with a retinal function imager (RFI),” Microvasc. Res. 85, 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharp, P. F.

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sjølie, A. K.

J. Grauslund, A. Green, R. Kawasaki, L. Hodgson, A. K. Sjølie, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular fractals and microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes,” Ophthalmology 117(7), 1400–1405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smiddy, W.

N. Stuebiger, W. Smiddy, J. Wang, H. Jiang, and D. C. DeBuc, “Assesment of Conjunctival Microangiopathy in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus Using the Retinal Function Imager,” J. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 6(1), 400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sogawa, K.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stirpe, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stuebiger, N.

N. Stuebiger, W. Smiddy, J. Wang, H. Jiang, and D. C. DeBuc, “Assesment of Conjunctival Microangiopathy in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus Using the Retinal Function Imager,” J. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 6(1), 400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tablin, F.

A. T. Cheung, P. C. Chen, E. C. Larkin, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, F. Tablin, and T. Wun, “Microvascular abnormalities in sickle cell disease: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study,” Blood 99(11), 3999–4005 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tachmitzi, S. V.

A. G. Koutsiaris, S. V. Tachmitzi, N. Batis, M. G. Kotoula, C. H. Karabatsas, E. Tsironi, and D. Z. Chatzoulis, “Volume flow and wall shear stress quantification in the human conjunctival capillaries and post-capillary venules in vivo,” Biorheology 44(5-6), 375–386 (2007).
[PubMed]

Takahashi, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, L.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tani, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, A.

H. Jiang, J. Zhong, D. C. DeBuc, A. Tao, Z. Xu, B. L. Lam, C. Liu, and J. Wang, “Functional slit lamp biomicroscopy for imaging bulbar conjunctival microvasculature in contact lens wearers,” Microvasc. Res. 92, 62–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Y. Ye, D. C. DeBuc, B. L. Lam, T. Rundek, A. Tao, Y. Shao, and J. Wang, “Human conjunctival microvasculature assessed with a retinal function imager (RFI),” Microvasc. Res. 85, 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, B.

G. Liew, J. J. Wang, N. Cheung, Y. P. Zhang, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, P. Mitchell, G. Tikellis, B. Taylor, and T. Y. Wong, “The retinal vasculature as a fractal: methodology, reliability, and relationship to blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 1951–1956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Telander, D. G.

W. J. To, D. G. Telander, M. E. Lloyd, P. C. Chen, and A. T. Cheung, “Correlation of conjunctival microangiopathy with retinopathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 47(2), 131–141 (2011).
[PubMed]

Thomas, J.

W. O’Neill, R. Penn, M. Werner, and J. Thomas, “A theory of fine structure image models with an application to detection and classification of dementia,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(3), 356–367 (2015).
[PubMed]

Tikellis, G.

G. Liew, J. J. Wang, N. Cheung, Y. P. Zhang, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, P. Mitchell, G. Tikellis, B. Taylor, and T. Y. Wong, “The retinal vasculature as a fractal: methodology, reliability, and relationship to blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 1951–1956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

To, W. J.

W. J. To, D. G. Telander, M. E. Lloyd, P. C. Chen, and A. T. Cheung, “Correlation of conjunctival microangiopathy with retinopathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 47(2), 131–141 (2011).
[PubMed]

Torrent, T.

R. Bernardes, S. Nunes, I. Pereira, T. Torrent, A. Rosa, D. Coelho, and J. Cunha-Vaz, “Computer-assisted microaneurysm turnover in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 223(5), 284–291 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsironi, E.

A. G. Koutsiaris, S. V. Tachmitzi, N. Batis, M. G. Kotoula, C. H. Karabatsas, E. Tsironi, and D. Z. Chatzoulis, “Volume flow and wall shear stress quantification in the human conjunctival capillaries and post-capillary venules in vivo,” Biorheology 44(5-6), 375–386 (2007).
[PubMed]

van Zijderveld, R.

R. van Zijderveld, C. Ince, and R. O. Schlingemann, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging of conjunctival microcirculation,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(5), 773–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

Walker, J. D.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wanek, J.

M. M. Khansari, J. Wanek, A. E. Felder, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Automated Assessment of Hemodynamics in the Conjunctival Microvasculature Network,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(2), 605–611 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Shahidi, J. Wanek, B. Gaynes, and T. Wu, “Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular circulation of the human eye,” Microvasc. Res. 79(2), 109–113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stuebiger, W. Smiddy, J. Wang, H. Jiang, and D. C. DeBuc, “Assesment of Conjunctival Microangiopathy in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus Using the Retinal Function Imager,” J. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 6(1), 400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, J. Zhong, D. C. DeBuc, A. Tao, Z. Xu, B. L. Lam, C. Liu, and J. Wang, “Functional slit lamp biomicroscopy for imaging bulbar conjunctival microvasculature in contact lens wearers,” Microvasc. Res. 92, 62–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Y. Ye, D. C. DeBuc, B. L. Lam, T. Rundek, A. Tao, Y. Shao, and J. Wang, “Human conjunctival microvasculature assessed with a retinal function imager (RFI),” Microvasc. Res. 85, 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J. J.

M. Z. C. Azemin, D. K. Kumar, T. Y. Wong, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, R. Kawasaki, and H. Wu, “Age-related rarefaction in the fractal dimension of retinal vessel,” Neurobiol. Aging 33(1), 194 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cheung, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, Q. P. Lau, H. Hamzah, M. Ho, and T. Y. Wong, “A new method to measure peripheral retinal vascular caliber over an extended area,” Microcirculation 17(7), 495–503 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. Liew, J. J. Wang, N. Cheung, Y. P. Zhang, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, P. Mitchell, G. Tikellis, B. Taylor, and T. Y. Wong, “The retinal vasculature as a fractal: methodology, reliability, and relationship to blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 1951–1956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, M.

W. O’Neill, R. Penn, M. Werner, and J. Thomas, “A theory of fine structure image models with an application to detection and classification of dementia,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(3), 356–367 (2015).
[PubMed]

Williams, D. F.

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, G. J.

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. M.

A. T. Cheung, A. R. Price, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, J. Gut, E. C. Larkin, P. C. Chen, and D. M. Wilson, “Microvascular abnormalities in pediatric diabetic patients,” Microvasc. Res. 63(3), 252–258 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, T. Y.

M. Z. C. Azemin, D. K. Kumar, T. Y. Wong, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, R. Kawasaki, and H. Wu, “Age-related rarefaction in the fractal dimension of retinal vessel,” Neurobiol. Aging 33(1), 194 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grauslund, A. Green, R. Kawasaki, L. Hodgson, A. K. Sjølie, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular fractals and microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes,” Ophthalmology 117(7), 1400–1405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cheung, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, Q. P. Lau, H. Hamzah, M. Ho, and T. Y. Wong, “A new method to measure peripheral retinal vascular caliber over an extended area,” Microcirculation 17(7), 495–503 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. Liew, J. J. Wang, N. Cheung, Y. P. Zhang, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, P. Mitchell, G. Tikellis, B. Taylor, and T. Y. Wong, “The retinal vasculature as a fractal: methodology, reliability, and relationship to blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 1951–1956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woodward, E. G.

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, S. A. Barman, E. G. Woodward, and T. J. Ellis, “Diabetes and the tortuosity of vessels of the bulbar conjunctiva,” Ophthalmology 115(6), e27–e32 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, T. J. Ellis, and E. G. Woodward, “Vascular response of the bulbar conjunctiva to diabetes and elevated blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1801–1808 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Worthen, D. M.

D. M. Worthen, B. M. Fenton, P. Rosen, and B. Zweifach, “Morphometry of diabetic conjunctival blood vessels,” Ophthalmology 88(7), 655–657 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

M. Z. C. Azemin, D. K. Kumar, T. Y. Wong, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, R. Kawasaki, and H. Wu, “Age-related rarefaction in the fractal dimension of retinal vessel,” Neurobiol. Aging 33(1), 194 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, T.

M. Shahidi, J. Wanek, B. Gaynes, and T. Wu, “Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular circulation of the human eye,” Microvasc. Res. 79(2), 109–113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wun, T.

A. T. Cheung, P. C. Chen, E. C. Larkin, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, F. Tablin, and T. Wun, “Microvascular abnormalities in sickle cell disease: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study,” Blood 99(11), 3999–4005 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wykes, W. N.

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

H. Jiang, J. Zhong, D. C. DeBuc, A. Tao, Z. Xu, B. L. Lam, C. Liu, and J. Wang, “Functional slit lamp biomicroscopy for imaging bulbar conjunctival microvasculature in contact lens wearers,” Microvasc. Res. 92, 62–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, Y.

H. Jiang, Y. Ye, D. C. DeBuc, B. L. Lam, T. Rundek, A. Tao, Y. Shao, and J. Wang, “Human conjunctival microvasculature assessed with a retinal function imager (RFI),” Microvasc. Res. 85, 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokota, H.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

Zhang, Y. P.

G. Liew, J. J. Wang, N. Cheung, Y. P. Zhang, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, P. Mitchell, G. Tikellis, B. Taylor, and T. Y. Wong, “The retinal vasculature as a fractal: methodology, reliability, and relationship to blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 1951–1956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, J.

H. Jiang, J. Zhong, D. C. DeBuc, A. Tao, Z. Xu, B. L. Lam, C. Liu, and J. Wang, “Functional slit lamp biomicroscopy for imaging bulbar conjunctival microvasculature in contact lens wearers,” Microvasc. Res. 92, 62–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zweifach, B.

D. M. Worthen, B. M. Fenton, P. Rosen, and B. Zweifach, “Morphometry of diabetic conjunctival blood vessels,” Ophthalmology 88(7), 655–657 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biorheology (1)

A. G. Koutsiaris, S. V. Tachmitzi, N. Batis, M. G. Kotoula, C. H. Karabatsas, E. Tsironi, and D. Z. Chatzoulis, “Volume flow and wall shear stress quantification in the human conjunctival capillaries and post-capillary venules in vivo,” Biorheology 44(5-6), 375–386 (2007).
[PubMed]

Blood (1)

A. T. Cheung, P. C. Chen, E. C. Larkin, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, F. Tablin, and T. Wun, “Microvascular abnormalities in sickle cell disease: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study,” Blood 99(11), 3999–4005 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. D. Fleming, K. A. Goatman, S. Philip, G. J. Williams, G. J. Prescott, G. S. Scotland, P. McNamee, G. P. Leese, W. N. Wykes, P. F. Sharp, J. A. Olson, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(6), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. (1)

W. J. To, D. G. Telander, M. E. Lloyd, P. C. Chen, and A. T. Cheung, “Correlation of conjunctival microangiopathy with retinopathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 47(2), 131–141 (2011).
[PubMed]

Diabetes (1)

S. Devaraj, A. T. Cheung, I. Jialal, S. C. Griffen, D. Nguyen, N. Glaser, and T. Aoki, “Evidence of increased inflammation and microcirculatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes and their role in microvascular complications,” Diabetes 56(11), 2790–2796 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endocr. Pract. (1)

A. T. Cheung, S. Ramanujam, D. A. Greer, L. F. Kumagai, and T. T. Aoki, “Microvascular abnormalities in the bulbar conjunctiva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Endocr. Pract. 7(5), 358–363 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. van Zijderveld, C. Ince, and R. O. Schlingemann, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging of conjunctival microcirculation,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(5), 773–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

B. Antal and A. Hajdu, “An ensemble-based system for microaneurysm detection and diabetic retinopathy grading,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(6), 1720–1726 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

M. M. Khansari, J. Wanek, A. E. Felder, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Automated Assessment of Hemodynamics in the Conjunctival Microvasculature Network,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(2), 605–611 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

N. Stuebiger, W. Smiddy, J. Wang, H. Jiang, and D. C. DeBuc, “Assesment of Conjunctival Microangiopathy in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus Using the Retinal Function Imager,” J. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 6(1), 400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA Ophthalmol. (2)

M. D. Abràmoff, J. C. Folk, D. P. Han, J. D. Walker, D. F. Williams, S. R. Russell, P. Massin, B. Cochener, P. Gain, L. Tang, M. Lamard, D. C. Moga, G. Quellec, and M. Niemeijer, “Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(3), 351–357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Microcirculation (1)

C. Y. Cheung, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, Q. P. Lau, H. Hamzah, M. Ho, and T. Y. Wong, “A new method to measure peripheral retinal vascular caliber over an extended area,” Microcirculation 17(7), 495–503 (2010).
[PubMed]

Microvasc. Res. (4)

A. T. Cheung, A. R. Price, P. L. Duong, S. Ramanujam, J. Gut, E. C. Larkin, P. C. Chen, and D. M. Wilson, “Microvascular abnormalities in pediatric diabetic patients,” Microvasc. Res. 63(3), 252–258 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shahidi, J. Wanek, B. Gaynes, and T. Wu, “Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular circulation of the human eye,” Microvasc. Res. 79(2), 109–113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Y. Ye, D. C. DeBuc, B. L. Lam, T. Rundek, A. Tao, Y. Shao, and J. Wang, “Human conjunctival microvasculature assessed with a retinal function imager (RFI),” Microvasc. Res. 85, 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, J. Zhong, D. C. DeBuc, A. Tao, Z. Xu, B. L. Lam, C. Liu, and J. Wang, “Functional slit lamp biomicroscopy for imaging bulbar conjunctival microvasculature in contact lens wearers,” Microvasc. Res. 92, 62–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurobiol. Aging (1)

M. Z. C. Azemin, D. K. Kumar, T. Y. Wong, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, R. Kawasaki, and H. Wu, “Age-related rarefaction in the fractal dimension of retinal vessel,” Neurobiol. Aging 33(1), 194 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmologica (1)

R. Bernardes, S. Nunes, I. Pereira, T. Torrent, A. Rosa, D. Coelho, and J. Cunha-Vaz, “Computer-assisted microaneurysm turnover in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 223(5), 284–291 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (5)

J. Grauslund, A. Green, R. Kawasaki, L. Hodgson, A. K. Sjølie, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular fractals and microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes,” Ophthalmology 117(7), 1400–1405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liew, J. J. Wang, N. Cheung, Y. P. Zhang, W. Hsu, M. L. Lee, P. Mitchell, G. Tikellis, B. Taylor, and T. Y. Wong, “The retinal vasculature as a fractal: methodology, reliability, and relationship to blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 1951–1956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, S. A. Barman, E. G. Woodward, and T. J. Ellis, “Diabetes and the tortuosity of vessels of the bulbar conjunctiva,” Ophthalmology 115(6), e27–e32 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Owen, R. S. Newsom, A. R. Rudnicka, T. J. Ellis, and E. G. Woodward, “Vascular response of the bulbar conjunctiva to diabetes and elevated blood pressure,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1801–1808 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Worthen, B. M. Fenton, P. Rosen, and B. Zweifach, “Morphometry of diabetic conjunctival blood vessels,” Ophthalmology 88(7), 655–657 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. (1)

W. O’Neill, R. Penn, M. Werner, and J. Thomas, “A theory of fine structure image models with an application to detection and classification of dementia,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(3), 356–367 (2015).
[PubMed]

Retina (1)

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Transplantation (1)

A. T. Cheung, R. V. Perez, and P. C. Chen, “Improvements in diabetic microangiopathy after successful simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: a computer-assisted intravital microscopy study on the conjunctival microcirculation,” Transplantation 68(7), 927–932 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “National diabetes statistics report: estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States, 2014,” Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services (2014).

D. Huang, Y. Jia, and S. S. Gao, “Principles of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography ” in OCT Angiography Atlas, H. D. Lumbros B, Rosenfield P, Chen C, Rispoli M, Romano A, ed. (Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, 2015).

E. P. Box, G. M. Jenkins, and G. C. Reinsel, Time Series Analysis (Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J. 1994).

N. Draper and H. Smith, Applied Regression Analysis (Wiley and Sons, New York, 1981).

J. Magnus, Linear Structures (Oxford U. Press, 1988).

S. S. Wilks, ed., Mathematical Statistics (Wiley, 1963).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 An example of a cropped mosaic image of the conjunctiva of a diabetic (PDR) subject. Regions with light illumination artifacts and blur are visualized. Two 3.1 mm × 3.1 mm regions of interest (ROIs) that were selected for analysis are outlined by squares.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Probability densities of z - projections, and L1, L2, L3, and L4 values between non-diabetic subjects (NC, squares) and diabetic subjects (NDR, NPDR, and PDR, triangles). a) NC group 1 and NDR group 2, b) NC group 1 and NPDR group 3, c) NC group 1 and PDR group 3. Misclassified cases in group 1 have negative L1 values and misclassified cases in groups 2,3, and 4 have positive L2, L3 and L4 values, respectively. The larger L1 values and the smaller L2, L3 and L4 values denote more likely true positive and true negative cases, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Probability densities of z - projections, and L2, L3, and L4 values between diabetic groups. a) NDR group 2 (squares) and NPDR group 3 (triangles). Misclassified cases in groups 2 and 3 have negative L2 values and positive L3 values, respectively. b) NDR group 2 (squares) and PDR group 4 (triangles). Misclassified cases in groups 2 and 4 have negative L2 values and positive L4 values, respectively. c) NPDR group 3 (squares) and PDR group 4 (triangles). Misclassified cases in groups 3 and 4 have negative L3 values and positive L4 values, respectively. The larger L2 values denote more likely true positive cases and the smaller L3 and L4 values denote more likely true negative cases, except for comparison of groups 3 and 4, in which the larger L3 values denote more likely true positive cases.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Probability densities of z - projections, and L1a, L1b values between non-diabetic groups. Images in NC subjects were randomly stratified into 2 groups of equal size, group 1a (squares) and group 1b (triangles). Misclassified cases in groups 1a and 1b have negative L1a values and positive L1b values, respectively. The larger L1a values and the smaller L1b values denote more likely true positive and true negative cases, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Discrimination rates derived by the automated method and both human observers

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y i,j = k=0 2 l=0 2 b kl y ik,jl + u i,j k+l>0
b= ( X T X) 1 X T y 0
( n 1 Ω p n 2 Ω 1 n 3 Ω 2 )v= γ 1 ( n 2 Ω 1 + n 3 Ω 2 )v
L 1,2 ( z )=Ln( f 1 (z) f 2 (z) )=Ln( s 2 s 1 )+ ( z m 2 ) 2 s 2 2 2 ( z m 1 ) 2 s 1 2 2

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