Abstract

We have designed and fabricated a 4 mm diameter rigid endoscopic probe to obtain high resolution micro-optical coherence tomography (µOCT) images from the tracheal epithelium of living swine. Our common-path fiber-optic probe used gradient-index focusing optics, a selectively coated prism reflector to implement a circular-obscuration apodization for depth-of-focus enhancement, and a common-path reference arm and an ultra-broadbrand supercontinuum laser to achieve high axial resolution. Benchtop characterization demonstrated lateral and axial resolutions of 3.4 μm and 1.7 μm, respectively (in tissue). Mechanical standoff rails flanking the imaging window allowed the epithelial surface to be maintained in focus without disrupting mucus flow. During in vivo imaging, relative motion was mitigated by inflating an airway balloon to hold the standoff rails on the epithelium. Software implemented image stabilization was also implemented during post-processing. The resulting image sequences yielded co-registered quantitative outputs of airway surface liquid and periciliary liquid layer thicknesses, ciliary beat frequency, and mucociliary transport rate, metrics that directly indicate airway epithelial function that have dominated in vitro research in diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but have not been available in vivo.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. H. Donaldson, W. D. Bennett, K. L. Zeman, M. R. Knowles, R. Tarran, and R. C. Boucher, “Mucus clearance and lung function in cystic fibrosis with hypertonic saline,” N. Engl. J. Med. 354(3), 241–250 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Jones, M. H. Baron, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Measuring hemodynamic changes during mammalian development,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 287(4), H1561–H1569 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

R. J. Pack, L. H. Al-Ugaily, G. Morris, and J. G. Widdicombe, “The distribution and structure of cells in the tracheal epithelium of the mouse,” Cell Tissue Res. 208(1), 65–84 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Ugaily, L. H.

R. J. Pack, L. H. Al-Ugaily, G. Morris, and J. G. Widdicombe, “The distribution and structure of cells in the tracheal epithelium of the mouse,” Cell Tissue Res. 208(1), 65–84 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aretz, H. T.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baron, M. H.

E. A. Jones, M. H. Baron, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Measuring hemodynamic changes during mammalian development,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 287(4), H1561–H1569 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedwell, D. M.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, W. D.

S. H. Donaldson, W. D. Bennett, K. L. Zeman, M. R. Knowles, R. Tarran, and R. C. Boucher, “Mucus clearance and lung function in cystic fibrosis with hypertonic saline,” N. Engl. J. Med. 354(3), 241–250 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhandari, V.

Birket, S. E.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borowitz, D.

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boucher, R. C.

S. H. Donaldson, W. D. Bennett, K. L. Zeman, M. R. Knowles, R. Tarran, and R. C. Boucher, “Mucus clearance and lung function in cystic fibrosis with hypertonic saline,” N. Engl. J. Med. 354(3), 241–250 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Button, B.

Byan-Parker, S.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cadillac, J. M.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chak, A.

Chambers, A.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chhetri, R. K.

Choma, M.

Choma, M. A.

Chu, K. K.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Compton, C. C.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crooke, A. K.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, X.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Dickinson, M. E.

E. A. Jones, M. H. Baron, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Measuring hemodynamic changes during mammalian development,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 287(4), H1561–H1569 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diephuis, B. J.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dierksen, G.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donaldson, S. H.

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Donaldson, W. D. Bennett, K. L. Zeman, M. R. Knowles, R. Tarran, and R. C. Boucher, “Mucus clearance and lung function in cystic fibrosis with hypertonic saline,” N. Engl. J. Med. 354(3), 241–250 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, M.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J.

Engelhardt, J. F.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, I. A.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fanucchi, M. V.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Fernandez, C. M.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fortenberry, J. A.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

E. A. Jones, M. H. Baron, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Measuring hemodynamic changes during mammalian development,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 287(4), H1561–H1569 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamber, K.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamm, U. A.

Gardecki, J. A.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gelfond, D.

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonska, T.

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grizzle, W. E.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halpern, E. F.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanes, J.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, J. K.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heltshe, S. L.

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, D. B.

Hitzenberger, C.

Hong, J.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houser, G.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houser, G. H.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houser, S. L.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, B. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Jang, I.-K.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, D.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, E. A.

E. A. Jones, M. H. Baron, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Measuring hemodynamic changes during mammalian development,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 287(4), H1561–H1569 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joseloff, E.

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K Chu, K.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, D.-H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauffman, C. R.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keiser, N. W.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, U.

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khokha, M. K.

Knowles, M. R.

S. H. Donaldson, W. D. Bennett, K. L. Zeman, M. R. Knowles, R. Tarran, and R. C. Boucher, “Mucus clearance and lung function in cystic fibrosis with hypertonic saline,” N. Engl. J. Med. 354(3), 241–250 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Kobayashi, K.

Kowalczyk, A.

Leitgeb, R.

Li, Y.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayer-Hamblett, N.

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazur, M.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morris, G.

R. J. Pack, L. H. Al-Ugaily, G. Morris, and J. G. Widdicombe, “The distribution and structure of cells in the tracheal epithelium of the mouse,” Cell Tissue Res. 208(1), 65–84 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Nadkarni, S. K.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nellis, J. R.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

Pack, R. J.

R. J. Pack, L. H. Al-Ugaily, G. Morris, and J. G. Widdicombe, “The distribution and structure of cells in the tracheal epithelium of the mouse,” Cell Tissue Res. 208(1), 65–84 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramsey, B. W.

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, L.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Rowe, S. M.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sagel, S. D.

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.

Schlendorf, K. H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuster, B. S.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shastry, S.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivak, M. V.

Smith, A. T.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorscher, E. J.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

Stevens, M. J.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stroebele, E. K.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, L. P.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tarran, R.

S. H. Donaldson, W. D. Bennett, K. L. Zeman, M. R. Knowles, R. Tarran, and R. C. Boucher, “Mucus clearance and lung function in cystic fibrosis with hypertonic saline,” N. Engl. J. Med. 354(3), 241–250 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 microm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toussaint, J. D.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuggle, K. L.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tyler, S. R.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ung-Arunyawee, R.

Van Dalfsen, J. M.

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warren, J.

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, J. D.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Widdicombe, J. G.

R. J. Pack, L. H. Al-Ugaily, G. Morris, and J. G. Widdicombe, “The distribution and structure of cells in the tracheal epithelium of the mouse,” Cell Tissue Res. 208(1), 65–84 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilsterman, E. J.

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, R. C.

Yabushita, H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yagi, Y.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yun, S. H.

Zeman, K. L.

S. H. Donaldson, W. D. Bennett, K. L. Zeman, M. R. Knowles, R. Tarran, and R. C. Boucher, “Mucus clearance and lung function in cystic fibrosis with hypertonic saline,” N. Engl. J. Med. 354(3), 241–250 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, K. C.

Zhou, W.

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (1)

E. A. Jones, M. H. Baron, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Measuring hemodynamic changes during mammalian development,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 287(4), H1561–H1569 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2)

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. W. Keiser, S. E. Birket, I. A. Evans, S. R. Tyler, A. K. Crooke, X. Sun, W. Zhou, J. R. Nellis, E. K. Stroebele, K. K. Chu, G. J. Tearney, M. J. Stevens, J. K. Harris, S. M. Rowe, and J. F. Engelhardt, “Defective Innate Immunity and Hyper-Inflammation in Newborn CFTR-Knockout Ferret Lungs,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 52, 683–694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2)

S. M. Rowe, S. L. Heltshe, T. Gonska, S. H. Donaldson, D. Borowitz, D. Gelfond, S. D. Sagel, U. Khan, N. Mayer-Hamblett, J. M. Van Dalfsen, E. Joseloff, B. W. Ramsey, and GOAL Investigators of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, “Clinical mechanism of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator ivacaftor in G551D-mediated cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(2), 175–184 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Birket, K. K. Chu, L. Liu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, E. J. Wilsterman, G. Dierksen, M. Mazur, S. Shastry, Y. Li, J. D. Watson, A. T. Smith, B. S. Schuster, J. Hanes, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, G. J. Tearney, and S. M. Rowe, “A functional anatomic defect of the cystic fibrosis airway,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(4), 421–432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Cell Tissue Res. (1)

R. J. Pack, L. H. Al-Ugaily, G. Morris, and J. G. Widdicombe, “The distribution and structure of cells in the tracheal epithelium of the mouse,” Cell Tissue Res. 208(1), 65–84 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Circulation (1)

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

S. H. Donaldson, W. D. Bennett, K. L. Zeman, M. R. Knowles, R. Tarran, and R. C. Boucher, “Mucus clearance and lung function in cystic fibrosis with hypertonic saline,” N. Engl. J. Med. 354(3), 241–250 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

PLoS One (2)

K. L. Tuggle, S. E. Birket, X. Cui, J. Hong, J. Warren, L. Reid, A. Chambers, D. Ji, K. Gamber, K. K. Chu, G. Tearney, L. P. Tang, J. A. Fortenberry, M. Du, J. M. Cadillac, D. M. Bedwell, S. M. Rowe, E. J. Sorscher, and M. V. Fanucchi, “Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats,” PLoS One 9(3), e91253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer Science & Business Media, 2008).

Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (8924 KB)      Ex vivo swine trachea epithelium imaged by handheld µOCT probe
» Visualization 2: AVI (35538 KB)      µOCT image sequence acquired in vivo by probe
» Visualization 3: AVI (1687 KB)      Segment of µOCT image sequence as shown in Visualization 2, with cross-correlation software stabilization applied

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of µOCT system and probe. Supercontinuum laser (SCL) power was directed towards probe by collimating and focusing lenses (L) through single mode fiber (SMF), which contained common-path interferometer optics. Returning light was directed by the beam-splitter (BS) towards a focusing lens and spatially filtering pinhole (PH), then recollimated towards a diffraction grating (G). The spectrally dispersed light was then focused onto a line scan camera (LSC), which output raw spectrograms through a CameraLink (CL) interface to an image acquisition board (IMAQ) installed in a PC. The PC also controlled scanning by way of a data acquisition card (DAQ), which controlled a piezoelectric motor (PZM) using an analog output (AO).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

µOCT probe components. A) Internal components. An optical fiber was fixed within a ferrule and attached to a driveshaft, and were polished together to form a common 8 degree angled plane to minimize reflection. A glass spacer and gradient-index (GRIN) objective lens were attached to the fiber/ferrule by UV curing epoxy. The apodizing beamsplitter was selectively coated to transmit the central portion of the beam towards a polycarbonate screw, which was polished to served as a reference reflector. The remaining outer portion of the beam was directed towards the sample in a side-viewing configuration through of a hole in the shuttle tube housing. A nylon sleeve with a diameter slightly larger than the shuttle tube acted as a linear bearing between the oscillating internal components and the static outer tube. B) External components. A static stainless steel outer tube protected the internal components. A polymer end cap with standoff rails was attached to the outer tube, with a polyolefin wrapping stretched over the imaging aperture to prevent fluid intrusion. C) Schematic demonstrating the positioning of the bronchial blocker balloon relative to the µOCT probe and the trachea lumen, both in the deflated (left) and inflated state (right). D) 3D rendering of end cap with standoff rails flanking the imaging window on the outer tube.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized lateral beam profile of µOCT beam measured at plane of best focus. A) 2D image of beam profile. B) 3D plot of beam profile, with portion of beam exceeding half-maximum colored in red, and the remainder of the profile colored in blue.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized axial profile of reflecting plane located at z = 0. Measured axial resolution (FWHM) = 2.29 μm in air, corresponding to 1.72um in tissue (n = 1.33).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(See Visualization 1 for video) Ex vivo swine trachea epithelium imaged by handheld µOCT probe. Still frame displays 16x average (video content is not averaged) with a green channel overlay indicating pixels exhibiting high interframe variance, which accentuates the beating cilia.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

µOCT image sequence acquired in vivo by probe. Images were acquired while airway balloon was inflated to depress probe tip towards trachea wall. No software stabilization applied. A) 25 frame average shows blurring due to remaining motion artifacts. Scale bar: 50 μm. B) A depth-time profile of one A-line from the approximate location indicated by the red dashed line in (A). Oscillatory tissue surface motion is evident (blue arrow). See Visualization 2 for full image sequence.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

µOCT image sequence as shown in Fig. 6, with cross-correlation software stabilization applied. A) 25 frame average shows improved resolution due to removal of motion artifacts. Visible features include air, mucus, cilia, epithelium (epi), and the complex conjugate artifact of a reflection from the imaging window (IW). Scale bar: 50 μm. B) A depth-time profile of one A-line from the approximate location indicated by the red dashed line in (A). As a result of software stabilization, tissue surface motion is stationary (blue arrow). See Visualization 3 for full image sequence.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Quantitative analysis from in vivo µOCT sequence shown in Fig. 7. Image shown is average of 40 frames (1 second) and lookup table inverted for contrast enhancement. Airway surface liquid (ASL) and periciliary liquid (PCL) depths were measured geometrically as shown. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was computed by Fourier analysis of the periodic motion of a single pixel (orange dash and inset * illustrate one cross-sectional line from the surface projected through time. Periodic motion of the cilia is visible in the region enclosed by the orange bars. Mucociliary transport (MCT) was measured by projecting a cross-sectional line through the mucus through time (blue dashed line and inset **). The slope of the particle trajectories indicated velocity.

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