Abstract

Although retinal vasculitis is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), it is not known if MS is associated with quantitative abnormalities in retinal blood vessels (BVs). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is suitable for examining the integrity of the anterior visual pathways in MS. In this paper we have compared the size and number of retinal blood vessels in patients with MS, with and without a history of optic neuritis (ON), and control subjects from the cross-sectional retinal images from OCT. Blood vessel diameter (BVD), blood vessel number (BVN), and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) were extracted from OCT images collected from around the optic nerves of 129 eyes (24 control, 24 MS + ON, 81 MS-ON) of 71 subjects. Associations between blood vessel metrics, MS diagnosis, MS disability, ON, and RNFLT were evaluated using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. MS eyes had a lower total BVD and BVN than control eyes. The effect was more pronounced with increased MS disability, and persisted in multivariate models adjusting for RNFLT and ON history. Twenty-nine percent (29%) of MS subjects had fewer retinal blood vessels than all control subjects. MS diagnosis, disability, and ON history were not associated with average blood vessel size. The relationship between MS and lower total BVD/BVN is not accounted for by RNFLT or ON. Further study is needed to determine the relationship between OCT blood vessel metrics and qualitative retinal blood vessel abnormalities in MS.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

A. Russo, C. Costagliola, D. Rizzoni, N. Ghilardi, R. Turano, and F. Semeraro, “Arteriolar diameters in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 93(5), 504–509 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Rim, Y. S. Choi, S. S. Kim, M. J. Kang, J. Oh, S. Park, and S. H. Byeon, “Retinal vessel structure measurement using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Eye (Lond.) 30(1), 111–119 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Moss, “Retinal vascular changes are a marker for cerebral vascular diseases,” Curr. Neurol. Neurosci. Rep. 15(7), 40 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kolinko, K. Krakorova, J. Cendelin, Z. Tonar, and M. Kralickova, “Microcirculation of the brain: morphological assessment in degenerative diseases and restoration processes,” Rev. Neurosci. 26(1), 75–93 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

H. T. Akçam, I. Y. Capraz, Z. Aktas, H. Z. Batur Caglayan, S. Ozhan Oktar, M. Hasanreisoglu, and C. Irkec, “Multiple sclerosis and optic nerve: an analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and color Doppler imaging parameters,” Eye (Lond.) 28(10), 1206–1211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Fortune, J. Reynaud, G. Cull, C. F. Burgoyne, and L. Wang, “The effect of age on optic nerve axon counts, SDOCT scan quality, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements in Rhesus monkeys,” T Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 2 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. P. Zhu, Y. H. Tong, H. J. Zhan, and J. Ma, “Update on retinal vessel structure measurement with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Microvasc. Res. 95, 7–14 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

Y. Muraoka, A. Tsujikawa, K. Kumagai, M. Akiba, K. Ogino, T. Murakami, Y. Akagi-Kurashige, K. Miyamoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Age- and hypertension-dependent changes in retinal vessel diameter and wall thickness: an optical coherence tomography study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 156(4), 706–714 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Balantrapu, B. M. Sandroff, J. H. Pula, and R. W. Motl, “Integrity of the anterior visual pathway and its association with ambulatory performance in multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. Int. 2013, 481035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

R. W. Motl and L. A. Pilutti, “The benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 8(9), 487–497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schmitt, N. Strazielle, and J. F. Ghersi-Egea, “Brain leukocyte infiltration initiated by peripheral inflammation or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis occurs through pathways connected to the CSF-filled compartments of the forebrain and midbrain,” J. Neuroinflammation 9(1), 187 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. K. Durbin, C. Eckstein, J. D. Oakley, S. A. Meyer, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, S. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, E. M. Frohman, and P. A. Calabresi, “Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Mult. Scler. 17(12), 1449–1463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

M. A. Mayer, J. Hornegger, C. Y. Mardin, and R. P. Tornow, “Retinal nerve fiber layer segmentation on FD-OCT scans of normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1358–1383 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cettomai, G. Hiremath, J. Ratchford, A. Venkatesan, B. M. Greenberg, J. McGready, C. A. Pardo, D. A. Kerr, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, J. C. McArthur, and P. A. Calabresi, “Associations between retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities and optic nerve examination,” Neurology 75(15), 1318–1325 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

C. Lamirel, N. J. Newman, and V. Biousse, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis,” Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 166(12), 978–986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

J. Sepulcre, M. Murie-Fernandez, A. Salinas-Alaman, A. García-Layana, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Diagnostic accuracy of retinal abnormalities in predicting disease activity in MS,” Neurology 68(18), 1488–1494 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Gordon-Lipkin, B. Chodkowski, D. S. Reich, S. A. Smith, M. Pulicken, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Retinal nerve fiber layer is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(16), 1603–1609 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pulicken, E. Gordon-Lipkin, L. J. Balcer, E. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Optical coherence tomography and disease subtype in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(22), 2085–2092 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. B. Fisher, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 113(2), 324–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. Parri and V. Crunelli, “An astrocyte bridge from synapse to blood flow,” Nat. Neurosci. 6(1), 5–6 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. Harris, T. A. Ciulla, H. S. Chung, and B. Martin, “Regulation of retinal and optic nerve blood flow,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116(11), 1491–1495 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. B. Kerrison, T. Flynn, and W. R. Green, “Retinal pathologic changes in multiple sclerosis,” Retina 14(5), 445–451 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

T. Engell, “Neurological disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients with periphlebitis retinae,” Acta Neurol. Scand. 73(2), 168–172 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-Y. Liang and S. L. Zeger, “Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models,” Biometrika 73(1), 13–22 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

J. F. Kurtzke, “Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS),” Neurology 33(11), 1444–1452 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akagi-Kurashige, Y.

Y. Muraoka, A. Tsujikawa, K. Kumagai, M. Akiba, K. Ogino, T. Murakami, Y. Akagi-Kurashige, K. Miyamoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Age- and hypertension-dependent changes in retinal vessel diameter and wall thickness: an optical coherence tomography study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 156(4), 706–714 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akçam, H. T.

H. T. Akçam, I. Y. Capraz, Z. Aktas, H. Z. Batur Caglayan, S. Ozhan Oktar, M. Hasanreisoglu, and C. Irkec, “Multiple sclerosis and optic nerve: an analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and color Doppler imaging parameters,” Eye (Lond.) 28(10), 1206–1211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Y. Muraoka, A. Tsujikawa, K. Kumagai, M. Akiba, K. Ogino, T. Murakami, Y. Akagi-Kurashige, K. Miyamoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Age- and hypertension-dependent changes in retinal vessel diameter and wall thickness: an optical coherence tomography study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 156(4), 706–714 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aktas, Z.

H. T. Akçam, I. Y. Capraz, Z. Aktas, H. Z. Batur Caglayan, S. Ozhan Oktar, M. Hasanreisoglu, and C. Irkec, “Multiple sclerosis and optic nerve: an analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and color Doppler imaging parameters,” Eye (Lond.) 28(10), 1206–1211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrecht, P.

S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baier, M. L.

J. B. Fisher, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 113(2), 324–332 (2006).
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S. Balantrapu, B. M. Sandroff, J. H. Pula, and R. W. Motl, “Integrity of the anterior visual pathway and its association with ambulatory performance in multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. Int. 2013, 481035 (2013).
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S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
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Balcer, L. J.

S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
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S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
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D. Cettomai, G. Hiremath, J. Ratchford, A. Venkatesan, B. M. Greenberg, J. McGready, C. A. Pardo, D. A. Kerr, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, J. C. McArthur, and P. A. Calabresi, “Associations between retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities and optic nerve examination,” Neurology 75(15), 1318–1325 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pulicken, E. Gordon-Lipkin, L. J. Balcer, E. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Optical coherence tomography and disease subtype in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(22), 2085–2092 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Gordon-Lipkin, B. Chodkowski, D. S. Reich, S. A. Smith, M. Pulicken, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Retinal nerve fiber layer is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(16), 1603–1609 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Fisher, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 113(2), 324–332 (2006).
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Balk, L. J.

S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
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C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
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Batur Caglayan, H. Z.

H. T. Akçam, I. Y. Capraz, Z. Aktas, H. Z. Batur Caglayan, S. Ozhan Oktar, M. Hasanreisoglu, and C. Irkec, “Multiple sclerosis and optic nerve: an analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and color Doppler imaging parameters,” Eye (Lond.) 28(10), 1206–1211 (2014).
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X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
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J. Sepulcre, M. Murie-Fernandez, A. Salinas-Alaman, A. García-Layana, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Diagnostic accuracy of retinal abnormalities in predicting disease activity in MS,” Neurology 68(18), 1488–1494 (2007).
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C. Lamirel, N. J. Newman, and V. Biousse, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis,” Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 166(12), 978–986 (2010).
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L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
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B. Fortune, J. Reynaud, G. Cull, C. F. Burgoyne, and L. Wang, “The effect of age on optic nerve axon counts, SDOCT scan quality, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements in Rhesus monkeys,” T Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 2 (2014).
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Byeon, S. H.

T. H. Rim, Y. S. Choi, S. S. Kim, M. J. Kang, J. Oh, S. Park, and S. H. Byeon, “Retinal vessel structure measurement using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Eye (Lond.) 30(1), 111–119 (2016).
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S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
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S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. K. Durbin, C. Eckstein, J. D. Oakley, S. A. Meyer, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, S. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, E. M. Frohman, and P. A. Calabresi, “Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Mult. Scler. 17(12), 1449–1463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. Cettomai, G. Hiremath, J. Ratchford, A. Venkatesan, B. M. Greenberg, J. McGready, C. A. Pardo, D. A. Kerr, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, J. C. McArthur, and P. A. Calabresi, “Associations between retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities and optic nerve examination,” Neurology 75(15), 1318–1325 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pulicken, E. Gordon-Lipkin, L. J. Balcer, E. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Optical coherence tomography and disease subtype in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(22), 2085–2092 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Gordon-Lipkin, B. Chodkowski, D. S. Reich, S. A. Smith, M. Pulicken, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Retinal nerve fiber layer is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(16), 1603–1609 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Fisher, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 113(2), 324–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capraz, I. Y.

H. T. Akçam, I. Y. Capraz, Z. Aktas, H. Z. Batur Caglayan, S. Ozhan Oktar, M. Hasanreisoglu, and C. Irkec, “Multiple sclerosis and optic nerve: an analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and color Doppler imaging parameters,” Eye (Lond.) 28(10), 1206–1211 (2014).
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Y. Kolinko, K. Krakorova, J. Cendelin, Z. Tonar, and M. Kralickova, “Microcirculation of the brain: morphological assessment in degenerative diseases and restoration processes,” Rev. Neurosci. 26(1), 75–93 (2015).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Chodkowski, B.

E. Gordon-Lipkin, B. Chodkowski, D. S. Reich, S. A. Smith, M. Pulicken, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Retinal nerve fiber layer is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(16), 1603–1609 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, Y. S.

T. H. Rim, Y. S. Choi, S. S. Kim, M. J. Kang, J. Oh, S. Park, and S. H. Byeon, “Retinal vessel structure measurement using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Eye (Lond.) 30(1), 111–119 (2016).
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A. Harris, T. A. Ciulla, H. S. Chung, and B. Martin, “Regulation of retinal and optic nerve blood flow,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116(11), 1491–1495 (1998).
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C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
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C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
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Conger, A.

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. K. Durbin, C. Eckstein, J. D. Oakley, S. A. Meyer, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, S. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, E. M. Frohman, and P. A. Calabresi, “Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Mult. Scler. 17(12), 1449–1463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
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S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crainiceanu, C. M.

S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
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Cull, G.

B. Fortune, J. Reynaud, G. Cull, C. F. Burgoyne, and L. Wang, “The effect of age on optic nerve axon counts, SDOCT scan quality, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements in Rhesus monkeys,” T Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 2 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cutter, G.

E. Gordon-Lipkin, B. Chodkowski, D. S. Reich, S. A. Smith, M. Pulicken, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Retinal nerve fiber layer is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(16), 1603–1609 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pulicken, E. Gordon-Lipkin, L. J. Balcer, E. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Optical coherence tomography and disease subtype in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(22), 2085–2092 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cutter, G. R.

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. B. Fisher, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 113(2), 324–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, Y.

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

Durbin, M. K.

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. K. Durbin, C. Eckstein, J. D. Oakley, S. A. Meyer, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, S. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, E. M. Frohman, and P. A. Calabresi, “Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Mult. Scler. 17(12), 1449–1463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
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Eckstein, C.

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
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S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. K. Durbin, C. Eckstein, J. D. Oakley, S. A. Meyer, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, S. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, E. M. Frohman, and P. A. Calabresi, “Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Mult. Scler. 17(12), 1449–1463 (2011).
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T. Engell, “Neurological disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients with periphlebitis retinae,” Acta Neurol. Scand. 73(2), 168–172 (1986).
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et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Farrell, S. K.

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
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L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
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Feller, D. J.

S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
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Filippi, M.

C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, J. B.

J. B. Fisher, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 113(2), 324–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flynn, T.

J. B. Kerrison, T. Flynn, and W. R. Green, “Retinal pathologic changes in multiple sclerosis,” Retina 14(5), 445–451 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fortune, B.

B. Fortune, J. Reynaud, G. Cull, C. F. Burgoyne, and L. Wang, “The effect of age on optic nerve axon counts, SDOCT scan quality, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements in Rhesus monkeys,” T Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 2 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frederiksen, J. L.

S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frohman, E.

S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cettomai, G. Hiremath, J. Ratchford, A. Venkatesan, B. M. Greenberg, J. McGready, C. A. Pardo, D. A. Kerr, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, J. C. McArthur, and P. A. Calabresi, “Associations between retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities and optic nerve examination,” Neurology 75(15), 1318–1325 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pulicken, E. Gordon-Lipkin, L. J. Balcer, E. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Optical coherence tomography and disease subtype in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(22), 2085–2092 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frohman, E. M.

S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. K. Durbin, C. Eckstein, J. D. Oakley, S. A. Meyer, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, S. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, E. M. Frohman, and P. A. Calabresi, “Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Mult. Scler. 17(12), 1449–1463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

E. Gordon-Lipkin, B. Chodkowski, D. S. Reich, S. A. Smith, M. Pulicken, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Retinal nerve fiber layer is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(16), 1603–1609 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Fisher, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 113(2), 324–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frohman, T. C.

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. K. Durbin, C. Eckstein, J. D. Oakley, S. A. Meyer, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, S. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, E. M. Frohman, and P. A. Calabresi, “Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Mult. Scler. 17(12), 1449–1463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. B. Fisher, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 113(2), 324–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujihara, K.

C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galetta, K. M.

S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

Galetta, S. L.

S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. B. Fisher, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 113(2), 324–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Layana, A.

J. Sepulcre, M. Murie-Fernandez, A. Salinas-Alaman, A. García-Layana, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Diagnostic accuracy of retinal abnormalities in predicting disease activity in MS,” Neurology 68(18), 1488–1494 (2007).
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Gelfand, J. M.

S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
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Ghersi-Egea, J. F.

C. Schmitt, N. Strazielle, and J. F. Ghersi-Egea, “Brain leukocyte infiltration initiated by peripheral inflammation or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis occurs through pathways connected to the CSF-filled compartments of the forebrain and midbrain,” J. Neuroinflammation 9(1), 187 (2012).
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Ghilardi, N.

A. Russo, C. Costagliola, D. Rizzoni, N. Ghilardi, R. Turano, and F. Semeraro, “Arteriolar diameters in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 93(5), 504–509 (2016).
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Gordon-Lipkin, E.

M. Pulicken, E. Gordon-Lipkin, L. J. Balcer, E. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Optical coherence tomography and disease subtype in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(22), 2085–2092 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Gordon-Lipkin, B. Chodkowski, D. S. Reich, S. A. Smith, M. Pulicken, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Retinal nerve fiber layer is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(16), 1603–1609 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, A. J.

S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, W. R.

J. B. Kerrison, T. Flynn, and W. R. Green, “Retinal pathologic changes in multiple sclerosis,” Retina 14(5), 445–451 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenberg, B. M.

D. Cettomai, G. Hiremath, J. Ratchford, A. Venkatesan, B. M. Greenberg, J. McGready, C. A. Pardo, D. A. Kerr, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, J. C. McArthur, and P. A. Calabresi, “Associations between retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities and optic nerve examination,” Neurology 75(15), 1318–1325 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Harris, A.

A. Harris, T. A. Ciulla, H. S. Chung, and B. Martin, “Regulation of retinal and optic nerve blood flow,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116(11), 1491–1495 (1998).
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Hasanreisoglu, M.

H. T. Akçam, I. Y. Capraz, Z. Aktas, H. Z. Batur Caglayan, S. Ozhan Oktar, M. Hasanreisoglu, and C. Irkec, “Multiple sclerosis and optic nerve: an analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and color Doppler imaging parameters,” Eye (Lond.) 28(10), 1206–1211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Havrdova, E.

C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henderson, S. B.

S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiremath, G.

D. Cettomai, G. Hiremath, J. Ratchford, A. Venkatesan, B. M. Greenberg, J. McGready, C. A. Pardo, D. A. Kerr, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, J. C. McArthur, and P. A. Calabresi, “Associations between retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities and optic nerve examination,” Neurology 75(15), 1318–1325 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Mayer, J. Hornegger, C. Y. Mardin, and R. P. Tornow, “Retinal nerve fiber layer segmentation on FD-OCT scans of normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1358–1383 (2010).
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Huang, D.

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, M.

C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, M. A.

S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irkec, C.

H. T. Akçam, I. Y. Capraz, Z. Aktas, H. Z. Batur Caglayan, S. Ozhan Oktar, M. Hasanreisoglu, and C. Irkec, “Multiple sclerosis and optic nerve: an analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and color Doppler imaging parameters,” Eye (Lond.) 28(10), 1206–1211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobs, D. A.

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. B. Fisher, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 113(2), 324–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, M. J.

T. H. Rim, Y. S. Choi, S. S. Kim, M. J. Kang, J. Oh, S. Park, and S. H. Byeon, “Retinal vessel structure measurement using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Eye (Lond.) 30(1), 111–119 (2016).
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Kappos, L.

C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerr, D. A.

D. Cettomai, G. Hiremath, J. Ratchford, A. Venkatesan, B. M. Greenberg, J. McGready, C. A. Pardo, D. A. Kerr, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, J. C. McArthur, and P. A. Calabresi, “Associations between retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities and optic nerve examination,” Neurology 75(15), 1318–1325 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Ratchford, J.

D. Cettomai, G. Hiremath, J. Ratchford, A. Venkatesan, B. M. Greenberg, J. McGready, C. A. Pardo, D. A. Kerr, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, J. C. McArthur, and P. A. Calabresi, “Associations between retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities and optic nerve examination,” Neurology 75(15), 1318–1325 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ratchford, J. N.

S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. K. Durbin, C. Eckstein, J. D. Oakley, S. A. Meyer, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, S. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, E. M. Frohman, and P. A. Calabresi, “Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Mult. Scler. 17(12), 1449–1463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

Reich, D. S.

E. Gordon-Lipkin, B. Chodkowski, D. S. Reich, S. A. Smith, M. Pulicken, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Retinal nerve fiber layer is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(16), 1603–1609 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reingold, S. C.

C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Remington, G.

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

Reynaud, J.

B. Fortune, J. Reynaud, G. Cull, C. F. Burgoyne, and L. Wang, “The effect of age on optic nerve axon counts, SDOCT scan quality, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements in Rhesus monkeys,” T Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 2 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rim, T. H.

T. H. Rim, Y. S. Choi, S. S. Kim, M. J. Kang, J. Oh, S. Park, and S. H. Byeon, “Retinal vessel structure measurement using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Eye (Lond.) 30(1), 111–119 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rizzoni, D.

A. Russo, C. Costagliola, D. Rizzoni, N. Ghilardi, R. Turano, and F. Semeraro, “Arteriolar diameters in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 93(5), 504–509 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenzweig, J. M.

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russo, A.

A. Russo, C. Costagliola, D. Rizzoni, N. Ghilardi, R. Turano, and F. Semeraro, “Arteriolar diameters in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 93(5), 504–509 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sackel, D. J.

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

Saidha, S.

S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. K. Durbin, C. Eckstein, J. D. Oakley, S. A. Meyer, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, S. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, E. M. Frohman, and P. A. Calabresi, “Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Mult. Scler. 17(12), 1449–1463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, R. E.

S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salinas-Alaman, A.

J. Sepulcre, M. Murie-Fernandez, A. Salinas-Alaman, A. García-Layana, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Diagnostic accuracy of retinal abnormalities in predicting disease activity in MS,” Neurology 68(18), 1488–1494 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandberg-Wollheim, M.

C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandroff, B. M.

S. Balantrapu, B. M. Sandroff, J. H. Pula, and R. W. Motl, “Integrity of the anterior visual pathway and its association with ambulatory performance in multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. Int. 2013, 481035 (2013).
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Schippling, S.

S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
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Schmitt, C.

C. Schmitt, N. Strazielle, and J. F. Ghersi-Egea, “Brain leukocyte infiltration initiated by peripheral inflammation or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis occurs through pathways connected to the CSF-filled compartments of the forebrain and midbrain,” J. Neuroinflammation 9(1), 187 (2012).
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Schuman, J. S.

S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seigo, M. A.

S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semeraro, F.

A. Russo, C. Costagliola, D. Rizzoni, N. Ghilardi, R. Turano, and F. Semeraro, “Arteriolar diameters in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 93(5), 504–509 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sepah, Y. J.

S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
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Sepulcre, J.

J. Sepulcre, M. Murie-Fernandez, A. Salinas-Alaman, A. García-Layana, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Diagnostic accuracy of retinal abnormalities in predicting disease activity in MS,” Neurology 68(18), 1488–1494 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, S. A.

E. Gordon-Lipkin, B. Chodkowski, D. S. Reich, S. A. Smith, M. Pulicken, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, G. Cutter, and P. A. Calabresi, “Retinal nerve fiber layer is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 69(16), 1603–1609 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sotirchos, E. S.

S. Saidha, E. S. Sotirchos, M. A. Ibrahim, C. M. Crainiceanu, J. M. Gelfand, Y. J. Sepah, J. N. Ratchford, J. Oh, M. A. Seigo, S. D. Newsome, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, A. J. Green, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Microcystic macular oedema, thickness of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, and disease characteristics in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective study,” Lancet Neurol. 11(11), 963–972 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spain, R.

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strazielle, N.

C. Schmitt, N. Strazielle, and J. F. Ghersi-Egea, “Brain leukocyte infiltration initiated by peripheral inflammation or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis occurs through pathways connected to the CSF-filled compartments of the forebrain and midbrain,” J. Neuroinflammation 9(1), 187 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Syc, S. B.

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. K. Durbin, C. Eckstein, J. D. Oakley, S. A. Meyer, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, S. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, E. M. Frohman, and P. A. Calabresi, “Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Mult. Scler. 17(12), 1449–1463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talman, L. S.

L. S. Talman, E. R. Bisker, D. J. Sackel, D. A. Long, K. M. Galetta, J. N. Ratchford, D. J. Lile, S. K. Farrell, M. J. Loguidice, G. Remington, A. Conger, T. C. Frohman, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, G. R. Cutter, G. S. Ying, Y. Dai, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. M. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, and L. J. Balcer, “Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ann. Neurol. 67(6), 749–760 (2010).
[PubMed]

Thompson, A. J.

C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
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Tonar, Z.

Y. Kolinko, K. Krakorova, J. Cendelin, Z. Tonar, and M. Kralickova, “Microcirculation of the brain: morphological assessment in degenerative diseases and restoration processes,” Rev. Neurosci. 26(1), 75–93 (2015).
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Tong, Y. H.

T. P. Zhu, Y. H. Tong, H. J. Zhan, and J. Ma, “Update on retinal vessel structure measurement with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Microvasc. Res. 95, 7–14 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tornow, R. P.

Traber, G.

S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsujikawa, A.

Y. Muraoka, A. Tsujikawa, K. Kumagai, M. Akiba, K. Ogino, T. Murakami, Y. Akagi-Kurashige, K. Miyamoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Age- and hypertension-dependent changes in retinal vessel diameter and wall thickness: an optical coherence tomography study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 156(4), 706–714 (2013).
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Turano, R.

A. Russo, C. Costagliola, D. Rizzoni, N. Ghilardi, R. Turano, and F. Semeraro, “Arteriolar diameters in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 93(5), 504–509 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venkatesan, A.

D. Cettomai, G. Hiremath, J. Ratchford, A. Venkatesan, B. M. Greenberg, J. McGready, C. A. Pardo, D. A. Kerr, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, J. C. McArthur, and P. A. Calabresi, “Associations between retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities and optic nerve examination,” Neurology 75(15), 1318–1325 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vermersch, P.

S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoslada, P.

S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sepulcre, M. Murie-Fernandez, A. Salinas-Alaman, A. García-Layana, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Diagnostic accuracy of retinal abnormalities in predicting disease activity in MS,” Neurology 68(18), 1488–1494 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volpe, N. J.

J. B. Fisher, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 113(2), 324–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walter, S. D.

S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

B. Fortune, J. Reynaud, G. Cull, C. F. Burgoyne, and L. Wang, “The effect of age on optic nerve axon counts, SDOCT scan quality, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements in Rhesus monkeys,” T Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 2 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warner, C. V.

S. Saidha, S. B. Syc, M. A. Ibrahim, C. Eckstein, C. V. Warner, S. K. Farrell, J. D. Oakley, M. K. Durbin, S. A. Meyer, L. J. Balcer, E. M. Frohman, J. M. Rosenzweig, S. D. Newsome, J. N. Ratchford, Q. D. Nguyen, and P. A. Calabresi, “Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography,” Brain 134(2), 518–533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waubant, E.

C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinshenker, B.

C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell, M. Clanet, J. A. Cohen, M. Filippi, K. Fujihara, E. Havrdova, M. Hutchinson, L. Kappos, F. D. Lublin, X. Montalban, P. O’Connor, M. Sandberg-Wollheim, A. J. Thompson, E. Waubant, B. Weinshenker, and J. S. Wolinsky, “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Ann. Neurol. 69(2), 292–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, J. A.

S. D. Walter, H. Ishikawa, K. M. Galetta, R. E. Sakai, D. J. Feller, S. B. Henderson, J. A. Wilson, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Galetta, E. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, J. S. Schuman, and L. J. Balcer, “Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 119(6), 1250–1257 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winslow, H.

J. B. Fisher, D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis,” Ophthalmology 113(2), 324–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, S.

S. Schippling, L. J. Balk, F. Costello, P. Albrecht, L. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, J. L. Frederiksen, E. Frohman, A. J. Green, A. Klistorner, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, G. T. Plant, G. Traber, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, S. Wolf, and A. Petzold, “Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis: validation of the OSCAR-IB criteria,” Mult. Scler. 21(2), 163–170 (2015).
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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Flowchart of the presented method, b) flattened IR-SLO image, c) segmented blood vessels, and d) segmented INFL and ONFL in the OCT image. The red lines in (c) represent the blood vessels.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 En-face IR-SLO images, and segmented blood vessels and inner - outer nerve fiber layers of circumferential peripapillary OCT images, respectively for: a)-c) healthy control; d)-f) mild MS; g)-i) moderate MS; j)-l) severe MS; and m)-o) ON subjects. The green circles show the scan locations and the green arrows show the scan directions.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Subject demographics and group characteristics.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Univariate relationships between each retinal outcome variable and covariates in control (MS disability = 0) and MS eyes with and without optic neuritis. Each cell contains the beta coefficient (95% confidence interval) for the outcome in that row as a function of the covariate in that column adjusted for within subject correlation using GEE models. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.005

Tables Icon

Table 3 Multivariate relationships between each retinal outcome variable and covariates, in control (MS disability = 0) and MS eyes with and without optic neuritis. Each cell contains the beta coefficient (95% confidence interval) for the outcome in that row as a function of the covariate in that column adjusted for all other covariates and within subject correlation using GEE models. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.005

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