Abstract

High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes linear has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. The relative attenuation factor (µraf) at different skin layers could be assessed.. IV-OP of superficial BCC with high diagnostic accuracy (DA) and high negative predictive values (NPV) were (i) decreased µraf in lower part of epidermis and (ii) increased epidermal thickness (E-T). IV-OP of nodular BCC with good to high DA and NPV were (i) less negative µraf in papillary dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) significantly decreased E-T and papillary dermal thickness (PD-T). In infiltrative BCC (i) high µraf in reticular dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) presence of peaks and falls in reticular dermis had good DA and high NPV. HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3-D micro-architectural structures with IV-OP analysis of BCC. This permits BCC sub-differentiation with higher accuracy than in vivo HD-OCT analysis of morphology alone.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, F. Dhaenens, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, G. B. Jemec, V. Del Marmol, and R. Nebosis, “In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 308(1), 7–20 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(8), 705–720 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. L. Shlivko, M. Y. Kirillin, E. V. Donchenko, D. O. Ellinsky, O. E. Garanina, M. S. Neznakhina, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Identification of layers in optical coherence tomography of skin: comparative analysis of experimental and Monte Carlo simulated images,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(4), 419–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Baran, Y. Li, and R. K. Wang, “In vivo tissue injury mapping using optical coherence tomography based methods,” Appl. Opt. 54(21), 6448–6453 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Suppa, T. Micantonio, A. Di Stefani, H. P. Soyer, S. Chimenti, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermoscopic variability of basal cell carcinoma according to clinical type and anatomic location,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1732–1741 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Castro, A. Stephens, N. A. Fraga-Braghiroli, M. C. Oliviero, G. G. Rezze, H. Rabinovitz, and A. Scope, “Accuracy of in vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a comparative study between handheld and wide-probe confocal imaging,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(6), 1164–1169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, G. Pellacani, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, I. Alarcon, C. Ruini, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography algorithm for discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from clinical BCC imitators and differentiation between common subtypes,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1771–1780 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (10)

O. Ibrahim, B. Gastman, and A. Zhang, “Advances in diagnosis and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” Ann. Plast. Surg. 73(5), 615–619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gambichler, I. Plura, P. Kampilafkos, K. Valavanis, M. Sand, F. G. Bechara, and M. Stücker, “Histopathological correlates of basal cell carcinoma in the slice and en face imaging modes of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1358–1361 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Maier, D. Kulichová, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(1), 80–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Longo, A. Lallas, A. Kyrgidis, H. Rabinovitz, E. Moscarella, S. Ciardo, I. Zalaudek, M. Oliviero, A. Losi, S. Gonzalez, P. Guitera, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, and G. Pellacani, “Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(4), 716–724 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lallas, T. Tzellos, A. Kyrgidis, Z. Apalla, I. Zalaudek, A. Karatolias, G. Ferrara, S. Piana, C. Longo, E. Moscarella, A. Stratigos, and G. Argenziano, “Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for discriminating superficial from other subtypes of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(2), 303–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Trakatelli, C. Morton, E. Nagore, C. Ulrich, V. Del Marmol, K. Peris, N. Basset-Seguin, and BCC subcommittee of the Guidelines Committee of the European Dermatology Forum, “Update of the European guidelines for basal cell carcinoma management,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 24(3), 312–329 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. A. Banzhaf, L. Themstrup, H. C. Ring, M. Mogensen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer undergoing imiquimod therapy,” Skin Res. Technol. 20(2), 170–176 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Themstrup, C. A. Banzhaf, M. Mogensen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer undergoing photodynamic therapy reveals subclinical residual lesions,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 11(1), 7–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, S. Norrenberg, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging of melanocytic lesions: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 306(1), 11–26 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Sordillo, Y. Pu, S. Pratavieira, Y. Budansky, and R. R. Alfano, “Deep optical imaging of tissue using the second and third near-infrared spectral windows,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Giacomel and I. Zalaudek, “Pink lesions,” Dermatol. Clin. 31(4), 649–678 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Seidenari, F. Arginelli, S. Bassoli, J. Cautela, A. M. Cesinaro, M. Guanti, D. Guardoli, C. Magnoni, M. Manfredini, G. Ponti, and K. König, “Diagnosis of BCC by multiphoton laser tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e297–e304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Maier, M. Braun-Falco, T. Hinz, M. H. Schmid-Wendtner, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Morphology of basal cell carcinoma in high definition optical coherence tomography: en-face and slice imaging mode, and comparison with histology,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 27(1), e97–e104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

P. Guitera, S. W. Menzies, C. Longo, A. M. Cesinaro, R. A. Scolyer, and G. Pellacani, “In vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma using a two-step method: analysis of 710 consecutive clinically equivocal cases,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 132(10), 2386–2394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, S. Norrenberg, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “Imaging of basal cell carcinoma by high-definition optical coherence tomography: histomorphological correlation. A pilot study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(4), 856–864 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Herman, “Emerging technologies for the detection of melanoma: achieving better outcomes,” Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dermatol. 5, 195–212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Boone, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography enables visualization of individual cells in healthy skin: comparison to reflectance confocal microscopy,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(10), 740–744 (2012).
[PubMed]

T. Lister, P. A. Wright, and P. H. Chappell, “Optical properties of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0909011 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

S. L. Jacques, “Fractal nature of light scattering in tissues,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 4(01), 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Micantonio, A. Gulia, E. Altobelli, A. Di Cesare, R. Fidanza, A. Riitano, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Vascular patterns in basal cell carcinoma,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(3), 358–361 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Arits, M. H. Schlangen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Trends in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma by histopathological subtype,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(5), 565–569 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Flohil, E. de Vries, H. A. Neumann, J. W. Coebergh, and T. Nijsten, “Incidence, prevalence and future trends of primary basal cell carcinoma in the Netherlands,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 91(1), 24–30 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Carsin, L. Sharp, and H. Comber, “Geographical, urban/rural and socioeconomic variations in nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence: a population-based study in Ireland,” Br. J. Dermatol. 164(4), 822–829 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sellheyer, “Basal cell carcinoma: cell of origin, cancer stem cell hypothesis and stem cell markers,” Br. J. Dermatol. 164(4), 696–711 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

D. Altamura, S. W. Menzies, G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, H. P. Soyer, F. Sera, M. Avramidis, K. DeAmbrosis, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermatoscopy of basal cell carcinoma: morphologic variability of global and local features and accuracy of diagnosis,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(1), 67–75 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gulia, D. Altamura, S. De Trane, T. Micantonio, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Pigmented reticular structures in basal cell carcinoma and collision tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 162(2), 442–444 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, M. Carrara, and R. Marchesini, “In vivo optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions: common nevi, dysplastic nevi and malignant melanoma,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(1), 236–240 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mogensen, B. M. Nürnberg, J. L. Forman, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “In vivo thickness measurement of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis with optical coherence tomography and 20-MHz ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160(5), 1026–1033 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. Jacques, R. Samatham, N. Choudhury, Y. Fu, and D. Levitz, “Measuring tissue optical properties in vivo using reflectance-mode confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6864, 68640B (2008).
[Crossref]

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45(3), 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mogensen and G. B. Jemec, “Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: a review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies,” Dermatol. Surg. 33(10), 1158–1174 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. Roewert-Huber, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, E. Stockfleth, and H. Kerl, “Epidemiology and aetiology of basal cell carcinoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 157(Suppl 2), 47–51 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. L. Agero, K. J. Busam, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. Scope, M. Gill, A. A. Marghoob, S. González, and A. C. Halpern, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54(4), 638–643 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Olmedo, K. E. Warschaw, J. M. Schmitt, and D. L. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography for the characterization of basal cell carcinoma in vivo: a pilot study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 55(3), 408–412 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064026 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and T. A. Nuijs, “Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: A comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 274–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nori, F. Rius-Díaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. González, “Sensitivity and specificity of reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for in vivo diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a multicenter study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51(6), 923–930 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. González and Z. Tannous, “Real-time, in vivo confocal reflectance microscopy of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 47(6), 869–874 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. P. Ivanov, S. A. Makarevich, and A. Y. Khairulina, “Propagation of radiation in tissues and liquids with densily packed scatterers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 7 (1988).

1976 (1)

R. J. Marshall, “Infrared and ultraviolet photography in a study of the selective absorption of radiation by pigmented lesions of skin,” Med. Biol. Illus. 26(2), 71–84 (1976).
[PubMed]

Agero, A. L.

A. L. Agero, K. J. Busam, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. Scope, M. Gill, A. A. Marghoob, S. González, and A. C. Halpern, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54(4), 638–643 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agrba, P. D.

I. L. Shlivko, M. Y. Kirillin, E. V. Donchenko, D. O. Ellinsky, O. E. Garanina, M. S. Neznakhina, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Identification of layers in optical coherence tomography of skin: comparative analysis of experimental and Monte Carlo simulated images,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(4), 419–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alarcon, I.

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, G. Pellacani, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, I. Alarcon, C. Ruini, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography algorithm for discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from clinical BCC imitators and differentiation between common subtypes,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1771–1780 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

L. A. Sordillo, Y. Pu, S. Pratavieira, Y. Budansky, and R. R. Alfano, “Deep optical imaging of tissue using the second and third near-infrared spectral windows,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altamura, D.

D. Altamura, S. W. Menzies, G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, H. P. Soyer, F. Sera, M. Avramidis, K. DeAmbrosis, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermatoscopy of basal cell carcinoma: morphologic variability of global and local features and accuracy of diagnosis,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(1), 67–75 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gulia, D. Altamura, S. De Trane, T. Micantonio, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Pigmented reticular structures in basal cell carcinoma and collision tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 162(2), 442–444 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altmeyer, P.

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45(3), 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altobelli, E.

T. Micantonio, A. Gulia, E. Altobelli, A. Di Cesare, R. Fidanza, A. Riitano, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Vascular patterns in basal cell carcinoma,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(3), 358–361 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apalla, Z.

A. Lallas, T. Tzellos, A. Kyrgidis, Z. Apalla, I. Zalaudek, A. Karatolias, G. Ferrara, S. Piana, C. Longo, E. Moscarella, A. Stratigos, and G. Argenziano, “Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for discriminating superficial from other subtypes of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(2), 303–311 (2014).
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Argenziano, G.

A. Lallas, T. Tzellos, A. Kyrgidis, Z. Apalla, I. Zalaudek, A. Karatolias, G. Ferrara, S. Piana, C. Longo, E. Moscarella, A. Stratigos, and G. Argenziano, “Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for discriminating superficial from other subtypes of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(2), 303–311 (2014).
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C. Longo, A. Lallas, A. Kyrgidis, H. Rabinovitz, E. Moscarella, S. Ciardo, I. Zalaudek, M. Oliviero, A. Losi, S. Gonzalez, P. Guitera, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, and G. Pellacani, “Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(4), 716–724 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Altamura, S. W. Menzies, G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, H. P. Soyer, F. Sera, M. Avramidis, K. DeAmbrosis, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermatoscopy of basal cell carcinoma: morphologic variability of global and local features and accuracy of diagnosis,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(1), 67–75 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arginelli, F.

S. Seidenari, F. Arginelli, S. Bassoli, J. Cautela, A. M. Cesinaro, M. Guanti, D. Guardoli, C. Magnoni, M. Manfredini, G. Ponti, and K. König, “Diagnosis of BCC by multiphoton laser tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e297–e304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arits, A. H.

A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Arits, M. H. Schlangen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Trends in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma by histopathological subtype,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(5), 565–569 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avramidis, M.

D. Altamura, S. W. Menzies, G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, H. P. Soyer, F. Sera, M. Avramidis, K. DeAmbrosis, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermatoscopy of basal cell carcinoma: morphologic variability of global and local features and accuracy of diagnosis,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(1), 67–75 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banzhaf, C. A.

C. A. Banzhaf, L. Themstrup, H. C. Ring, M. Mogensen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer undergoing imiquimod therapy,” Skin Res. Technol. 20(2), 170–176 (2014).
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L. Themstrup, C. A. Banzhaf, M. Mogensen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer undergoing photodynamic therapy reveals subclinical residual lesions,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 11(1), 7–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baran, U.

Basset-Seguin, N.

M. Trakatelli, C. Morton, E. Nagore, C. Ulrich, V. Del Marmol, K. Peris, N. Basset-Seguin, and BCC subcommittee of the Guidelines Committee of the European Dermatology Forum, “Update of the European guidelines for basal cell carcinoma management,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 24(3), 312–329 (2014).
[PubMed]

Bassoli, S.

S. Seidenari, F. Arginelli, S. Bassoli, J. Cautela, A. M. Cesinaro, M. Guanti, D. Guardoli, C. Magnoni, M. Manfredini, G. Ponti, and K. König, “Diagnosis of BCC by multiphoton laser tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e297–e304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechara, F. G.

T. Gambichler, I. Plura, P. Kampilafkos, K. Valavanis, M. Sand, F. G. Bechara, and M. Stücker, “Histopathological correlates of basal cell carcinoma in the slice and en face imaging modes of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1358–1361 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45(3), 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benvenuto-Andrade, C.

A. L. Agero, K. J. Busam, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. Scope, M. Gill, A. A. Marghoob, S. González, and A. C. Halpern, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54(4), 638–643 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berking, C.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Maier, D. Kulichová, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(1), 80–85 (2014).
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T. Maier, M. Braun-Falco, T. Hinz, M. H. Schmid-Wendtner, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Morphology of basal cell carcinoma in high definition optical coherence tomography: en-face and slice imaging mode, and comparison with histology,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 27(1), e97–e104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bisschop, M. A.

S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and T. A. Nuijs, “Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: A comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 274–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boone, M.

M. Boone, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography enables visualization of individual cells in healthy skin: comparison to reflectance confocal microscopy,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(10), 740–744 (2012).
[PubMed]

M. Suppa, G. Forchetti, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, T. Seremet, V. Del Marmol, and M. Boone, “Validation of a new algorithm for basal cell carcinoma diagnosis and subtype classification by means of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol.submitted.

Boone, M. A.

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, F. Dhaenens, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, G. B. Jemec, V. Del Marmol, and R. Nebosis, “In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 308(1), 7–20 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(8), 705–720 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, G. Pellacani, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, I. Alarcon, C. Ruini, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography algorithm for discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from clinical BCC imitators and differentiation between common subtypes,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1771–1780 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, S. Norrenberg, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging of melanocytic lesions: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 306(1), 11–26 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, S. Norrenberg, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “Imaging of basal cell carcinoma by high-definition optical coherence tomography: histomorphological correlation. A pilot study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(4), 856–864 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun-Falco, M.

T. Maier, M. Braun-Falco, T. Hinz, M. H. Schmid-Wendtner, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Morphology of basal cell carcinoma in high definition optical coherence tomography: en-face and slice imaging mode, and comparison with histology,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 27(1), e97–e104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Budansky, Y.

L. A. Sordillo, Y. Pu, S. Pratavieira, Y. Budansky, and R. R. Alfano, “Deep optical imaging of tissue using the second and third near-infrared spectral windows,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Busam, K. J.

A. L. Agero, K. J. Busam, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. Scope, M. Gill, A. A. Marghoob, S. González, and A. C. Halpern, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54(4), 638–643 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrara, M.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, M. Carrara, and R. Marchesini, “In vivo optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions: common nevi, dysplastic nevi and malignant melanoma,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(1), 236–240 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carsin, A. E.

A. E. Carsin, L. Sharp, and H. Comber, “Geographical, urban/rural and socioeconomic variations in nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence: a population-based study in Ireland,” Br. J. Dermatol. 164(4), 822–829 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro, R. P.

R. P. Castro, A. Stephens, N. A. Fraga-Braghiroli, M. C. Oliviero, G. G. Rezze, H. Rabinovitz, and A. Scope, “Accuracy of in vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a comparative study between handheld and wide-probe confocal imaging,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(6), 1164–1169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cautela, J.

S. Seidenari, F. Arginelli, S. Bassoli, J. Cautela, A. M. Cesinaro, M. Guanti, D. Guardoli, C. Magnoni, M. Manfredini, G. Ponti, and K. König, “Diagnosis of BCC by multiphoton laser tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e297–e304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cesinaro, A. M.

S. Seidenari, F. Arginelli, S. Bassoli, J. Cautela, A. M. Cesinaro, M. Guanti, D. Guardoli, C. Magnoni, M. Manfredini, G. Ponti, and K. König, “Diagnosis of BCC by multiphoton laser tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e297–e304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Guitera, S. W. Menzies, C. Longo, A. M. Cesinaro, R. A. Scolyer, and G. Pellacani, “In vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma using a two-step method: analysis of 710 consecutive clinically equivocal cases,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 132(10), 2386–2394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chappell, P. H.

T. Lister, P. A. Wright, and P. H. Chappell, “Optical properties of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0909011 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chimenti, S.

M. Suppa, T. Micantonio, A. Di Stefani, H. P. Soyer, S. Chimenti, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermoscopic variability of basal cell carcinoma according to clinical type and anatomic location,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1732–1741 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choudhury, N.

S. Jacques, R. Samatham, N. Choudhury, Y. Fu, and D. Levitz, “Measuring tissue optical properties in vivo using reflectance-mode confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6864, 68640B (2008).
[Crossref]

Ciardo, S.

C. Longo, A. Lallas, A. Kyrgidis, H. Rabinovitz, E. Moscarella, S. Ciardo, I. Zalaudek, M. Oliviero, A. Losi, S. Gonzalez, P. Guitera, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, and G. Pellacani, “Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(4), 716–724 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coebergh, J. W.

S. C. Flohil, E. de Vries, H. A. Neumann, J. W. Coebergh, and T. Nijsten, “Incidence, prevalence and future trends of primary basal cell carcinoma in the Netherlands,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 91(1), 24–30 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comber, H.

A. E. Carsin, L. Sharp, and H. Comber, “Geographical, urban/rural and socioeconomic variations in nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence: a population-based study in Ireland,” Br. J. Dermatol. 164(4), 822–829 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuevas, J.

S. Nori, F. Rius-Díaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. González, “Sensitivity and specificity of reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for in vivo diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a multicenter study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51(6), 923–930 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Rooij, M. J.

A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Trane, S.

A. Gulia, D. Altamura, S. De Trane, T. Micantonio, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Pigmented reticular structures in basal cell carcinoma and collision tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 162(2), 442–444 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Vries, E.

S. C. Flohil, E. de Vries, H. A. Neumann, J. W. Coebergh, and T. Nijsten, “Incidence, prevalence and future trends of primary basal cell carcinoma in the Netherlands,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 91(1), 24–30 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeAmbrosis, K.

D. Altamura, S. W. Menzies, G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, H. P. Soyer, F. Sera, M. Avramidis, K. DeAmbrosis, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermatoscopy of basal cell carcinoma: morphologic variability of global and local features and accuracy of diagnosis,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(1), 67–75 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del Marmol, V.

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, F. Dhaenens, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, G. B. Jemec, V. Del Marmol, and R. Nebosis, “In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 308(1), 7–20 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(8), 705–720 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, G. Pellacani, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, I. Alarcon, C. Ruini, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography algorithm for discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from clinical BCC imitators and differentiation between common subtypes,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1771–1780 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, S. Norrenberg, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging of melanocytic lesions: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 306(1), 11–26 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Trakatelli, C. Morton, E. Nagore, C. Ulrich, V. Del Marmol, K. Peris, N. Basset-Seguin, and BCC subcommittee of the Guidelines Committee of the European Dermatology Forum, “Update of the European guidelines for basal cell carcinoma management,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 24(3), 312–329 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Boone, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography enables visualization of individual cells in healthy skin: comparison to reflectance confocal microscopy,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(10), 740–744 (2012).
[PubMed]

M. A. Boone, S. Norrenberg, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “Imaging of basal cell carcinoma by high-definition optical coherence tomography: histomorphological correlation. A pilot study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(4), 856–864 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Suppa, G. Forchetti, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, T. Seremet, V. Del Marmol, and M. Boone, “Validation of a new algorithm for basal cell carcinoma diagnosis and subtype classification by means of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol.submitted.

Dhaenens, F.

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, F. Dhaenens, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, G. B. Jemec, V. Del Marmol, and R. Nebosis, “In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 308(1), 7–20 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Cesare, A.

T. Micantonio, A. Gulia, E. Altobelli, A. Di Cesare, R. Fidanza, A. Riitano, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Vascular patterns in basal cell carcinoma,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(3), 358–361 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Stefani, A.

M. Suppa, T. Micantonio, A. Di Stefani, H. P. Soyer, S. Chimenti, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermoscopic variability of basal cell carcinoma according to clinical type and anatomic location,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1732–1741 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dimou, A.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, M. Carrara, and R. Marchesini, “In vivo optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions: common nevi, dysplastic nevi and malignant melanoma,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(1), 236–240 (2010).
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Dirschka, T.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donchenko, E. V.

I. L. Shlivko, M. Y. Kirillin, E. V. Donchenko, D. O. Ellinsky, O. E. Garanina, M. S. Neznakhina, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Identification of layers in optical coherence tomography of skin: comparative analysis of experimental and Monte Carlo simulated images,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(4), 419–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellinsky, D. O.

I. L. Shlivko, M. Y. Kirillin, E. V. Donchenko, D. O. Ellinsky, O. E. Garanina, M. S. Neznakhina, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Identification of layers in optical coherence tomography of skin: comparative analysis of experimental and Monte Carlo simulated images,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(4), 419–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Essers, B. A.

A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fargnoli, M. C.

M. Suppa, T. Micantonio, A. Di Stefani, H. P. Soyer, S. Chimenti, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermoscopic variability of basal cell carcinoma according to clinical type and anatomic location,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1732–1741 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Micantonio, A. Gulia, E. Altobelli, A. Di Cesare, R. Fidanza, A. Riitano, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Vascular patterns in basal cell carcinoma,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(3), 358–361 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Altamura, S. W. Menzies, G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, H. P. Soyer, F. Sera, M. Avramidis, K. DeAmbrosis, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermatoscopy of basal cell carcinoma: morphologic variability of global and local features and accuracy of diagnosis,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(1), 67–75 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gulia, D. Altamura, S. De Trane, T. Micantonio, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Pigmented reticular structures in basal cell carcinoma and collision tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 162(2), 442–444 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrara, G.

A. Lallas, T. Tzellos, A. Kyrgidis, Z. Apalla, I. Zalaudek, A. Karatolias, G. Ferrara, S. Piana, C. Longo, E. Moscarella, A. Stratigos, and G. Argenziano, “Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for discriminating superficial from other subtypes of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(2), 303–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fidanza, R.

T. Micantonio, A. Gulia, E. Altobelli, A. Di Cesare, R. Fidanza, A. Riitano, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Vascular patterns in basal cell carcinoma,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(3), 358–361 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flohil, S. C.

S. C. Flohil, E. de Vries, H. A. Neumann, J. W. Coebergh, and T. Nijsten, “Incidence, prevalence and future trends of primary basal cell carcinoma in the Netherlands,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 91(1), 24–30 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forchetti, G.

M. Suppa, G. Forchetti, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, T. Seremet, V. Del Marmol, and M. Boone, “Validation of a new algorithm for basal cell carcinoma diagnosis and subtype classification by means of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol.submitted.

Forman, J. L.

M. Mogensen, B. M. Nürnberg, J. L. Forman, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “In vivo thickness measurement of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis with optical coherence tomography and 20-MHz ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160(5), 1026–1033 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraga-Braghiroli, N. A.

R. P. Castro, A. Stephens, N. A. Fraga-Braghiroli, M. C. Oliviero, G. G. Rezze, H. Rabinovitz, and A. Scope, “Accuracy of in vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a comparative study between handheld and wide-probe confocal imaging,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(6), 1164–1169 (2015).
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Fu, Y.

S. Jacques, R. Samatham, N. Choudhury, Y. Fu, and D. Levitz, “Measuring tissue optical properties in vivo using reflectance-mode confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6864, 68640B (2008).
[Crossref]

Gambichler, T.

T. Gambichler, I. Plura, P. Kampilafkos, K. Valavanis, M. Sand, F. G. Bechara, and M. Stücker, “Histopathological correlates of basal cell carcinoma in the slice and en face imaging modes of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1358–1361 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45(3), 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garanina, O. E.

I. L. Shlivko, M. Y. Kirillin, E. V. Donchenko, D. O. Ellinsky, O. E. Garanina, M. S. Neznakhina, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Identification of layers in optical coherence tomography of skin: comparative analysis of experimental and Monte Carlo simulated images,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(4), 419–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastman, B.

O. Ibrahim, B. Gastman, and A. Zhang, “Advances in diagnosis and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” Ann. Plast. Surg. 73(5), 615–619 (2014).
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Giacomel, J.

J. Giacomel and I. Zalaudek, “Pink lesions,” Dermatol. Clin. 31(4), 649–678 (2013).
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Gill, M.

A. L. Agero, K. J. Busam, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. Scope, M. Gill, A. A. Marghoob, S. González, and A. C. Halpern, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54(4), 638–643 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldgeier, M.

S. Nori, F. Rius-Díaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. González, “Sensitivity and specificity of reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for in vivo diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a multicenter study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51(6), 923–930 (2004).
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Gonzalez, S.

C. Longo, A. Lallas, A. Kyrgidis, H. Rabinovitz, E. Moscarella, S. Ciardo, I. Zalaudek, M. Oliviero, A. Losi, S. Gonzalez, P. Guitera, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, and G. Pellacani, “Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(4), 716–724 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

González, S.

A. L. Agero, K. J. Busam, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. Scope, M. Gill, A. A. Marghoob, S. González, and A. C. Halpern, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54(4), 638–643 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nori, F. Rius-Díaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. González, “Sensitivity and specificity of reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for in vivo diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a multicenter study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51(6), 923–930 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. González and Z. Tannous, “Real-time, in vivo confocal reflectance microscopy of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 47(6), 869–874 (2002).
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Guanti, M.

S. Seidenari, F. Arginelli, S. Bassoli, J. Cautela, A. M. Cesinaro, M. Guanti, D. Guardoli, C. Magnoni, M. Manfredini, G. Ponti, and K. König, “Diagnosis of BCC by multiphoton laser tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e297–e304 (2013).
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Guardoli, D.

S. Seidenari, F. Arginelli, S. Bassoli, J. Cautela, A. M. Cesinaro, M. Guanti, D. Guardoli, C. Magnoni, M. Manfredini, G. Ponti, and K. König, “Diagnosis of BCC by multiphoton laser tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e297–e304 (2013).
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Guitera, P.

C. Longo, A. Lallas, A. Kyrgidis, H. Rabinovitz, E. Moscarella, S. Ciardo, I. Zalaudek, M. Oliviero, A. Losi, S. Gonzalez, P. Guitera, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, and G. Pellacani, “Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(4), 716–724 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Guitera, S. W. Menzies, C. Longo, A. M. Cesinaro, R. A. Scolyer, and G. Pellacani, “In vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma using a two-step method: analysis of 710 consecutive clinically equivocal cases,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 132(10), 2386–2394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gulia, A.

T. Micantonio, A. Gulia, E. Altobelli, A. Di Cesare, R. Fidanza, A. Riitano, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Vascular patterns in basal cell carcinoma,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(3), 358–361 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gulia, D. Altamura, S. De Trane, T. Micantonio, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Pigmented reticular structures in basal cell carcinoma and collision tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 162(2), 442–444 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halpern, A. C.

A. L. Agero, K. J. Busam, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. Scope, M. Gill, A. A. Marghoob, S. González, and A. C. Halpern, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54(4), 638–643 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herman, C.

C. Herman, “Emerging technologies for the detection of melanoma: achieving better outcomes,” Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dermatol. 5, 195–212 (2012).
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Hinz, T.

T. Maier, M. Braun-Falco, T. Hinz, M. H. Schmid-Wendtner, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Morphology of basal cell carcinoma in high definition optical coherence tomography: en-face and slice imaging mode, and comparison with histology,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 27(1), e97–e104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, K.

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45(3), 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofmann-Wellenhof, R.

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, G. Pellacani, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, I. Alarcon, C. Ruini, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography algorithm for discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from clinical BCC imitators and differentiation between common subtypes,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1771–1780 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, O.

O. Ibrahim, B. Gastman, and A. Zhang, “Advances in diagnosis and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” Ann. Plast. Surg. 73(5), 615–619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. P. Ivanov, S. A. Makarevich, and A. Y. Khairulina, “Propagation of radiation in tissues and liquids with densily packed scatterers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 7 (1988).

Jacques, S.

S. Jacques, R. Samatham, N. Choudhury, Y. Fu, and D. Levitz, “Measuring tissue optical properties in vivo using reflectance-mode confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6864, 68640B (2008).
[Crossref]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
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S. L. Jacques, “Fractal nature of light scattering in tissues,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 4(01), 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaen, P.

S. Nori, F. Rius-Díaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. González, “Sensitivity and specificity of reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for in vivo diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a multicenter study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51(6), 923–930 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jemec, G. B.

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, F. Dhaenens, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, G. B. Jemec, V. Del Marmol, and R. Nebosis, “In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 308(1), 7–20 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(8), 705–720 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, G. Pellacani, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, I. Alarcon, C. Ruini, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography algorithm for discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from clinical BCC imitators and differentiation between common subtypes,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1771–1780 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Boone, S. Norrenberg, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging of melanocytic lesions: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 306(1), 11–26 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Themstrup, C. A. Banzhaf, M. Mogensen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer undergoing photodynamic therapy reveals subclinical residual lesions,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 11(1), 7–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Banzhaf, L. Themstrup, H. C. Ring, M. Mogensen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer undergoing imiquimod therapy,” Skin Res. Technol. 20(2), 170–176 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Boone, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography enables visualization of individual cells in healthy skin: comparison to reflectance confocal microscopy,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(10), 740–744 (2012).
[PubMed]

M. A. Boone, S. Norrenberg, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “Imaging of basal cell carcinoma by high-definition optical coherence tomography: histomorphological correlation. A pilot study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(4), 856–864 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mogensen, B. M. Nürnberg, J. L. Forman, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “In vivo thickness measurement of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis with optical coherence tomography and 20-MHz ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160(5), 1026–1033 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mogensen and G. B. Jemec, “Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: a review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies,” Dermatol. Surg. 33(10), 1158–1174 (2007).
[PubMed]

Jiang, B.

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064026 (2006).
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Joergensen, T. M.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamensky, V. A.

I. L. Shlivko, M. Y. Kirillin, E. V. Donchenko, D. O. Ellinsky, O. E. Garanina, M. S. Neznakhina, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Identification of layers in optical coherence tomography of skin: comparative analysis of experimental and Monte Carlo simulated images,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(4), 419–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kampilafkos, P.

T. Gambichler, I. Plura, P. Kampilafkos, K. Valavanis, M. Sand, F. G. Bechara, and M. Stücker, “Histopathological correlates of basal cell carcinoma in the slice and en face imaging modes of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1358–1361 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karatolias, A.

A. Lallas, T. Tzellos, A. Kyrgidis, Z. Apalla, I. Zalaudek, A. Karatolias, G. Ferrara, S. Piana, C. Longo, E. Moscarella, A. Stratigos, and G. Argenziano, “Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for discriminating superficial from other subtypes of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(2), 303–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelleners-Smeets, N. W.

A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Arits, M. H. Schlangen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Trends in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma by histopathological subtype,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(5), 565–569 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kellner, C.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
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Kerl, H.

J. Roewert-Huber, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, E. Stockfleth, and H. Kerl, “Epidemiology and aetiology of basal cell carcinoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 157(Suppl 2), 47–51 (2007).
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A. P. Ivanov, S. A. Makarevich, and A. Y. Khairulina, “Propagation of radiation in tissues and liquids with densily packed scatterers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 7 (1988).

Kirillin, M. Y.

I. L. Shlivko, M. Y. Kirillin, E. V. Donchenko, D. O. Ellinsky, O. E. Garanina, M. S. Neznakhina, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Identification of layers in optical coherence tomography of skin: comparative analysis of experimental and Monte Carlo simulated images,” Skin Res. Technol. 21(4), 419–425 (2015).
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V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
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S. Seidenari, F. Arginelli, S. Bassoli, J. Cautela, A. M. Cesinaro, M. Guanti, D. Guardoli, C. Magnoni, M. Manfredini, G. Ponti, and K. König, “Diagnosis of BCC by multiphoton laser tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e297–e304 (2013).
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A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
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T. Maier, D. Kulichová, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(1), 80–85 (2014).
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T. Maier, D. Kulichová, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(1), 80–85 (2014).
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A. Lallas, T. Tzellos, A. Kyrgidis, Z. Apalla, I. Zalaudek, A. Karatolias, G. Ferrara, S. Piana, C. Longo, E. Moscarella, A. Stratigos, and G. Argenziano, “Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for discriminating superficial from other subtypes of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(2), 303–311 (2014).
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A. Lallas, T. Tzellos, A. Kyrgidis, Z. Apalla, I. Zalaudek, A. Karatolias, G. Ferrara, S. Piana, C. Longo, E. Moscarella, A. Stratigos, and G. Argenziano, “Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for discriminating superficial from other subtypes of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(2), 303–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lange-Asschenfeldt, B.

J. Roewert-Huber, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, E. Stockfleth, and H. Kerl, “Epidemiology and aetiology of basal cell carcinoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 157(Suppl 2), 47–51 (2007).
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S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and T. A. Nuijs, “Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: A comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 274–281 (2004).
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C. Longo, A. Lallas, A. Kyrgidis, H. Rabinovitz, E. Moscarella, S. Ciardo, I. Zalaudek, M. Oliviero, A. Losi, S. Gonzalez, P. Guitera, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, and G. Pellacani, “Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(4), 716–724 (2014).
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A. Lallas, T. Tzellos, A. Kyrgidis, Z. Apalla, I. Zalaudek, A. Karatolias, G. Ferrara, S. Piana, C. Longo, E. Moscarella, A. Stratigos, and G. Argenziano, “Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for discriminating superficial from other subtypes of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(2), 303–311 (2014).
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P. Guitera, S. W. Menzies, C. Longo, A. M. Cesinaro, R. A. Scolyer, and G. Pellacani, “In vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma using a two-step method: analysis of 710 consecutive clinically equivocal cases,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 132(10), 2386–2394 (2012).
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C. Longo, A. Lallas, A. Kyrgidis, H. Rabinovitz, E. Moscarella, S. Ciardo, I. Zalaudek, M. Oliviero, A. Losi, S. Gonzalez, P. Guitera, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, and G. Pellacani, “Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(4), 716–724 (2014).
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S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and T. A. Nuijs, “Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: A comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 274–281 (2004).
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S. Seidenari, F. Arginelli, S. Bassoli, J. Cautela, A. M. Cesinaro, M. Guanti, D. Guardoli, C. Magnoni, M. Manfredini, G. Ponti, and K. König, “Diagnosis of BCC by multiphoton laser tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e297–e304 (2013).
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T. Maier, D. Kulichová, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(1), 80–85 (2014).
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T. Maier, M. Braun-Falco, T. Hinz, M. H. Schmid-Wendtner, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Morphology of basal cell carcinoma in high definition optical coherence tomography: en-face and slice imaging mode, and comparison with histology,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 27(1), e97–e104 (2013).
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A. P. Ivanov, S. A. Makarevich, and A. Y. Khairulina, “Propagation of radiation in tissues and liquids with densily packed scatterers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 7 (1988).

Maksimova, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
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S. Seidenari, F. Arginelli, S. Bassoli, J. Cautela, A. M. Cesinaro, M. Guanti, D. Guardoli, C. Magnoni, M. Manfredini, G. Ponti, and K. König, “Diagnosis of BCC by multiphoton laser tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e297–e304 (2013).
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M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(8), 705–720 (2015).
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M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, G. Pellacani, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, I. Alarcon, C. Ruini, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography algorithm for discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from clinical BCC imitators and differentiation between common subtypes,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1771–1780 (2015).
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P. Guitera, S. W. Menzies, C. Longo, A. M. Cesinaro, R. A. Scolyer, and G. Pellacani, “In vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma using a two-step method: analysis of 710 consecutive clinically equivocal cases,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 132(10), 2386–2394 (2012).
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V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
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M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, F. Dhaenens, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, G. B. Jemec, V. Del Marmol, and R. Nebosis, “In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 308(1), 7–20 (2016), doi:.
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M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(8), 705–720 (2015).
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M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, G. Pellacani, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, I. Alarcon, C. Ruini, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography algorithm for discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from clinical BCC imitators and differentiation between common subtypes,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1771–1780 (2015).
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M. Suppa, G. Forchetti, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, T. Seremet, V. Del Marmol, and M. Boone, “Validation of a new algorithm for basal cell carcinoma diagnosis and subtype classification by means of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol.submitted.

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L. Themstrup, C. A. Banzhaf, M. Mogensen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer undergoing photodynamic therapy reveals subclinical residual lesions,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 11(1), 7–12 (2014).
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C. A. Banzhaf, L. Themstrup, H. C. Ring, M. Mogensen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer undergoing imiquimod therapy,” Skin Res. Technol. 20(2), 170–176 (2014).
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M. Mogensen, B. M. Nürnberg, J. L. Forman, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “In vivo thickness measurement of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis with optical coherence tomography and 20-MHz ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160(5), 1026–1033 (2009).
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M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
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M. Mogensen and G. B. Jemec, “Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: a review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies,” Dermatol. Surg. 33(10), 1158–1174 (2007).
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C. Longo, A. Lallas, A. Kyrgidis, H. Rabinovitz, E. Moscarella, S. Ciardo, I. Zalaudek, M. Oliviero, A. Losi, S. Gonzalez, P. Guitera, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, and G. Pellacani, “Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(4), 716–724 (2014).
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A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
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T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45(3), 167–173 (2007).
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M. Trakatelli, C. Morton, E. Nagore, C. Ulrich, V. Del Marmol, K. Peris, N. Basset-Seguin, and BCC subcommittee of the Guidelines Committee of the European Dermatology Forum, “Update of the European guidelines for basal cell carcinoma management,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 24(3), 312–329 (2014).
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Nebosis, R.

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, F. Dhaenens, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, G. B. Jemec, V. Del Marmol, and R. Nebosis, “In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 308(1), 7–20 (2016), doi:.
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S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and T. A. Nuijs, “Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: A comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 274–281 (2004).
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A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
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A. H. Arits, M. H. Schlangen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Trends in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma by histopathological subtype,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(5), 565–569 (2011).
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S. C. Flohil, E. de Vries, H. A. Neumann, J. W. Coebergh, and T. Nijsten, “Incidence, prevalence and future trends of primary basal cell carcinoma in the Netherlands,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 91(1), 24–30 (2011).
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M. A. Boone, S. Norrenberg, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging of melanocytic lesions: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 306(1), 11–26 (2014).
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M. A. Boone, S. Norrenberg, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “Imaging of basal cell carcinoma by high-definition optical coherence tomography: histomorphological correlation. A pilot study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(4), 856–864 (2012).
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S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and T. A. Nuijs, “Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: A comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 274–281 (2004).
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M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mogensen, B. M. Nürnberg, J. L. Forman, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “In vivo thickness measurement of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis with optical coherence tomography and 20-MHz ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160(5), 1026–1033 (2009).
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Oliviero, M.

C. Longo, A. Lallas, A. Kyrgidis, H. Rabinovitz, E. Moscarella, S. Ciardo, I. Zalaudek, M. Oliviero, A. Losi, S. Gonzalez, P. Guitera, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, and G. Pellacani, “Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(4), 716–724 (2014).
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Oliviero, M. C.

R. P. Castro, A. Stephens, N. A. Fraga-Braghiroli, M. C. Oliviero, G. G. Rezze, H. Rabinovitz, and A. Scope, “Accuracy of in vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a comparative study between handheld and wide-probe confocal imaging,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(6), 1164–1169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olmedo, J. M.

J. M. Olmedo, K. E. Warschaw, J. M. Schmitt, and D. L. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography for the characterization of basal cell carcinoma in vivo: a pilot study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 55(3), 408–412 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orlikov, A.

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45(3), 167–173 (2007).
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Pellacani, G.

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, G. Pellacani, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, I. Alarcon, C. Ruini, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography algorithm for discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from clinical BCC imitators and differentiation between common subtypes,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1771–1780 (2015).
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C. Longo, A. Lallas, A. Kyrgidis, H. Rabinovitz, E. Moscarella, S. Ciardo, I. Zalaudek, M. Oliviero, A. Losi, S. Gonzalez, P. Guitera, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, and G. Pellacani, “Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(4), 716–724 (2014).
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P. Guitera, S. W. Menzies, C. Longo, A. M. Cesinaro, R. A. Scolyer, and G. Pellacani, “In vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma using a two-step method: analysis of 710 consecutive clinically equivocal cases,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 132(10), 2386–2394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peris, K.

M. Suppa, T. Micantonio, A. Di Stefani, H. P. Soyer, S. Chimenti, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermoscopic variability of basal cell carcinoma according to clinical type and anatomic location,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1732–1741 (2015).
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M. Trakatelli, C. Morton, E. Nagore, C. Ulrich, V. Del Marmol, K. Peris, N. Basset-Seguin, and BCC subcommittee of the Guidelines Committee of the European Dermatology Forum, “Update of the European guidelines for basal cell carcinoma management,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 24(3), 312–329 (2014).
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T. Micantonio, A. Gulia, E. Altobelli, A. Di Cesare, R. Fidanza, A. Riitano, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Vascular patterns in basal cell carcinoma,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(3), 358–361 (2011).
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A. Gulia, D. Altamura, S. De Trane, T. Micantonio, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Pigmented reticular structures in basal cell carcinoma and collision tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 162(2), 442–444 (2010).
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D. Altamura, S. W. Menzies, G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, H. P. Soyer, F. Sera, M. Avramidis, K. DeAmbrosis, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermatoscopy of basal cell carcinoma: morphologic variability of global and local features and accuracy of diagnosis,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(1), 67–75 (2010).
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Piana, S.

A. Lallas, T. Tzellos, A. Kyrgidis, Z. Apalla, I. Zalaudek, A. Karatolias, G. Ferrara, S. Piana, C. Longo, E. Moscarella, A. Stratigos, and G. Argenziano, “Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for discriminating superficial from other subtypes of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(2), 303–311 (2014).
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C. Longo, A. Lallas, A. Kyrgidis, H. Rabinovitz, E. Moscarella, S. Ciardo, I. Zalaudek, M. Oliviero, A. Losi, S. Gonzalez, P. Guitera, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, and G. Pellacani, “Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(4), 716–724 (2014).
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Plura, I.

T. Gambichler, I. Plura, P. Kampilafkos, K. Valavanis, M. Sand, F. G. Bechara, and M. Stücker, “Histopathological correlates of basal cell carcinoma in the slice and en face imaging modes of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1358–1361 (2014).
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S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041302 (2008).
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S. Seidenari, F. Arginelli, S. Bassoli, J. Cautela, A. M. Cesinaro, M. Guanti, D. Guardoli, C. Magnoni, M. Manfredini, G. Ponti, and K. König, “Diagnosis of BCC by multiphoton laser tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e297–e304 (2013).
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L. A. Sordillo, Y. Pu, S. Pratavieira, Y. Budansky, and R. R. Alfano, “Deep optical imaging of tissue using the second and third near-infrared spectral windows,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056004 (2014).
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L. A. Sordillo, Y. Pu, S. Pratavieira, Y. Budansky, and R. R. Alfano, “Deep optical imaging of tissue using the second and third near-infrared spectral windows,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056004 (2014).
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A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
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Rabinovitz, H.

R. P. Castro, A. Stephens, N. A. Fraga-Braghiroli, M. C. Oliviero, G. G. Rezze, H. Rabinovitz, and A. Scope, “Accuracy of in vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a comparative study between handheld and wide-probe confocal imaging,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(6), 1164–1169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Longo, A. Lallas, A. Kyrgidis, H. Rabinovitz, E. Moscarella, S. Ciardo, I. Zalaudek, M. Oliviero, A. Losi, S. Gonzalez, P. Guitera, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, and G. Pellacani, “Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(4), 716–724 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reinhold, U.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
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Rezze, G. G.

R. P. Castro, A. Stephens, N. A. Fraga-Braghiroli, M. C. Oliviero, G. G. Rezze, H. Rabinovitz, and A. Scope, “Accuracy of in vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a comparative study between handheld and wide-probe confocal imaging,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(6), 1164–1169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riitano, A.

T. Micantonio, A. Gulia, E. Altobelli, A. Di Cesare, R. Fidanza, A. Riitano, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Vascular patterns in basal cell carcinoma,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(3), 358–361 (2011).
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Rijzewijk, J. J.

A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
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Ring, H. C.

C. A. Banzhaf, L. Themstrup, H. C. Ring, M. Mogensen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer undergoing imiquimod therapy,” Skin Res. Technol. 20(2), 170–176 (2014).
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S. Nori, F. Rius-Díaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. González, “Sensitivity and specificity of reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for in vivo diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a multicenter study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51(6), 923–930 (2004).
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Roewert-Huber, J.

J. Roewert-Huber, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, E. Stockfleth, and H. Kerl, “Epidemiology and aetiology of basal cell carcinoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 157(Suppl 2), 47–51 (2007).
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Ruini, C.

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, G. Pellacani, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, I. Alarcon, C. Ruini, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography algorithm for discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from clinical BCC imitators and differentiation between common subtypes,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1771–1780 (2015).
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T. Maier, D. Kulichová, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(1), 80–85 (2014).
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T. Maier, M. Braun-Falco, T. Hinz, M. H. Schmid-Wendtner, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Morphology of basal cell carcinoma in high definition optical coherence tomography: en-face and slice imaging mode, and comparison with histology,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 27(1), e97–e104 (2013).
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E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064026 (2006).
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S. Jacques, R. Samatham, N. Choudhury, Y. Fu, and D. Levitz, “Measuring tissue optical properties in vivo using reflectance-mode confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6864, 68640B (2008).
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T. Gambichler, I. Plura, P. Kampilafkos, K. Valavanis, M. Sand, F. G. Bechara, and M. Stücker, “Histopathological correlates of basal cell carcinoma in the slice and en face imaging modes of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1358–1361 (2014).
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Sattler, E.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
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A. H. Arits, M. H. Schlangen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Trends in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma by histopathological subtype,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25(5), 565–569 (2011).
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T. Maier, M. Braun-Falco, T. Hinz, M. H. Schmid-Wendtner, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Morphology of basal cell carcinoma in high definition optical coherence tomography: en-face and slice imaging mode, and comparison with histology,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 27(1), e97–e104 (2013).
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Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Olmedo, K. E. Warschaw, J. M. Schmitt, and D. L. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography for the characterization of basal cell carcinoma in vivo: a pilot study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 55(3), 408–412 (2006).
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Scolyer, R. A.

P. Guitera, S. W. Menzies, C. Longo, A. M. Cesinaro, R. A. Scolyer, and G. Pellacani, “In vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma using a two-step method: analysis of 710 consecutive clinically equivocal cases,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 132(10), 2386–2394 (2012).
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Scope, A.

R. P. Castro, A. Stephens, N. A. Fraga-Braghiroli, M. C. Oliviero, G. G. Rezze, H. Rabinovitz, and A. Scope, “Accuracy of in vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a comparative study between handheld and wide-probe confocal imaging,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(6), 1164–1169 (2015).
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A. L. Agero, K. J. Busam, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. Scope, M. Gill, A. A. Marghoob, S. González, and A. C. Halpern, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54(4), 638–643 (2006).
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K. Sellheyer, “Basal cell carcinoma: cell of origin, cancer stem cell hypothesis and stem cell markers,” Br. J. Dermatol. 164(4), 696–711 (2011).
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Sera, F.

D. Altamura, S. W. Menzies, G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, H. P. Soyer, F. Sera, M. Avramidis, K. DeAmbrosis, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermatoscopy of basal cell carcinoma: morphologic variability of global and local features and accuracy of diagnosis,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(1), 67–75 (2010).
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Seremet, T.

M. Suppa, G. Forchetti, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, T. Seremet, V. Del Marmol, and M. Boone, “Validation of a new algorithm for basal cell carcinoma diagnosis and subtype classification by means of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol.submitted.

Sharp, L.

A. E. Carsin, L. Sharp, and H. Comber, “Geographical, urban/rural and socioeconomic variations in nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence: a population-based study in Ireland,” Br. J. Dermatol. 164(4), 822–829 (2011).
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Sommer, A.

A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
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Sordillo, L. A.

L. A. Sordillo, Y. Pu, S. Pratavieira, Y. Budansky, and R. R. Alfano, “Deep optical imaging of tissue using the second and third near-infrared spectral windows,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soyer, H. P.

M. Suppa, T. Micantonio, A. Di Stefani, H. P. Soyer, S. Chimenti, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermoscopic variability of basal cell carcinoma according to clinical type and anatomic location,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1732–1741 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Altamura, S. W. Menzies, G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, H. P. Soyer, F. Sera, M. Avramidis, K. DeAmbrosis, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermatoscopy of basal cell carcinoma: morphologic variability of global and local features and accuracy of diagnosis,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(1), 67–75 (2010).
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Spoorenberg, E.

A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
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Steijlen, P. M.

A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
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Stephens, A.

R. P. Castro, A. Stephens, N. A. Fraga-Braghiroli, M. C. Oliviero, G. G. Rezze, H. Rabinovitz, and A. Scope, “Accuracy of in vivo confocal microscopy for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a comparative study between handheld and wide-probe confocal imaging,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(6), 1164–1169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stockfleth, E.

J. Roewert-Huber, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, E. Stockfleth, and H. Kerl, “Epidemiology and aetiology of basal cell carcinoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 157(Suppl 2), 47–51 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stratigos, A.

A. Lallas, T. Tzellos, A. Kyrgidis, Z. Apalla, I. Zalaudek, A. Karatolias, G. Ferrara, S. Piana, C. Longo, E. Moscarella, A. Stratigos, and G. Argenziano, “Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for discriminating superficial from other subtypes of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(2), 303–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stücker, M.

T. Gambichler, I. Plura, P. Kampilafkos, K. Valavanis, M. Sand, F. G. Bechara, and M. Stücker, “Histopathological correlates of basal cell carcinoma in the slice and en face imaging modes of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1358–1361 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45(3), 167–173 (2007).
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Suppa, M.

M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, F. Dhaenens, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, G. B. Jemec, V. Del Marmol, and R. Nebosis, “In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 308(1), 7–20 (2016), doi:.
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M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(8), 705–720 (2015).
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M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, G. Pellacani, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, I. Alarcon, C. Ruini, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography algorithm for discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from clinical BCC imitators and differentiation between common subtypes,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1771–1780 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Suppa, T. Micantonio, A. Di Stefani, H. P. Soyer, S. Chimenti, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Dermoscopic variability of basal cell carcinoma according to clinical type and anatomic location,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 29(9), 1732–1741 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Suppa, G. Forchetti, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, T. Seremet, V. Del Marmol, and M. Boone, “Validation of a new algorithm for basal cell carcinoma diagnosis and subtype classification by means of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol.submitted.

Swanson, D. L.

J. M. Olmedo, K. E. Warschaw, J. M. Schmitt, and D. L. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography for the characterization of basal cell carcinoma in vivo: a pilot study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 55(3), 408–412 (2006).
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Tannous, Z.

S. González and Z. Tannous, “Real-time, in vivo confocal reflectance microscopy of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 47(6), 869–874 (2002).
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Themstrup, L.

C. A. Banzhaf, L. Themstrup, H. C. Ring, M. Mogensen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer undergoing imiquimod therapy,” Skin Res. Technol. 20(2), 170–176 (2014).
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L. Themstrup, C. A. Banzhaf, M. Mogensen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer undergoing photodynamic therapy reveals subclinical residual lesions,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 11(1), 7–12 (2014).
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Thomsen, J. B.

M. Mogensen, B. M. Nürnberg, J. L. Forman, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “In vivo thickness measurement of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis with optical coherence tomography and 20-MHz ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160(5), 1026–1033 (2009).
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M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
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Thrane, L.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mogensen, B. M. Nürnberg, J. L. Forman, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “In vivo thickness measurement of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis with optical coherence tomography and 20-MHz ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160(5), 1026–1033 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torres, A.

S. Nori, F. Rius-Díaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. González, “Sensitivity and specificity of reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for in vivo diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a multicenter study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51(6), 923–930 (2004).
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Trakatelli, M.

M. Trakatelli, C. Morton, E. Nagore, C. Ulrich, V. Del Marmol, K. Peris, N. Basset-Seguin, and BCC subcommittee of the Guidelines Committee of the European Dermatology Forum, “Update of the European guidelines for basal cell carcinoma management,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 24(3), 312–329 (2014).
[PubMed]

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V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
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Tzellos, T.

A. Lallas, T. Tzellos, A. Kyrgidis, Z. Apalla, I. Zalaudek, A. Karatolias, G. Ferrara, S. Piana, C. Longo, E. Moscarella, A. Stratigos, and G. Argenziano, “Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for discriminating superficial from other subtypes of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(2), 303–311 (2014).
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M. Trakatelli, C. Morton, E. Nagore, C. Ulrich, V. Del Marmol, K. Peris, N. Basset-Seguin, and BCC subcommittee of the Guidelines Committee of the European Dermatology Forum, “Update of the European guidelines for basal cell carcinoma management,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 24(3), 312–329 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ulrich, M.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valavanis, K.

T. Gambichler, I. Plura, P. Kampilafkos, K. Valavanis, M. Sand, F. G. Bechara, and M. Stücker, “Histopathological correlates of basal cell carcinoma in the slice and en face imaging modes of high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1358–1361 (2014).
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A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
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A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
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A. H. Arits, K. Mosterd, B. A. Essers, E. Spoorenberg, A. Sommer, M. J. De Rooij, H. P. van Pelt, P. J. Quaedvlieg, G. A. Krekels, P. A. van Neer, J. J. Rijzewijk, A. J. van Geest, P. M. Steijlen, P. J. Nelemans, and N. W. Kelleners-Smeets, “Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma: a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,” Lancet Oncol. 14(7), 647–654 (2013).
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T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45(3), 167–173 (2007).
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M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
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Wang, R. K.

Warschaw, K. E.

J. M. Olmedo, K. E. Warschaw, J. M. Schmitt, and D. L. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography for the characterization of basal cell carcinoma in vivo: a pilot study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 55(3), 408–412 (2006).
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M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
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T. Lister, P. A. Wright, and P. H. Chappell, “Optical properties of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0909011 (2012).
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E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064026 (2006).
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V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
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G. Zonios, A. Dimou, M. Carrara, and R. Marchesini, “In vivo optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions: common nevi, dysplastic nevi and malignant melanoma,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(1), 236–240 (2010).
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O. Ibrahim, B. Gastman, and A. Zhang, “Advances in diagnosis and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer,” Ann. Plast. Surg. 73(5), 615–619 (2014).
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M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, A. Marneffe, M. Miyamoto, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(8), 705–720 (2015).
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M. A. Boone, M. Suppa, F. Dhaenens, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, G. B. Jemec, V. Del Marmol, and R. Nebosis, “In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 308(1), 7–20 (2016), doi:.
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M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
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M. A. Boone, S. Norrenberg, G. B. Jemec, and V. Del Marmol, “Imaging of basal cell carcinoma by high-definition optical coherence tomography: histomorphological correlation. A pilot study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167(4), 856–864 (2012).
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M. Mogensen and G. B. Jemec, “Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: a review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies,” Dermatol. Surg. 33(10), 1158–1174 (2007).
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A. Lallas, T. Tzellos, A. Kyrgidis, Z. Apalla, I. Zalaudek, A. Karatolias, G. Ferrara, S. Piana, C. Longo, E. Moscarella, A. Stratigos, and G. Argenziano, “Accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for discriminating superficial from other subtypes of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(2), 303–311 (2014).
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S. Nori, F. Rius-Díaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. González, “Sensitivity and specificity of reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for in vivo diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a multicenter study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51(6), 923–930 (2004).
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J. M. Olmedo, K. E. Warschaw, J. M. Schmitt, and D. L. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography for the characterization of basal cell carcinoma in vivo: a pilot study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 55(3), 408–412 (2006).
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S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and T. A. Nuijs, “Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: A comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 274–281 (2004).
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T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45(3), 167–173 (2007).
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T. Maier, D. Kulichová, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(1), 80–85 (2014).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Superficial BCC. (a) A 3-D HD-OCT DICOM (digital imaging and communication in medicine) image of the lesion is selected: en face image (a1) and cross-sectional image (a2). This DICOM file is then opened using LabView software. A region of interest (ROI) (> 0.1 mm2) is chosen in the en face image (red square). In a first step, a plot z-axis profile of the scanned volume (> 0.05 mm3) is performed. The obtained graph (a3) displays the reflectance and attenuation of the ballistic photons (OCT-signal: measured on the y-axis with arbitral units (a.u.)) versus imaging depth which is indicated on the x-axis (µm). The distance from Z = 0 to the first peak is the thickness of the gel. The first peak at about 120 µm corresponds to the skin entrance signal (SE-S). The valley is noticed 352 µm deeper than the first peak. Consequently, the epidermis is approximately 232 µm thick in this ROI. The second peak is situated 50 µm deeper than the valley. Hence, the papillary dermis is approximately 50 µm thick in this ROI. In a second step, The HD-OCT signals were divided by SE-S in order to normalize them to the SE-S The natural logarithm ln(x) of those values is taken (a4). A semi-log plot is performed; an exponential function becomes linear described by y = ax + b. Successive layers with clear exponential decay are identified and plotted. A straight line is fitted in each of these layers resulting in equation of type yi = axi + b whereby coefficient a provides the relative attenuation factor for each of the identified layers “i” given by µrafi. Data are summarized in table (a5): OCT signal at different Z-values (a.u.), distance (µm) between different Z values (vertical coloured lines) and µraf in different layers (1/µm). (b) high-resolution en face images at different Z-values. Yellow arrows indicate the position of cross-sectional images (c). Magenta arrows indicate the position of the en face images. Green arrows indicate the sBCC hemi-lobules. Optical properties of sBCC with high diagnostic accuracy (>95%) and high negative predictive values (NPV) (>97.5%) are the presence of a nod in semi-log plot of layer-1, much lower relative attenuation factor in lower part of epidermal layer (µraf1b) and strongly increased E-T.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Nodular BCC. (a-c). For details about arrows see Fig. 1. Optical properties of nBCC with moderate to high diagnostic accuracy (91.7% - 95.8%) and high NPV (93.8% - 97.0%) were strongly decreased epidermal - and papillary dermal thickness and less negative µraf2 compared to normal skin.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Infiltrative BCC. (a-c) For details see Fig. 1. Regarding the optical properties of iBCC an increase of µraf3b of >0.0051 cm-1 compared to normal skin and the presence of peaks and falls in reticular dermis had good diagnostic accuracy (79.1% - 93.8%) and high NPV (93.8% - 96.8%).

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Parameters (abbreviation and definition) used in this study

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Table 2 Quantitative evaluation of relevant parameters observed in basal cell carcinoma subtypes in comparison with normal adjacent skin.

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Table 3 Selection of best critical value of relevant optical properties of basal cell carcinoma subtypes by applying receiver operating characteristic curves.

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Table 4 Absolute and relative frequencies of relevant optical properties of BCC subtypes in relation to critical values as assessed in vivo by High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography

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Table 5 Intrinsic age and skin layer related values of relative attenuation factors. Measurements are taken at inner site of right upper arm.

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