Abstract

Coherent fiber bundles can be used to relay the image plane from the distal tip of an endomicroscope to an external confocal microscopy system. The frame rate is therefore determined by the speed of the microscope’s laser scanning system which, at 10-20 Hz, may be undesirably low for in vivo clinical applications. Line-scanning allows an increase in the frame rate by an order of magnitude in exchange for some loss of optical sectioning, but the width of the detector slit cannot easily be adapted to suit different imaging conditions. The rolling shutter of a CMOS camera can be used as a virtual detector slit for a bench-top line-scanning confocal microscope, and here we extend this idea to endomicroscopy. By synchronizing the camera rolling shutter with a scanning laser line we achieve confocal imaging with an electronically variable detector slit. This architecture allows us to acquire every other frame with the detector slit offset by a known distance, and we show that subtracting this second image leads to improved optical sectioning.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (4)

P. A. Keahey, T. S. Tkaczyk, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimizing modulation frequency for structured illumination in a fiber-optic microendoscope to image nuclear morphometry in columnar epithelium,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 870–880 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hughes and G.-Z. Yang, “High speed, line-scanning, fiber bundle fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy for improved mosaicking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1241–1252 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Giataganas, M. Hughes, and G.-Z. Yang, “Force adaptive robotically assisted endomicroscopy for intraoperative tumour identification,” Int. J. CARS 10(6), 825–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. de Medeiros, N. Norlin, S. Gunther, M. Albert, L. Panavaite, U.-M. Fiuza, F. Peri, T. Hiiragi, U. Krzic, and L. Hufnagel, “Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

M. I. Canto, S. Anandasabapathy, W. Brugge, G. W. Falk, K. B. Dunbar, Z. Zhang, K. Woods, J. A. Almario, U. Schell, and J. Goldblum, “In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(2), 211–221 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

M. H. Koucky and M. C. Pierce, “Axial response of high-resolution microendoscopy in scattering media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2247–2256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

T. N. Ford, D. Lim, and J. Mertz, “Fast optically sectioned fluorescence HiLo endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Mei, P. A. Fomitchov, R. Graves, and M. Campion, “A line scanning confocal fluorescent microscope using a CMOS rolling shutter as an adjustable aperture,” J. Microsc. 247(3), 269–276 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Baumgart and U. Kubitscheck, “Scanned light sheet microscopy with confocal slit detection,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21805–21814 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal Endomicroscopy: Instrumentation and Medical Applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. Pierce, D. Yu, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution fiber-optic microendoscopy for in situ cellular imaging,” J. Vis. Exp. 47, 8–11 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. L. Goualher, A. Perchant, M. Genet, C. Cav, B. Viellerobe, B. Abrat, and N. Ayache, “Towards Optical Biopsies with an Integrated Fibered Confocal Fluorescence Microscope,” MICCAI 2004, 761–768 (2004).

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

Abrat, B.

G. L. Goualher, A. Perchant, M. Genet, C. Cav, B. Viellerobe, B. Abrat, and N. Ayache, “Towards Optical Biopsies with an Integrated Fibered Confocal Fluorescence Microscope,” MICCAI 2004, 761–768 (2004).

Albert, M.

G. de Medeiros, N. Norlin, S. Gunther, M. Albert, L. Panavaite, U.-M. Fiuza, F. Peri, T. Hiiragi, U. Krzic, and L. Hufnagel, “Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almario, J. A.

M. I. Canto, S. Anandasabapathy, W. Brugge, G. W. Falk, K. B. Dunbar, Z. Zhang, K. Woods, J. A. Almario, U. Schell, and J. Goldblum, “In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(2), 211–221 (2014).
[PubMed]

Anandasabapathy, S.

M. I. Canto, S. Anandasabapathy, W. Brugge, G. W. Falk, K. B. Dunbar, Z. Zhang, K. Woods, J. A. Almario, U. Schell, and J. Goldblum, “In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(2), 211–221 (2014).
[PubMed]

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aslanian, H. R.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayache, N.

G. L. Goualher, A. Perchant, M. Genet, C. Cav, B. Viellerobe, B. Abrat, and N. Ayache, “Towards Optical Biopsies with an Integrated Fibered Confocal Fluorescence Microscope,” MICCAI 2004, 761–768 (2004).

Aziz, D.

Baumgart, E.

Bixler, J. N.

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal Endomicroscopy: Instrumentation and Medical Applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozinovic, N.

Brugge, W.

M. I. Canto, S. Anandasabapathy, W. Brugge, G. W. Falk, K. B. Dunbar, Z. Zhang, K. Woods, J. A. Almario, U. Schell, and J. Goldblum, “In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(2), 211–221 (2014).
[PubMed]

Burg, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campion, M.

E. Mei, P. A. Fomitchov, R. Graves, and M. Campion, “A line scanning confocal fluorescent microscope using a CMOS rolling shutter as an adjustable aperture,” J. Microsc. 247(3), 269–276 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canto, M. I.

M. I. Canto, S. Anandasabapathy, W. Brugge, G. W. Falk, K. B. Dunbar, Z. Zhang, K. Woods, J. A. Almario, U. Schell, and J. Goldblum, “In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(2), 211–221 (2014).
[PubMed]

Castle, P.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cav, C.

G. L. Goualher, A. Perchant, M. Genet, C. Cav, B. Viellerobe, B. Abrat, and N. Ayache, “Towards Optical Biopsies with an Integrated Fibered Confocal Fluorescence Microscope,” MICCAI 2004, 761–768 (2004).

Chang, K. J.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contag, C. H.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawson, M. D.

de Medeiros, G.

G. de Medeiros, N. Norlin, S. Gunther, M. Albert, L. Panavaite, U.-M. Fiuza, F. Peri, T. Hiiragi, U. Krzic, and L. Hufnagel, “Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delaney, P.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delaney, P. M.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Descour, M.

Dickensheets, D. L.

Dobbs, J.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donaldson, L.

Dunbar, K. B.

M. I. Canto, S. Anandasabapathy, W. Brugge, G. W. Falk, K. B. Dunbar, Z. Zhang, K. Woods, J. A. Almario, U. Schell, and J. Goldblum, “In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(2), 211–221 (2014).
[PubMed]

Enders, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falk, G. W.

M. I. Canto, S. Anandasabapathy, W. Brugge, G. W. Falk, K. B. Dunbar, Z. Zhang, K. Woods, J. A. Almario, U. Schell, and J. Goldblum, “In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(2), 211–221 (2014).
[PubMed]

Fiuza, U.-M.

G. de Medeiros, N. Norlin, S. Gunther, M. Albert, L. Panavaite, U.-M. Fiuza, F. Peri, T. Hiiragi, U. Krzic, and L. Hufnagel, “Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

Fomitchov, P. A.

E. Mei, P. A. Fomitchov, R. Graves, and M. Campion, “A line scanning confocal fluorescent microscope using a CMOS rolling shutter as an adjustable aperture,” J. Microsc. 247(3), 269–276 (2012).
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Ford, T.

Ford, T. N.

T. N. Ford, D. Lim, and J. Mertz, “Fast optically sectioned fluorescence HiLo endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021105 (2012).
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French, P. M.

Friedland, S.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
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Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
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Genden, E. M.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
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Genet, M.

G. L. Goualher, A. Perchant, M. Genet, C. Cav, B. Viellerobe, B. Abrat, and N. Ayache, “Towards Optical Biopsies with an Integrated Fibered Confocal Fluorescence Microscope,” MICCAI 2004, 761–768 (2004).

Giataganas, P.

P. Giataganas, M. Hughes, and G.-Z. Yang, “Force adaptive robotically assisted endomicroscopy for intraoperative tumour identification,” Int. J. CARS 10(6), 825–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

Gillenwater, A. M.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
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V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
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A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
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H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
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A. R. Rouse and A. F. Gmitro, “Multispectral imaging with a confocal microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 25(23), 1708–1710 (2000).
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Y. S. Sabharwal, A. R. Rouse, L. Donaldson, M. F. Hopkins, and A. F. Gmitro, “Slit-scanning confocal microendoscope for high-resolution in vivo imaging,” Appl. Opt. 38(34), 7133–7144 (1999).
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A. F. Gmitro and D. Aziz, “Confocal microscopy through a fiber-optic imaging bundle,” Opt. Lett. 18(8), 565–567 (1993).
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Gnaendiger, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
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Godbold, J. H.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
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Goldblum, J.

M. I. Canto, S. Anandasabapathy, W. Brugge, G. W. Falk, K. B. Dunbar, Z. Zhang, K. Woods, J. A. Almario, U. Schell, and J. Goldblum, “In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(2), 211–221 (2014).
[PubMed]

Goldstein, G. H.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goualher, G. L.

G. L. Goualher, A. Perchant, M. Genet, C. Cav, B. Viellerobe, B. Abrat, and N. Ayache, “Towards Optical Biopsies with an Integrated Fibered Confocal Fluorescence Microscope,” MICCAI 2004, 761–768 (2004).

Graves, R.

E. Mei, P. A. Fomitchov, R. Graves, and M. Campion, “A line scanning confocal fluorescent microscope using a CMOS rolling shutter as an adjustable aperture,” J. Microsc. 247(3), 269–276 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, E.

Guan, Y.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gunther, S.

G. de Medeiros, N. Norlin, S. Gunther, M. Albert, L. Panavaite, U.-M. Fiuza, F. Peri, T. Hiiragi, U. Krzic, and L. Hufnagel, “Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurudutt, V. V.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hart, J.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hatch, K. D.

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiiragi, T.

G. de Medeiros, N. Norlin, S. Gunther, M. Albert, L. Panavaite, U.-M. Fiuza, F. Peri, T. Hiiragi, U. Krzic, and L. Hufnagel, “Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hopkins, M. F.

Hufnagel, L.

G. de Medeiros, N. Norlin, S. Gunther, M. Albert, L. Panavaite, U.-M. Fiuza, F. Peri, T. Hiiragi, U. Krzic, and L. Hufnagel, “Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, M.

P. Giataganas, M. Hughes, and G.-Z. Yang, “Force adaptive robotically assisted endomicroscopy for intraoperative tumour identification,” Int. J. CARS 10(6), 825–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hughes and G.-Z. Yang, “High speed, line-scanning, fiber bundle fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy for improved mosaicking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1241–1252 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, J. H.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jabbour, J. M.

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal Endomicroscopy: Instrumentation and Medical Applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, S.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jamil, L. H.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janell, D.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keahey, P. A.

Kennedy, G. T.

Kiesslich, R.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
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D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, “Micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope,” Opt. Lett. 21(10), 764–766 (1996).
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Konda, V. J.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koucky, M. H.

Krzic, U.

G. de Medeiros, N. Norlin, S. Gunther, M. Albert, L. Panavaite, U.-M. Fiuza, F. Peri, T. Hiiragi, U. Krzic, and L. Hufnagel, “Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubitscheck, U.

Kyrish, M.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levy, L.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, C.

Lim, D.

T. N. Ford, D. Lim, and J. Mertz, “Fast optically sectioned fluorescence HiLo endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. T. C.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, S. K.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loewke, K.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maitland, K. C.

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal Endomicroscopy: Instrumentation and Medical Applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makhlouf, H.

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

Mandella, M. J.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manning, H. B.

McLaren, W.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLaren, W. J.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mei, E.

E. Mei, P. A. Fomitchov, R. Graves, and M. Campion, “A line scanning confocal fluorescent microscope using a CMOS rolling shutter as an adjustable aperture,” J. Microsc. 247(3), 269–276 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meining, A.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mertz, J.

T. N. Ford, D. Lim, and J. Mertz, “Fast optically sectioned fluorescence HiLo endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, C. Ventalon, T. Ford, and J. Mertz, “Fluorescence endomicroscopy with structured illumination,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8016–8025 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miles, B. A.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muldoon, T. J.

Nafe, B.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neil, M. A.

Neurath, M. F.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nida, D. L.

Norlin, N.

G. de Medeiros, N. Norlin, S. Gunther, M. Albert, L. Panavaite, U.-M. Fiuza, F. Peri, T. Hiiragi, U. Krzic, and L. Hufnagel, “Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Owen, D. M.

Panavaite, L.

G. de Medeiros, N. Norlin, S. Gunther, M. Albert, L. Panavaite, U.-M. Fiuza, F. Peri, T. Hiiragi, U. Krzic, and L. Hufnagel, “Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, C. W.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perchant, A.

G. L. Goualher, A. Perchant, M. Genet, C. Cav, B. Viellerobe, B. Abrat, and N. Ayache, “Towards Optical Biopsies with an Integrated Fibered Confocal Fluorescence Microscope,” MICCAI 2004, 761–768 (2004).

Peri, F.

G. de Medeiros, N. Norlin, S. Gunther, M. Albert, L. Panavaite, U.-M. Fiuza, F. Peri, T. Hiiragi, U. Krzic, and L. Hufnagel, “Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M.

M. Pierce, D. Yu, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution fiber-optic microendoscopy for in situ cellular imaging,” J. Vis. Exp. 47, 8–11 (2011).
[PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

M. H. Koucky and M. C. Pierce, “Axial response of high-resolution microendoscopy in scattering media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2247–2256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, M. C. Pierce, D. L. Nida, M. D. Williams, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Subcellular-resolution molecular imaging within living tissue by fiber microendoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16413–16423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piyawattanametha, W.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poher, V.

Polglase, A.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polglase, A. L.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polydorides, A. D.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, Y.-L.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, Z.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinn, M. K.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ra, H.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pierce, D. Yu, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution fiber-optic microendoscopy for in situ cellular imaging,” J. Vis. Exp. 47, 8–11 (2011).
[PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, M. C. Pierce, D. L. Nida, M. D. Williams, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Subcellular-resolution molecular imaging within living tissue by fiber microendoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16413–16423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, “Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3171–3181 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

Rouse, A. R.

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Rouse and A. F. Gmitro, “Multispectral imaging with a confocal microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 25(23), 1708–1710 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Sabharwal, A. R. Rouse, L. Donaldson, M. F. Hopkins, and A. F. Gmitro, “Slit-scanning confocal microendoscope for high-resolution in vivo imaging,” Appl. Opt. 38(34), 7133–7144 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabharwal, Y. S.

Saldua, M. A.

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal Endomicroscopy: Instrumentation and Medical Applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saunders, M. D.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schell, U.

M. I. Canto, S. Anandasabapathy, W. Brugge, G. W. Falk, K. B. Dunbar, Z. Zhang, K. Woods, J. A. Almario, U. Schell, and J. Goldblum, “In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(2), 211–221 (2014).
[PubMed]

Schmeler, K. M.

Siddiqui, U. D.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sikora, A. G.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skinner, S. A.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solgaard, O.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, K.-B.

Tanbakuchi, A. A.

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, M. S.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, S.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

P. A. Keahey, T. S. Tkaczyk, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimizing modulation frequency for structured illumination in a fiber-optic microendoscope to image nuclear morphometry in columnar epithelium,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 870–880 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Udovich, J. A.

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ventalon, C.

Viellerobe, B.

G. L. Goualher, A. Perchant, M. Genet, C. Cav, B. Viellerobe, B. Abrat, and N. Ayache, “Towards Optical Biopsies with an Integrated Fibered Confocal Fluorescence Microscope,” MICCAI 2004, 761–768 (2004).

Vieth, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vila, P. M.

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waxman, I.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, M. D.

Woods, K.

M. I. Canto, S. Anandasabapathy, W. Brugge, G. W. Falk, K. B. Dunbar, Z. Zhang, K. Woods, J. A. Almario, U. Schell, and J. Goldblum, “In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(2), 211–221 (2014).
[PubMed]

Wroblewski, K.

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, G.-Z.

P. Giataganas, M. Hughes, and G.-Z. Yang, “Force adaptive robotically assisted endomicroscopy for intraoperative tumour identification,” Int. J. CARS 10(6), 825–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hughes and G.-Z. Yang, “High speed, line-scanning, fiber bundle fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy for improved mosaicking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1241–1252 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, D.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pierce, D. Yu, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution fiber-optic microendoscopy for in situ cellular imaging,” J. Vis. Exp. 47, 8–11 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zhang, H. X.

Zhang, W.-H.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

M. I. Canto, S. Anandasabapathy, W. Brugge, G. W. Falk, K. B. Dunbar, Z. Zhang, K. Woods, J. A. Almario, U. Schell, and J. Goldblum, “In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(2), 211–221 (2014).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal Endomicroscopy: Instrumentation and Medical Applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1)

P. M. Vila, C. W. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. H. Goldstein, L. Levy, V. V. Gurudutt, A. D. Polydorides, J. H. Godbold, M. S. Teng, E. M. Genden, B. A. Miles, S. Anandasabapathy, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. G. Sikora, “Discrimination of benign and neoplastic mucosa with a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) in head and neck cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(11), 3534–3539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) (1)

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

V. J. Konda, A. Meining, L. H. Jamil, M. Giovannini, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Wallace, K. J. Chang, U. D. Siddiqui, J. Hart, S. K. Lo, M. D. Saunders, H. R. Aslanian, K. Wroblewski, and I. Waxman, “A pilot study of in vivo identification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms with needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy under endosonographic guidance,” Endoscopy 45(12), 1006–1013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (2)

M. I. Canto, S. Anandasabapathy, W. Brugge, G. W. Falk, K. B. Dunbar, Z. Zhang, K. Woods, J. A. Almario, U. Schell, and J. Goldblum, “In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(2), 211–221 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. CARS (1)

P. Giataganas, M. Hughes, and G.-Z. Yang, “Force adaptive robotically assisted endomicroscopy for intraoperative tumour identification,” Int. J. CARS 10(6), 825–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. N. Ford, D. Lim, and J. Mertz, “Fast optically sectioned fluorescence HiLo endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

E. Mei, P. A. Fomitchov, R. Graves, and M. Campion, “A line scanning confocal fluorescent microscope using a CMOS rolling shutter as an adjustable aperture,” J. Microsc. 247(3), 269–276 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vis. Exp. (1)

M. Pierce, D. Yu, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution fiber-optic microendoscopy for in situ cellular imaging,” J. Vis. Exp. 47, 8–11 (2011).
[PubMed]

MICCAI (1)

G. L. Goualher, A. Perchant, M. Genet, C. Cav, B. Viellerobe, B. Abrat, and N. Ayache, “Towards Optical Biopsies with an Integrated Fibered Confocal Fluorescence Microscope,” MICCAI 2004, 761–768 (2004).

Nat. Commun. (1)

G. de Medeiros, N. Norlin, S. Gunther, M. Albert, L. Panavaite, U.-M. Fiuza, F. Peri, T. Hiiragi, U. Krzic, and L. Hufnagel, “Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Supplementary Material (1)

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» Visualization 1: MP4 (3473 KB)      Subtraction mode imaging on porcine esophageal tissue ex vivo

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of virtual slit line-scanning endomicroscope.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical sectioning performance of the virtual slit line-scanning endomicroscope. (a) Distance from focus at which collected intensity drops by 50% (i.e. half-width half-maximum) for a range of slit widths (note that the x-axis is log scale); (b) axial sectioning profiles for selected slit widths. The dashed line in (a) shows a linear fit to the data-points between 3 µm and 100 µm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Endomicroscopy images of lens tissue paper stained with acriflavine (left images) and porcine esophageal mucosa tissue stained with acriflavine 0.02% (right images) for virtual detector slit widths of (a) 2 µm, (b) 3 µm, (c) 6 µm, (d) 12 µm, (e) 24 µm, and (f) 100 µm (as measured on the proximal face of the bundle). The insets in (a) and (b) show small regions with contrast adjusted to demonstrate slightly increased noise when using the 2 µm slit.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Axial sensitivity profiles for the subtraction technique, with slit offsets set to (a) 3 µm, (b) 6 µm, (c) 12 µm, (d) 24 µm, (e) 48 µm and (f) 96 µm. Each plot shows profiles acquired with the aligned slit (dashed red line), with the offset slit (dotted blue line) and the result of subtracting the offset profile from the aligned profile (solid black line). The aligned and subtracted image profiles were individually normalized, while the offset image profile is shown on the same scale as the aligned image profile.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Subtraction technique applied to lens tissue paper phantom and porcine esophageal tissue. (a) Conventional line-scanning imaging without subtraction; (b-f) after subtraction of images with slit misalignments of (b) 3 µm, (c) 6 µm, (d) 12 µm, (e) 24 µm, and (f) 48 µm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Demonstration of performance of sectioning and subtraction technique under conditions of a large background signal. Lens tissue paper, stained with acriflavine, was placed over bovine adipose tissue stained with fluorescein. (a) Conventional (non-subtracted) image with a slit width of 400 μm; (b) conventional (non-subtracted) image with a slit width of 3 μm; (c) subtraction imaging with slit width of 3 μm and offset of 12 μm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Effect of motion on subtraction technique. (a) Conventional (non-subtracted) image of lens tissue paper while probe was moving at 0.l mm/s; (b) subtraction imaging while moving at 0.1 mm/s; (c) subtraction imaging while moving at 1 mm/s; (d) subtraction imaging while moving at 2 mm/s; (e) conventional imaging of porcine esophagus with freehand moving probe, extracted from video in Visualization 1; (f) subtracted image at same point, extracted from video in Visualization 1.

Equations (2)

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N=RE
w= REp M

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