Abstract

The current study presents the use of Raman spectroscopy combined with support vector machine (SVM) for the classification of dengue suspected human blood sera. Raman spectra for 84 clinically dengue suspected patients acquired from Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, have been used in this study.The spectral differences between dengue positive and normal sera have been exploited by using effective machine learning techniques. In this regard, SVM models built on the basis of three different kernel functions including Gaussian radial basis function (RBF), polynomial function and linear functionhave been employed to classify the human blood sera based on features obtained from Raman Spectra.The classification model have been evaluated with the 10-fold cross validation method. In the present study, the best performance has been achieved for the polynomial kernel of order 1. A diagnostic accuracy of about 85% with the precision of 90%, sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 93% has been achieved under these conditions.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,”. Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 127(4), 2086–2088 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

E. Ryzhikova, O. Kazakov, L. Halamkova, D. Celmins, P. Malone, E. Molho, E. A. Zimmerman, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 584–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Buividas, N. Dzingelevičius, R. Kubiliūtė, P. R. Stoddart, V. Khanh Truong, E. P. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Statistically quantified measurement of an Alzheimer’s marker by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 567–574 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kong, C. Kendall, N. Stone, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics--From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 89, 121–134 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

G. L. Owens, K. Gajjar, J. Trevisan, S. W. Fogarty, S. E. Taylor, B. Da Gama-Rose, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, and F. L. Martin, “Vibrational biospectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis extracts potentially diagnostic features in blood plasma/serum of ovarian cancer patients,” J. Biophotonics 7(3-4), 200–209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sikirzhytskaya, V. Sikirzhytski, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistics for differentiating menstrual and peripheral blood,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 59–67 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. E. Murray, M. B. Quam, and A. Wilder-Smith, “Epidemiology of dengue: past, present and future prospects,” Clin. Epidemiol. 5, 299–309 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (1)

M. Tahir, A. Khan, and A. Majid, “Protein subcellular localization of fluorescence imagery using spatial and transform domain features,” Bioinformatics 28(1), 91–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

V. Wiwanitkit, “Dengue fever: diagnosis and treatment,” Expert Rev. Anti Infect. Ther. 8(7), 841–845 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Paranjape and E. Harris, “Control of dengue virus translation and replication,” Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 338, 15–34 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sattlecker, C. Bessant, J. Smith, and N. Stone, “Investigation of support vector machines and Raman spectroscopy for lymph node diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 895–901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. Rico-Hesse, “Dengue virus markers of virulence and pathogenicity,” Future Virol. 4(6), 581–589 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

E. Widjaja, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Classification of colonic tissues using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines,” Int. J. Oncol. 32(3), 653–662 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. Parikh, A. Mathai, S. Parikh, G. Chandra Sekhar, and R. Thomas, “Understanding and using sensitivity, specificity and predictive values,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 56(1), 45–50 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. V. P. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, K. Thakur, A. Anand, J. Kurien, C. M. Krishna, and S. Mathew, “Discrimination of normal and malignant mucosal tissues of the colon by Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 25(4), 269–274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. Guha-Sapir and B. Schimmer, “Dengue fever: new paradigms for a changing epidemiology,” Emerg. Themes Epidemiol. 2(1), 1 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Crow, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, M. P. Wright, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and characterize transitional cell carcinoma in vitro,” BJU Int. 93(9), 1232–1236 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

C. J. C. Burges, “A tutorial on support vector machine for pattern recognition,” Data Min. Knowl. Discov. 2(2), 121–167 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gubler, “Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11(3), 480–496 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ahmed, M.

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anand, A.

M. V. P. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, K. Thakur, A. Anand, J. Kurien, C. M. Krishna, and S. Mathew, “Discrimination of normal and malignant mucosal tissues of the colon by Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 25(4), 269–274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anwar, S.

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Artsob, H.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auner, G.

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bessant, C.

M. Sattlecker, C. Bessant, J. Smith, and N. Stone, “Investigation of support vector machines and Raman spectroscopy for lymph node diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 895–901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bilal, M.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,”. Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 127(4), 2086–2088 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buchy, P.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buividas, R.

R. Buividas, N. Dzingelevičius, R. Kubiliūtė, P. R. Stoddart, V. Khanh Truong, E. P. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Statistically quantified measurement of an Alzheimer’s marker by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 567–574 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burges, C. J. C.

C. J. C. Burges, “A tutorial on support vector machine for pattern recognition,” Data Min. Knowl. Discov. 2(2), 121–167 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cao, A.

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardosa, M. J.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Celmins, D.

E. Ryzhikova, O. Kazakov, L. Halamkova, D. Celmins, P. Malone, E. Molho, E. A. Zimmerman, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 584–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandra Sekhar, G.

R. Parikh, A. Mathai, S. Parikh, G. Chandra Sekhar, and R. Thomas, “Understanding and using sensitivity, specificity and predictive values,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 56(1), 45–50 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chowdary, M. V. P.

M. V. P. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, K. Thakur, A. Anand, J. Kurien, C. M. Krishna, and S. Mathew, “Discrimination of normal and malignant mucosal tissues of the colon by Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 25(4), 269–274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crow, P.

P. Crow, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, M. P. Wright, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and characterize transitional cell carcinoma in vitro,” BJU Int. 93(9), 1232–1236 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

Da Gama-Rose, B.

G. L. Owens, K. Gajjar, J. Trevisan, S. W. Fogarty, S. E. Taylor, B. Da Gama-Rose, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, and F. L. Martin, “Vibrational biospectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis extracts potentially diagnostic features in blood plasma/serum of ovarian cancer patients,” J. Biophotonics 7(3-4), 200–209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devi, S.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dzingelevicius, N.

R. Buividas, N. Dzingelevičius, R. Kubiliūtė, P. R. Stoddart, V. Khanh Truong, E. P. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Statistically quantified measurement of an Alzheimer’s marker by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 567–574 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enria, D. A.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farmer, J. A.

P. Crow, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, M. P. Wright, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and characterize transitional cell carcinoma in vitro,” BJU Int. 93(9), 1232–1236 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farrar, J.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fogarty, S. W.

G. L. Owens, K. Gajjar, J. Trevisan, S. W. Fogarty, S. E. Taylor, B. Da Gama-Rose, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, and F. L. Martin, “Vibrational biospectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis extracts potentially diagnostic features in blood plasma/serum of ovarian cancer patients,” J. Biophotonics 7(3-4), 200–209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fung, A.

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gajjar, K.

G. L. Owens, K. Gajjar, J. Trevisan, S. W. Fogarty, S. E. Taylor, B. Da Gama-Rose, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, and F. L. Martin, “Vibrational biospectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis extracts potentially diagnostic features in blood plasma/serum of ovarian cancer patients,” J. Biophotonics 7(3-4), 200–209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gubler, D. J.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Gubler, “Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11(3), 480–496 (1998).
[PubMed]

Guha-Sapir, D.

D. Guha-Sapir and B. Schimmer, “Dengue fever: new paradigms for a changing epidemiology,” Emerg. Themes Epidemiol. 2(1), 1 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guzman, M. G.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haddad, D.

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halamkova, L.

E. Ryzhikova, O. Kazakov, L. Halamkova, D. Celmins, P. Malone, E. Molho, E. A. Zimmerman, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 584–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halstead, S. B.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, E.

S. M. Paranjape and E. Harris, “Control of dengue virus translation and replication,” Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 338, 15–34 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

E. Widjaja, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Classification of colonic tissues using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines,” Int. J. Oncol. 32(3), 653–662 (2008).
[PubMed]

Hunsperger, E.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanova, E. P.

R. Buividas, N. Dzingelevičius, R. Kubiliūtė, P. R. Stoddart, V. Khanh Truong, E. P. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Statistically quantified measurement of an Alzheimer’s marker by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 567–574 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juodkazis, S.

R. Buividas, N. Dzingelevičius, R. Kubiliūtė, P. R. Stoddart, V. Khanh Truong, E. P. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Statistically quantified measurement of an Alzheimer’s marker by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 567–574 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kazakov, O.

E. Ryzhikova, O. Kazakov, L. Halamkova, D. Celmins, P. Malone, E. Molho, E. A. Zimmerman, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 584–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kendall, C.

K. Kong, C. Kendall, N. Stone, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics--From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 89, 121–134 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

Khan, A.

M. Tahir, A. Khan, and A. Majid, “Protein subcellular localization of fluorescence imagery using spatial and transform domain features,” Bioinformatics 28(1), 91–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, I.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,”. Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 127(4), 2086–2088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khan, S.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,”. Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 127(4), 2086–2088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khanh Truong, V.

R. Buividas, N. Dzingelevičius, R. Kubiliūtė, P. R. Stoddart, V. Khanh Truong, E. P. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Statistically quantified measurement of an Alzheimer’s marker by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 567–574 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, M. D.

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kliks, S.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, K.

K. Kong, C. Kendall, N. Stone, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics--From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 89, 121–134 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishna, C. M.

M. V. P. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, K. Thakur, A. Anand, J. Kurien, C. M. Krishna, and S. Mathew, “Discrimination of normal and malignant mucosal tissues of the colon by Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 25(4), 269–274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubiliute, R.

R. Buividas, N. Dzingelevičius, R. Kubiliūtė, P. R. Stoddart, V. Khanh Truong, E. P. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Statistically quantified measurement of an Alzheimer’s marker by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 567–574 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, K. K.

M. V. P. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, K. Thakur, A. Anand, J. Kurien, C. M. Krishna, and S. Mathew, “Discrimination of normal and malignant mucosal tissues of the colon by Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 25(4), 269–274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurien, J.

M. V. P. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, K. Thakur, A. Anand, J. Kurien, C. M. Krishna, and S. Mathew, “Discrimination of normal and malignant mucosal tissues of the colon by Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 25(4), 269–274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langenburg, S. E.

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lednev, I. K.

E. Ryzhikova, O. Kazakov, L. Halamkova, D. Celmins, P. Malone, E. Molho, E. A. Zimmerman, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 584–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sikirzhytskaya, V. Sikirzhytski, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistics for differentiating menstrual and peripheral blood,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 59–67 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorincz, A.

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahmood, A.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,”. Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 127(4), 2086–2088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Majid, A.

M. Tahir, A. Khan, and A. Majid, “Protein subcellular localization of fluorescence imagery using spatial and transform domain features,” Bioinformatics 28(1), 91–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malone, P.

E. Ryzhikova, O. Kazakov, L. Halamkova, D. Celmins, P. Malone, E. Molho, E. A. Zimmerman, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 584–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manda, P.

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Margolis, H. S.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, F. L.

G. L. Owens, K. Gajjar, J. Trevisan, S. W. Fogarty, S. E. Taylor, B. Da Gama-Rose, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, and F. L. Martin, “Vibrational biospectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis extracts potentially diagnostic features in blood plasma/serum of ovarian cancer patients,” J. Biophotonics 7(3-4), 200–209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin-Hirsch, P. L.

G. L. Owens, K. Gajjar, J. Trevisan, S. W. Fogarty, S. E. Taylor, B. Da Gama-Rose, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, and F. L. Martin, “Vibrational biospectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis extracts potentially diagnostic features in blood plasma/serum of ovarian cancer patients,” J. Biophotonics 7(3-4), 200–209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathai, A.

R. Parikh, A. Mathai, S. Parikh, G. Chandra Sekhar, and R. Thomas, “Understanding and using sensitivity, specificity and predictive values,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 56(1), 45–50 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathew, S.

M. V. P. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, K. Thakur, A. Anand, J. Kurien, C. M. Krishna, and S. Mathew, “Discrimination of normal and malignant mucosal tissues of the colon by Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 25(4), 269–274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molho, E.

E. Ryzhikova, O. Kazakov, L. Halamkova, D. Celmins, P. Malone, E. Molho, E. A. Zimmerman, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 584–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murray, N. E.

N. E. Murray, M. B. Quam, and A. Wilder-Smith, “Epidemiology of dengue: past, present and future prospects,” Clin. Epidemiol. 5, 299–309 (2013).
[PubMed]

Naik, R.

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naik, V.

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nathanson, C. M.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nawaz, M.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,”. Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 127(4), 2086–2088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, V. C.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Notingher, I.

K. Kong, C. Kendall, N. Stone, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics--From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 89, 121–134 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Owens, G. L.

G. L. Owens, K. Gajjar, J. Trevisan, S. W. Fogarty, S. E. Taylor, B. Da Gama-Rose, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, and F. L. Martin, “Vibrational biospectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis extracts potentially diagnostic features in blood plasma/serum of ovarian cancer patients,” J. Biophotonics 7(3-4), 200–209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pandya, A.

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paranjape, S. M.

S. M. Paranjape and E. Harris, “Control of dengue virus translation and replication,” Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 338, 15–34 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parikh, R.

R. Parikh, A. Mathai, S. Parikh, G. Chandra Sekhar, and R. Thomas, “Understanding and using sensitivity, specificity and predictive values,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 56(1), 45–50 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parikh, S.

R. Parikh, A. Mathai, S. Parikh, G. Chandra Sekhar, and R. Thomas, “Understanding and using sensitivity, specificity and predictive values,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 56(1), 45–50 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peeling, R. W.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelegrino, J. L.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quam, M. B.

N. E. Murray, M. B. Quam, and A. Wilder-Smith, “Epidemiology of dengue: past, present and future prospects,” Clin. Epidemiol. 5, 299–309 (2013).
[PubMed]

Rabah, R.

A. Lorincz, D. Haddad, R. Naik, V. Naik, A. Fung, A. Cao, P. Manda, A. Pandya, G. Auner, R. Rabah, S. E. Langenburg, and M. D. Klein, “Raman spectroscopy for neoplastic tissue differentiation: a pilot study,” J. Pediatr. Surg. 39(6), 953–956 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rashid, R.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,”. Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 127(4), 2086–2088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rehman, A.

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rico-Hesse, R.

R. Rico-Hesse, “Dengue virus markers of virulence and pathogenicity,” Future Virol. 4(6), 581–589 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rizzo, N.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryzhikova, E.

E. Ryzhikova, O. Kazakov, L. Halamkova, D. Celmins, P. Malone, E. Molho, E. A. Zimmerman, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 584–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saleem, M.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,”. Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 127(4), 2086–2088 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sattlecker, M.

M. Sattlecker, C. Bessant, J. Smith, and N. Stone, “Investigation of support vector machines and Raman spectroscopy for lymph node diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 895–901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schimmer, B.

D. Guha-Sapir and B. Schimmer, “Dengue fever: new paradigms for a changing epidemiology,” Emerg. Themes Epidemiol. 2(1), 1 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepherd, N.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sikirzhytskaya, A.

A. Sikirzhytskaya, V. Sikirzhytski, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistics for differentiating menstrual and peripheral blood,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 59–67 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sikirzhytski, V.

A. Sikirzhytskaya, V. Sikirzhytski, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistics for differentiating menstrual and peripheral blood,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 59–67 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, J.

M. Sattlecker, C. Bessant, J. Smith, and N. Stone, “Investigation of support vector machines and Raman spectroscopy for lymph node diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 895–901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoddart, P. R.

R. Buividas, N. Dzingelevičius, R. Kubiliūtė, P. R. Stoddart, V. Khanh Truong, E. P. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Statistically quantified measurement of an Alzheimer’s marker by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 567–574 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

K. Kong, C. Kendall, N. Stone, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics--From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 89, 121–134 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sattlecker, C. Bessant, J. Smith, and N. Stone, “Investigation of support vector machines and Raman spectroscopy for lymph node diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 895–901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Crow, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, M. P. Wright, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and characterize transitional cell carcinoma in vitro,” BJU Int. 93(9), 1232–1236 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tahir, M.

M. Tahir, A. Khan, and A. Majid, “Protein subcellular localization of fluorescence imagery using spatial and transform domain features,” Bioinformatics 28(1), 91–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, S. E.

G. L. Owens, K. Gajjar, J. Trevisan, S. W. Fogarty, S. E. Taylor, B. Da Gama-Rose, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, and F. L. Martin, “Vibrational biospectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis extracts potentially diagnostic features in blood plasma/serum of ovarian cancer patients,” J. Biophotonics 7(3-4), 200–209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thakur, K.

M. V. P. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, K. Thakur, A. Anand, J. Kurien, C. M. Krishna, and S. Mathew, “Discrimination of normal and malignant mucosal tissues of the colon by Raman spectroscopy,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 25(4), 269–274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, R.

R. Parikh, A. Mathai, S. Parikh, G. Chandra Sekhar, and R. Thomas, “Understanding and using sensitivity, specificity and predictive values,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 56(1), 45–50 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trevisan, J.

G. L. Owens, K. Gajjar, J. Trevisan, S. W. Fogarty, S. E. Taylor, B. Da Gama-Rose, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, and F. L. Martin, “Vibrational biospectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis extracts potentially diagnostic features in blood plasma/serum of ovarian cancer patients,” J. Biophotonics 7(3-4), 200–209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uff, J. S.

P. Crow, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, M. P. Wright, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and characterize transitional cell carcinoma in vitro,” BJU Int. 93(9), 1232–1236 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullah, R.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,”. Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 127(4), 2086–2088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vázquez, S.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Widjaja, E.

E. Widjaja, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Classification of colonic tissues using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines,” Int. J. Oncol. 32(3), 653–662 (2008).
[PubMed]

Wilder-Smith, A.

N. E. Murray, M. B. Quam, and A. Wilder-Smith, “Epidemiology of dengue: past, present and future prospects,” Clin. Epidemiol. 5, 299–309 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wiwanitkit, V.

V. Wiwanitkit, “Dengue fever: diagnosis and treatment,” Expert Rev. Anti Infect. Ther. 8(7), 841–845 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, M. P.

P. Crow, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, M. P. Wright, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and characterize transitional cell carcinoma in vitro,” BJU Int. 93(9), 1232–1236 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoksan, S.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A sketch of Raman setup.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Raman spectra of normal (red) and dengue infected (green) human blood sera.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Plot of PC1vs PC2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Polynomial order 2 separating boundaries for one of the 10 folds using the first 2 PCA transformed features; (a) training set (b) testing set.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Evaluation of SVM combined with Raman spectroscopy for analysis of dengue infection

Equations (2)

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f( x )= i=0 N α i y i x i T .x+ β 0
f( x )= i=0 N α i y i K( x i .x).x+ β 0

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