Abstract

Raman spectroscopy was used to differentiate between mucosally healed (or quiescent) and inflamed colon tissue, as assessed endoscopically, in patients with ulcerative colitis. From the analysis of the Raman spectra of 60 biopsy tissue samples, clear differences were identified between the spectra of the quiescent and inflamed tissue. Three carotenoid peaks were found to be approximately twice as intense in the inflamed tissue. Two phospholipid peaks were found to be significantly lower in the inflamed tissue. Using multivariate statistical analysis, we show that these five peaks can be used to discriminate between endoscopically quiescent and inflamed tissue. We also correlated the Raman data with a histological assessment of the tissue. Four of the five peaks were found to be significantly different between the spectra of histologically healed (or quiescent) and histologically inflamed tissue. These findings indicate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to accurately classify colon tissue as either quiescent or inflamed, irrespective of whether an endoscopic or histological grading scheme is followed. We thus demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy could potentially be used as an early diagnosis tool for assessing the presence of mucosal healing or inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

A. C. S. Talari, Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(1), 46–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. H. Mosli, B. G. Feagan, G. Zou, W. J. Sandborn, G. D’Haens, R. Khanna, C. Behling, K. Kaplan, D. K. Driman, L. M. Shackelton, K. A. Baker, J. K. MacDonald, M. K. Vandervoort, M. A. Samaan, K. Geboes, M. A. Valasek, R. Pai, C. Langner, R. Riddell, N. Harpaz, M. Sewitch, M. Peterson, L. W. Stitt, and B. G. Levesque, “Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC,” Gut 64(11), 1765–1773 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Surmacki, B. Brozek-Pluska, R. Kordek, and H. Abramczyk, “The lipid-reactive oxygen species phenotype of breast cancer. Raman spectroscopy and mapping, PCA and PLSDA for invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. Molecular tumorigenic mechanisms beyond Warburg effect,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(7), 2121–2133 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

A. Synytsya, M. Judexova, D. Hoskovec, M. Miskovicova, and L. Petruzelka, “Raman spectroscopy at different excitation wavelengths (1064, 785 and 532 nm) as a tool for diagnosis of colon cancer,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 903–911 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wood, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. R. Lloyd, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, J. Day, and T. A. Cook, “Evaluation of a confocal Raman probe for pathological diagnosis during colonoscopy,” Colorectal Dis. 16(9), 732–738 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. J. Old, L. M. Fullwood, R. Scott, G. R. Lloyd, L. M. Almond, N. A. Shepherd, N. Stone, H. Barr, and C. Kendall, “Vibrational spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Anal Methods-Uk 6(12), 3901–3917 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

L. Rosenberg, K. S. Nanda, T. Zenlea, A. Gifford, G. O. Lawlor, K. R. Falchuk, J. L. Wolf, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histologic markers of inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 991–996 (2013).

L. A. Feagins, S. D. Melton, R. Iqbal, K. B. Dunbar, and S. J. Spechler, “Clinical implications of histologic abnormalities in colonic biopsy specimens from patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 19(7), 1477–1482 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashok, B. B. Praveen, N. Bellini, A. Riches, K. Dholakia, and C. S. Herrington, “Multi-modal approach using Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography for the discrimination of colonic adenocarcinoma from normal colon,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2179–2186 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rygula, K. Majzner, K. M. Marzec, A. Kaczor, M. Pilarczyk, and M. Baranska, “Raman spectroscopy of proteins: a review,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(8), 1061–1076 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

T. Bessissow, B. Lemmens, M. Ferrante, R. Bisschops, K. Van Steen, K. Geboes, G. Van Assche, S. Vermeire, P. Rutgeerts, and G. De Hertogh, “Prognostic value of serologic and histologic markers on clinical relapse in ulcerative colitis patients with mucosal healing,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(11), 1684–1692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, and R. Kordek, “Raman ‘optical biopsy’ of human breast cancer,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 108(1-2), 74–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Molodecky, I. S. Soon, D. M. Rabi, W. A. Ghali, M. Ferris, G. Chernoff, E. I. Benchimol, R. Panaccione, S. Ghosh, H. W. Barkema, and G. G. Kaplan, “Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases With Time, Based on Systematic Review,” Gastroenterology 142(1), 46–54 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dave and E. V. Loftus., “Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease-a true paradigm of success?” Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (N. Y.) 8(1), 29–38 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076030 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

W. L. Lo, J. Y. Lai, S. E. Feinberg, K. Izumi, S. Y. Kao, C. S. Chang, A. Lin, and H. K. Chiang, “Raman spectroscopy monitoring of the cellular activities of a tissue-engineered ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 174–178 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Colombel, P. Rutgeerts, W. Reinisch, D. Esser, Y. Wang, Y. Lang, C. W. Marano, R. Strauss, B. J. Oddens, B. G. Feagan, S. B. Hanauer, G. R. Lichtenstein, D. Present, B. E. Sands, and W. J. Sandborn, “Early mucosal healing with infliximab is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 141(4), 1194–1201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Bi, A. Walsh, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. Herline, “Development of spectral markers for the discrimination of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Colon Rectum 54(1), 48–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska, and R. Kordek, “The label-free Raman imaging of human breast cancer,” J. Mol. Liq. 164(1-2), 123–131 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Q. Matthews, A. Jirasek, J. Lum, X. Duan, and A. G. Brolo, “Variability in Raman Spectra of Single Human Tumor Cells Cultured in Vitro: Correlation with Cell Cycle and Culture Confluency,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64(8), 871–887 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pineton de Chambrun, L. Peyrin-Biroulet, M. Lémann, and J. F. Colombel, “Clinical implications of mucosal healing for the management of IBD,” Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 7(1), 15–29 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Dinesen, A. J. Walsh, M. N. Protic, G. Heap, F. Cummings, B. F. Warren, B. George, N. J. M. Mortensen, and S. P. L. Travis, “The pattern and outcome of acute severe colitis,” J. Crohn’s Colitis 4(4), 431–437 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. H. Chuang and Y. T. Chen, “Raman scattering of L-tryptophan enhanced by surface plasmon of silver nanoparticles: vibrational assignment and structural determination,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(2), 150–156 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. D’Haens, W. J. Sandborn, B. G. Feagan, K. Geboes, S. B. Hanauer, E. J. Irvine, M. Lémann, P. Marteau, P. Rutgeerts, J. Schölmerich, and L. R. Sutherland, “A review of activity indices and efficacy end points for clinical trials of medical therapy in adults with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 132(2), 763–786 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Frøslie, J. Jahnsen, B. A. Moum, M. H. Vatn, and IBSEN Group, “Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease: results from a Norwegian population-based cohort,” Gastroenterology 133(2), 412–422 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated Autofluorescence Background Subtraction Algorithm for Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (7)

I. V. Ermakov, M. Sharifzadeh, M. Ermakova, and W. Gellermann, “Resonance Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064028 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Tuma, “Raman spectroscopy of proteins: from peptides to large assemblies,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(4), 307–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Krafft, L. Neudert, T. Simat, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectra of human brain lipids,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61(7), 1529–1535 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Krafft, T. Knetschke, R. H. W. Funk, and R. Salzer, “Identification of organelles and vesicles in single cells by Raman microspectroscopic mapping,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 85–93 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. T. Cheng, M. T. Liu, H. N. Liu, and S. Y. Lin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy used to identify and grade human skin pilomatrixoma,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 68(2), 75–79 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Bai, S. J. Lee, H. J. Na, K. S. Ha, J. A. Han, H. Lee, Y. G. Kwon, C. K. Chung, and Y. M. Kim, “beta-Carotene inhibits inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages by suppressing redox-based NF-kappaB activation,” Exp. Mol. Med. 37(4), 323–334 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

C. Krafft, T. Knetschke, A. Siegner, R. H. W. Funk, and R. Salzer, “Mapping of single cells by near infrared Raman microspectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 32(1), 75–83 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, S. Haque, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: living cells versus dead cells,” Biopolymers 72(4), 230–240 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, B. Willekens, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Raman imaging of protein distribution in single human cells,” Biopolymers 72(1), 1–9 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Molckovsky, L. M. W. K. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bitton, M. A. Peppercorn, D. A. Antonioli, J. L. Niles, S. Shah, A. Bousvaros, B. Ransil, G. Wild, A. Cohen, M. D. D. Edwardes, and A. C. Stevens, “Clinical, biological, and histologic parameters as predictors of relapse in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 13–20 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Resonant Raman spectroscopy of disordered, amorphous, and diamondlike carbon,” Phys. Rev. B 64(7), 075414 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Abramczyk, M. Kolodziejski, and G. Waliszewska, “Vibrational relaxation of beta-carotene in acetonitrile solution in carrot in situ,” J. Mol. Liq. 79(3), 223–233 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. G. Shim and B. C. Wilson, “The effects of ex vivo handling procedures on the near-infrared Raman spectra of normal mammalian tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 63(5), 662–671 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

C. J. Frank, R. L. McCreery, and D. C. B. Redd, “Raman spectroscopy of normal and diseased human breast tissues,” Anal. Chem. 67(5), 777–783 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

E. Langholz, P. Munkholm, M. Davidsen, and V. Binder, “Course of ulcerative colitis: analysis of changes in disease activity over years,” Gastroenterology 107(1), 3–11 (1994).
[PubMed]

1991 (2)

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(2), 99–105 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Riley, V. Mani, M. J. Goodman, S. Dutt, and M. E. Herd, “Microscopic activity in ulcerative colitis: what does it mean?” Gut 32(2), 174–178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. A. Riley, V. Mani, M. J. Goodman, and S. Lucas, “Why do patients with ulcerative colitis relapse?” Gut 31(2), 179–183 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. C. Merlin, “Resonance Raman-Spectroscopy of Carotenoids and Carotenoid-Containing Systems,” Pure Appl. Chem. 57(5), 785–792 (1985).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

J. Powell-Tuck, D. W. Day, N. A. Buckell, J. Wadsworth, and J. E. Lennard-Jones, “Correlations between defined sigmoidoscopic appearances and other measures of disease activity in ulcerative colitis,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 27(6), 533–537 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

T. G. Spiro and T. C. Strekas, “Resonance Raman Spectra Of Heme Proteins. Effects of Oxidation and Spin State,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 96(2), 338–345 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

H. Brunner, H. Sussner, and A. Mayer, “Resonance Raman Scattering on Heme Group of Oxyhemoglobin Deoxyhemoglobin,” J Mol Biol 70, 153–156 (1972).

Abramczyk, H.

J. Surmacki, B. Brozek-Pluska, R. Kordek, and H. Abramczyk, “The lipid-reactive oxygen species phenotype of breast cancer. Raman spectroscopy and mapping, PCA and PLSDA for invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. Molecular tumorigenic mechanisms beyond Warburg effect,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(7), 2121–2133 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, and R. Kordek, “Raman ‘optical biopsy’ of human breast cancer,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 108(1-2), 74–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska, and R. Kordek, “The label-free Raman imaging of human breast cancer,” J. Mol. Liq. 164(1-2), 123–131 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Abramczyk, M. Kolodziejski, and G. Waliszewska, “Vibrational relaxation of beta-carotene in acetonitrile solution in carrot in situ,” J. Mol. Liq. 79(3), 223–233 (1999).
[Crossref]

Almond, L. M.

O. J. Old, L. M. Fullwood, R. Scott, G. R. Lloyd, L. M. Almond, N. A. Shepherd, N. Stone, H. Barr, and C. Kendall, “Vibrational spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Anal Methods-Uk 6(12), 3901–3917 (2014).
[Crossref]

Antonioli, D. A.

A. Bitton, M. A. Peppercorn, D. A. Antonioli, J. L. Niles, S. Shah, A. Bousvaros, B. Ransil, G. Wild, A. Cohen, M. D. D. Edwardes, and A. C. Stevens, “Clinical, biological, and histologic parameters as predictors of relapse in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 13–20 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashok, P. C.

Bai, S. K.

S. K. Bai, S. J. Lee, H. J. Na, K. S. Ha, J. A. Han, H. Lee, Y. G. Kwon, C. K. Chung, and Y. M. Kim, “beta-Carotene inhibits inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages by suppressing redox-based NF-kappaB activation,” Exp. Mol. Med. 37(4), 323–334 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, K. A.

M. H. Mosli, B. G. Feagan, G. Zou, W. J. Sandborn, G. D’Haens, R. Khanna, C. Behling, K. Kaplan, D. K. Driman, L. M. Shackelton, K. A. Baker, J. K. MacDonald, M. K. Vandervoort, M. A. Samaan, K. Geboes, M. A. Valasek, R. Pai, C. Langner, R. Riddell, N. Harpaz, M. Sewitch, M. Peterson, L. W. Stitt, and B. G. Levesque, “Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC,” Gut 64(11), 1765–1773 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baranska, M.

A. Rygula, K. Majzner, K. M. Marzec, A. Kaczor, M. Pilarczyk, and M. Baranska, “Raman spectroscopy of proteins: a review,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(8), 1061–1076 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barkema, H. W.

N. A. Molodecky, I. S. Soon, D. M. Rabi, W. A. Ghali, M. Ferris, G. Chernoff, E. I. Benchimol, R. Panaccione, S. Ghosh, H. W. Barkema, and G. G. Kaplan, “Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases With Time, Based on Systematic Review,” Gastroenterology 142(1), 46–54 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

O. J. Old, L. M. Fullwood, R. Scott, G. R. Lloyd, L. M. Almond, N. A. Shepherd, N. Stone, H. Barr, and C. Kendall, “Vibrational spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Anal Methods-Uk 6(12), 3901–3917 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behling, C.

M. H. Mosli, B. G. Feagan, G. Zou, W. J. Sandborn, G. D’Haens, R. Khanna, C. Behling, K. Kaplan, D. K. Driman, L. M. Shackelton, K. A. Baker, J. K. MacDonald, M. K. Vandervoort, M. A. Samaan, K. Geboes, M. A. Valasek, R. Pai, C. Langner, R. Riddell, N. Harpaz, M. Sewitch, M. Peterson, L. W. Stitt, and B. G. Levesque, “Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC,” Gut 64(11), 1765–1773 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellini, N.

Benchimol, E. I.

N. A. Molodecky, I. S. Soon, D. M. Rabi, W. A. Ghali, M. Ferris, G. Chernoff, E. I. Benchimol, R. Panaccione, S. Ghosh, H. W. Barkema, and G. G. Kaplan, “Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases With Time, Based on Systematic Review,” Gastroenterology 142(1), 46–54 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bessissow, T.

T. Bessissow, B. Lemmens, M. Ferrante, R. Bisschops, K. Van Steen, K. Geboes, G. Van Assche, S. Vermeire, P. Rutgeerts, and G. De Hertogh, “Prognostic value of serologic and histologic markers on clinical relapse in ulcerative colitis patients with mucosal healing,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(11), 1684–1692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, X.

X. Bi, A. Walsh, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. Herline, “Development of spectral markers for the discrimination of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Colon Rectum 54(1), 48–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bielecki, C.

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076030 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binder, V.

E. Langholz, P. Munkholm, M. Davidsen, and V. Binder, “Course of ulcerative colitis: analysis of changes in disease activity over years,” Gastroenterology 107(1), 3–11 (1994).
[PubMed]

Bisschops, R.

T. Bessissow, B. Lemmens, M. Ferrante, R. Bisschops, K. Van Steen, K. Geboes, G. Van Assche, S. Vermeire, P. Rutgeerts, and G. De Hertogh, “Prognostic value of serologic and histologic markers on clinical relapse in ulcerative colitis patients with mucosal healing,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(11), 1684–1692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bitton, A.

A. Bitton, M. A. Peppercorn, D. A. Antonioli, J. L. Niles, S. Shah, A. Bousvaros, B. Ransil, G. Wild, A. Cohen, M. D. D. Edwardes, and A. C. Stevens, “Clinical, biological, and histologic parameters as predictors of relapse in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 13–20 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bocklitz, T. W.

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076030 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bousvaros, A.

A. Bitton, M. A. Peppercorn, D. A. Antonioli, J. L. Niles, S. Shah, A. Bousvaros, B. Ransil, G. Wild, A. Cohen, M. D. D. Edwardes, and A. C. Stevens, “Clinical, biological, and histologic parameters as predictors of relapse in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 13–20 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyle, M.

T. Zenlea, E. U. Yee, L. Rosenberg, M. Boyle, K. S. Nanda, J. L. Wolf, K. R. Falchuk, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histology Grade Is Independently Associated With Relapse Risk in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis in Clinical Remission: A Prospective Study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2016).

Brolo, A. G.

Brozek-Pluska, B.

J. Surmacki, B. Brozek-Pluska, R. Kordek, and H. Abramczyk, “The lipid-reactive oxygen species phenotype of breast cancer. Raman spectroscopy and mapping, PCA and PLSDA for invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. Molecular tumorigenic mechanisms beyond Warburg effect,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(7), 2121–2133 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, and R. Kordek, “Raman ‘optical biopsy’ of human breast cancer,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 108(1-2), 74–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska, and R. Kordek, “The label-free Raman imaging of human breast cancer,” J. Mol. Liq. 164(1-2), 123–131 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brunner, H.

H. Brunner, H. Sussner, and A. Mayer, “Resonance Raman Scattering on Heme Group of Oxyhemoglobin Deoxyhemoglobin,” J Mol Biol 70, 153–156 (1972).

Buckell, N. A.

J. Powell-Tuck, D. W. Day, N. A. Buckell, J. Wadsworth, and J. E. Lennard-Jones, “Correlations between defined sigmoidoscopic appearances and other measures of disease activity in ulcerative colitis,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 27(6), 533–537 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. S.

W. L. Lo, J. Y. Lai, S. E. Feinberg, K. Izumi, S. Y. Kao, C. S. Chang, A. Lin, and H. K. Chiang, “Raman spectroscopy monitoring of the cellular activities of a tissue-engineered ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 174–178 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheifetz, A. S.

L. Rosenberg, K. S. Nanda, T. Zenlea, A. Gifford, G. O. Lawlor, K. R. Falchuk, J. L. Wolf, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histologic markers of inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 991–996 (2013).

T. Zenlea, E. U. Yee, L. Rosenberg, M. Boyle, K. S. Nanda, J. L. Wolf, K. R. Falchuk, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histology Grade Is Independently Associated With Relapse Risk in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis in Clinical Remission: A Prospective Study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2016).

Chen, Y. T.

C. H. Chuang and Y. T. Chen, “Raman scattering of L-tryptophan enhanced by surface plasmon of silver nanoparticles: vibrational assignment and structural determination,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(2), 150–156 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, W. T.

W. T. Cheng, M. T. Liu, H. N. Liu, and S. Y. Lin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy used to identify and grade human skin pilomatrixoma,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 68(2), 75–79 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chernoff, G.

N. A. Molodecky, I. S. Soon, D. M. Rabi, W. A. Ghali, M. Ferris, G. Chernoff, E. I. Benchimol, R. Panaccione, S. Ghosh, H. W. Barkema, and G. G. Kaplan, “Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases With Time, Based on Systematic Review,” Gastroenterology 142(1), 46–54 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, H. K.

W. L. Lo, J. Y. Lai, S. E. Feinberg, K. Izumi, S. Y. Kao, C. S. Chang, A. Lin, and H. K. Chiang, “Raman spectroscopy monitoring of the cellular activities of a tissue-engineered ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 174–178 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chuang, C. H.

C. H. Chuang and Y. T. Chen, “Raman scattering of L-tryptophan enhanced by surface plasmon of silver nanoparticles: vibrational assignment and structural determination,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(2), 150–156 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chung, C. K.

S. K. Bai, S. J. Lee, H. J. Na, K. S. Ha, J. A. Han, H. Lee, Y. G. Kwon, C. K. Chung, and Y. M. Kim, “beta-Carotene inhibits inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages by suppressing redox-based NF-kappaB activation,” Exp. Mol. Med. 37(4), 323–334 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, A.

A. Bitton, M. A. Peppercorn, D. A. Antonioli, J. L. Niles, S. Shah, A. Bousvaros, B. Ransil, G. Wild, A. Cohen, M. D. D. Edwardes, and A. C. Stevens, “Clinical, biological, and histologic parameters as predictors of relapse in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 13–20 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombel, J. F.

J. F. Colombel, P. Rutgeerts, W. Reinisch, D. Esser, Y. Wang, Y. Lang, C. W. Marano, R. Strauss, B. J. Oddens, B. G. Feagan, S. B. Hanauer, G. R. Lichtenstein, D. Present, B. E. Sands, and W. J. Sandborn, “Early mucosal healing with infliximab is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 141(4), 1194–1201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pineton de Chambrun, L. Peyrin-Biroulet, M. Lémann, and J. F. Colombel, “Clinical implications of mucosal healing for the management of IBD,” Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 7(1), 15–29 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, T. A.

J. J. Wood, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. R. Lloyd, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, J. Day, and T. A. Cook, “Evaluation of a confocal Raman probe for pathological diagnosis during colonoscopy,” Colorectal Dis. 16(9), 732–738 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crow, P.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cummings, F.

L. C. Dinesen, A. J. Walsh, M. N. Protic, G. Heap, F. Cummings, B. F. Warren, B. George, N. J. M. Mortensen, and S. P. L. Travis, “The pattern and outcome of acute severe colitis,” J. Crohn’s Colitis 4(4), 431–437 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Haens, G.

M. H. Mosli, B. G. Feagan, G. Zou, W. J. Sandborn, G. D’Haens, R. Khanna, C. Behling, K. Kaplan, D. K. Driman, L. M. Shackelton, K. A. Baker, J. K. MacDonald, M. K. Vandervoort, M. A. Samaan, K. Geboes, M. A. Valasek, R. Pai, C. Langner, R. Riddell, N. Harpaz, M. Sewitch, M. Peterson, L. W. Stitt, and B. G. Levesque, “Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC,” Gut 64(11), 1765–1773 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D’Haens, W. J. Sandborn, B. G. Feagan, K. Geboes, S. B. Hanauer, E. J. Irvine, M. Lémann, P. Marteau, P. Rutgeerts, J. Schölmerich, and L. R. Sutherland, “A review of activity indices and efficacy end points for clinical trials of medical therapy in adults with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 132(2), 763–786 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dave, M.

M. Dave and E. V. Loftus., “Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease-a true paradigm of success?” Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (N. Y.) 8(1), 29–38 (2012).
[PubMed]

Davidsen, M.

E. Langholz, P. Munkholm, M. Davidsen, and V. Binder, “Course of ulcerative colitis: analysis of changes in disease activity over years,” Gastroenterology 107(1), 3–11 (1994).
[PubMed]

Day, D. W.

J. Powell-Tuck, D. W. Day, N. A. Buckell, J. Wadsworth, and J. E. Lennard-Jones, “Correlations between defined sigmoidoscopic appearances and other measures of disease activity in ulcerative colitis,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 27(6), 533–537 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Day, J.

J. J. Wood, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. R. Lloyd, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, J. Day, and T. A. Cook, “Evaluation of a confocal Raman probe for pathological diagnosis during colonoscopy,” Colorectal Dis. 16(9), 732–738 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Gelder, J.

J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[Crossref]

De Gussem, K.

J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[Crossref]

De Hertogh, G.

T. Bessissow, B. Lemmens, M. Ferrante, R. Bisschops, K. Van Steen, K. Geboes, G. Van Assche, S. Vermeire, P. Rutgeerts, and G. De Hertogh, “Prognostic value of serologic and histologic markers on clinical relapse in ulcerative colitis patients with mucosal healing,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(11), 1684–1692 (2012).
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Dinesen, L. C.

L. C. Dinesen, A. J. Walsh, M. N. Protic, G. Heap, F. Cummings, B. F. Warren, B. George, N. J. M. Mortensen, and S. P. L. Travis, “The pattern and outcome of acute severe colitis,” J. Crohn’s Colitis 4(4), 431–437 (2010).
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M. H. Mosli, B. G. Feagan, G. Zou, W. J. Sandborn, G. D’Haens, R. Khanna, C. Behling, K. Kaplan, D. K. Driman, L. M. Shackelton, K. A. Baker, J. K. MacDonald, M. K. Vandervoort, M. A. Samaan, K. Geboes, M. A. Valasek, R. Pai, C. Langner, R. Riddell, N. Harpaz, M. Sewitch, M. Peterson, L. W. Stitt, and B. G. Levesque, “Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC,” Gut 64(11), 1765–1773 (2015).
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Duan, X.

Dunbar, K. B.

L. A. Feagins, S. D. Melton, R. Iqbal, K. B. Dunbar, and S. J. Spechler, “Clinical implications of histologic abnormalities in colonic biopsy specimens from patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 19(7), 1477–1482 (2013).
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S. A. Riley, V. Mani, M. J. Goodman, S. Dutt, and M. E. Herd, “Microscopic activity in ulcerative colitis: what does it mean?” Gut 32(2), 174–178 (1991).
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A. Bitton, M. A. Peppercorn, D. A. Antonioli, J. L. Niles, S. Shah, A. Bousvaros, B. Ransil, G. Wild, A. Cohen, M. D. D. Edwardes, and A. C. Stevens, “Clinical, biological, and histologic parameters as predictors of relapse in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 13–20 (2001).
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I. V. Ermakov, M. Sharifzadeh, M. Ermakova, and W. Gellermann, “Resonance Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064028 (2005).
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I. V. Ermakov, M. Sharifzadeh, M. Ermakova, and W. Gellermann, “Resonance Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064028 (2005).
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J. F. Colombel, P. Rutgeerts, W. Reinisch, D. Esser, Y. Wang, Y. Lang, C. W. Marano, R. Strauss, B. J. Oddens, B. G. Feagan, S. B. Hanauer, G. R. Lichtenstein, D. Present, B. E. Sands, and W. J. Sandborn, “Early mucosal healing with infliximab is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 141(4), 1194–1201 (2011).
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L. Rosenberg, K. S. Nanda, T. Zenlea, A. Gifford, G. O. Lawlor, K. R. Falchuk, J. L. Wolf, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histologic markers of inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 991–996 (2013).

T. Zenlea, E. U. Yee, L. Rosenberg, M. Boyle, K. S. Nanda, J. L. Wolf, K. R. Falchuk, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histology Grade Is Independently Associated With Relapse Risk in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis in Clinical Remission: A Prospective Study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2016).

Feagan, B. G.

M. H. Mosli, B. G. Feagan, G. Zou, W. J. Sandborn, G. D’Haens, R. Khanna, C. Behling, K. Kaplan, D. K. Driman, L. M. Shackelton, K. A. Baker, J. K. MacDonald, M. K. Vandervoort, M. A. Samaan, K. Geboes, M. A. Valasek, R. Pai, C. Langner, R. Riddell, N. Harpaz, M. Sewitch, M. Peterson, L. W. Stitt, and B. G. Levesque, “Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC,” Gut 64(11), 1765–1773 (2015).
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J. F. Colombel, P. Rutgeerts, W. Reinisch, D. Esser, Y. Wang, Y. Lang, C. W. Marano, R. Strauss, B. J. Oddens, B. G. Feagan, S. B. Hanauer, G. R. Lichtenstein, D. Present, B. E. Sands, and W. J. Sandborn, “Early mucosal healing with infliximab is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 141(4), 1194–1201 (2011).
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G. D’Haens, W. J. Sandborn, B. G. Feagan, K. Geboes, S. B. Hanauer, E. J. Irvine, M. Lémann, P. Marteau, P. Rutgeerts, J. Schölmerich, and L. R. Sutherland, “A review of activity indices and efficacy end points for clinical trials of medical therapy in adults with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 132(2), 763–786 (2007).
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L. A. Feagins, S. D. Melton, R. Iqbal, K. B. Dunbar, and S. J. Spechler, “Clinical implications of histologic abnormalities in colonic biopsy specimens from patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 19(7), 1477–1482 (2013).
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W. L. Lo, J. Y. Lai, S. E. Feinberg, K. Izumi, S. Y. Kao, C. S. Chang, A. Lin, and H. K. Chiang, “Raman spectroscopy monitoring of the cellular activities of a tissue-engineered ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 174–178 (2011).
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T. Bessissow, B. Lemmens, M. Ferrante, R. Bisschops, K. Van Steen, K. Geboes, G. Van Assche, S. Vermeire, P. Rutgeerts, and G. De Hertogh, “Prognostic value of serologic and histologic markers on clinical relapse in ulcerative colitis patients with mucosal healing,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(11), 1684–1692 (2012).
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N. A. Molodecky, I. S. Soon, D. M. Rabi, W. A. Ghali, M. Ferris, G. Chernoff, E. I. Benchimol, R. Panaccione, S. Ghosh, H. W. Barkema, and G. G. Kaplan, “Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases With Time, Based on Systematic Review,” Gastroenterology 142(1), 46–54 (2012).
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M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
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C. J. Frank, R. L. McCreery, and D. C. B. Redd, “Raman spectroscopy of normal and diseased human breast tissues,” Anal. Chem. 67(5), 777–783 (1995).
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Frøslie, K. F.

K. F. Frøslie, J. Jahnsen, B. A. Moum, M. H. Vatn, and IBSEN Group, “Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease: results from a Norwegian population-based cohort,” Gastroenterology 133(2), 412–422 (2007).
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O. J. Old, L. M. Fullwood, R. Scott, G. R. Lloyd, L. M. Almond, N. A. Shepherd, N. Stone, H. Barr, and C. Kendall, “Vibrational spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Anal Methods-Uk 6(12), 3901–3917 (2014).
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M. H. Mosli, B. G. Feagan, G. Zou, W. J. Sandborn, G. D’Haens, R. Khanna, C. Behling, K. Kaplan, D. K. Driman, L. M. Shackelton, K. A. Baker, J. K. MacDonald, M. K. Vandervoort, M. A. Samaan, K. Geboes, M. A. Valasek, R. Pai, C. Langner, R. Riddell, N. Harpaz, M. Sewitch, M. Peterson, L. W. Stitt, and B. G. Levesque, “Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC,” Gut 64(11), 1765–1773 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bessissow, B. Lemmens, M. Ferrante, R. Bisschops, K. Van Steen, K. Geboes, G. Van Assche, S. Vermeire, P. Rutgeerts, and G. De Hertogh, “Prognostic value of serologic and histologic markers on clinical relapse in ulcerative colitis patients with mucosal healing,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(11), 1684–1692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D’Haens, W. J. Sandborn, B. G. Feagan, K. Geboes, S. B. Hanauer, E. J. Irvine, M. Lémann, P. Marteau, P. Rutgeerts, J. Schölmerich, and L. R. Sutherland, “A review of activity indices and efficacy end points for clinical trials of medical therapy in adults with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 132(2), 763–786 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gellermann, W.

I. V. Ermakov, M. Sharifzadeh, M. Ermakova, and W. Gellermann, “Resonance Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064028 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, B.

L. C. Dinesen, A. J. Walsh, M. N. Protic, G. Heap, F. Cummings, B. F. Warren, B. George, N. J. M. Mortensen, and S. P. L. Travis, “The pattern and outcome of acute severe colitis,” J. Crohn’s Colitis 4(4), 431–437 (2010).
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Gerlach, C.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
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Ghali, W. A.

N. A. Molodecky, I. S. Soon, D. M. Rabi, W. A. Ghali, M. Ferris, G. Chernoff, E. I. Benchimol, R. Panaccione, S. Ghosh, H. W. Barkema, and G. G. Kaplan, “Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases With Time, Based on Systematic Review,” Gastroenterology 142(1), 46–54 (2012).
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C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076030 (2012).
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Gifford, A.

L. Rosenberg, K. S. Nanda, T. Zenlea, A. Gifford, G. O. Lawlor, K. R. Falchuk, J. L. Wolf, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histologic markers of inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 991–996 (2013).

Goldsmith, J. D.

L. Rosenberg, K. S. Nanda, T. Zenlea, A. Gifford, G. O. Lawlor, K. R. Falchuk, J. L. Wolf, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histologic markers of inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 991–996 (2013).

T. Zenlea, E. U. Yee, L. Rosenberg, M. Boyle, K. S. Nanda, J. L. Wolf, K. R. Falchuk, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histology Grade Is Independently Associated With Relapse Risk in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis in Clinical Remission: A Prospective Study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2016).

Goodman, M. J.

S. A. Riley, V. Mani, M. J. Goodman, S. Dutt, and M. E. Herd, “Microscopic activity in ulcerative colitis: what does it mean?” Gut 32(2), 174–178 (1991).
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S. A. Riley, V. Mani, M. J. Goodman, and S. Lucas, “Why do patients with ulcerative colitis relapse?” Gut 31(2), 179–183 (1990).
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N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, B. Willekens, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Raman imaging of protein distribution in single human cells,” Biopolymers 72(1), 1–9 (2003).
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S. K. Bai, S. J. Lee, H. J. Na, K. S. Ha, J. A. Han, H. Lee, Y. G. Kwon, C. K. Chung, and Y. M. Kim, “beta-Carotene inhibits inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages by suppressing redox-based NF-kappaB activation,” Exp. Mol. Med. 37(4), 323–334 (2005).
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Hahn, E. G.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
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S. K. Bai, S. J. Lee, H. J. Na, K. S. Ha, J. A. Han, H. Lee, Y. G. Kwon, C. K. Chung, and Y. M. Kim, “beta-Carotene inhibits inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages by suppressing redox-based NF-kappaB activation,” Exp. Mol. Med. 37(4), 323–334 (2005).
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Hanauer, S. B.

J. F. Colombel, P. Rutgeerts, W. Reinisch, D. Esser, Y. Wang, Y. Lang, C. W. Marano, R. Strauss, B. J. Oddens, B. G. Feagan, S. B. Hanauer, G. R. Lichtenstein, D. Present, B. E. Sands, and W. J. Sandborn, “Early mucosal healing with infliximab is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 141(4), 1194–1201 (2011).
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G. D’Haens, W. J. Sandborn, B. G. Feagan, K. Geboes, S. B. Hanauer, E. J. Irvine, M. Lémann, P. Marteau, P. Rutgeerts, J. Schölmerich, and L. R. Sutherland, “A review of activity indices and efficacy end points for clinical trials of medical therapy in adults with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 132(2), 763–786 (2007).
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Haque, S.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, S. Haque, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: living cells versus dead cells,” Biopolymers 72(4), 230–240 (2003).
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Harpaz, N.

M. H. Mosli, B. G. Feagan, G. Zou, W. J. Sandborn, G. D’Haens, R. Khanna, C. Behling, K. Kaplan, D. K. Driman, L. M. Shackelton, K. A. Baker, J. K. MacDonald, M. K. Vandervoort, M. A. Samaan, K. Geboes, M. A. Valasek, R. Pai, C. Langner, R. Riddell, N. Harpaz, M. Sewitch, M. Peterson, L. W. Stitt, and B. G. Levesque, “Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC,” Gut 64(11), 1765–1773 (2015).
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Heap, G.

L. C. Dinesen, A. J. Walsh, M. N. Protic, G. Heap, F. Cummings, B. F. Warren, B. George, N. J. M. Mortensen, and S. P. L. Travis, “The pattern and outcome of acute severe colitis,” J. Crohn’s Colitis 4(4), 431–437 (2010).
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Hench, L. L.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, S. Haque, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: living cells versus dead cells,” Biopolymers 72(4), 230–240 (2003).
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Herd, M. E.

S. A. Riley, V. Mani, M. J. Goodman, S. Dutt, and M. E. Herd, “Microscopic activity in ulcerative colitis: what does it mean?” Gut 32(2), 174–178 (1991).
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Herline, A.

X. Bi, A. Walsh, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. Herline, “Development of spectral markers for the discrimination of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Colon Rectum 54(1), 48–53 (2011).
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Hohenberger, W.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
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Horbach, T.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
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Horner, P.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
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Hoskovec, D.

A. Synytsya, M. Judexova, D. Hoskovec, M. Miskovicova, and L. Petruzelka, “Raman spectroscopy at different excitation wavelengths (1064, 785 and 532 nm) as a tool for diagnosis of colon cancer,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 903–911 (2014).
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Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
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J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
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Hutchings, J.

J. J. Wood, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. R. Lloyd, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, J. Day, and T. A. Cook, “Evaluation of a confocal Raman probe for pathological diagnosis during colonoscopy,” Colorectal Dis. 16(9), 732–738 (2014).
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Ihara, K.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
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Iqbal, R.

L. A. Feagins, S. D. Melton, R. Iqbal, K. B. Dunbar, and S. J. Spechler, “Clinical implications of histologic abnormalities in colonic biopsy specimens from patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 19(7), 1477–1482 (2013).
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G. D’Haens, W. J. Sandborn, B. G. Feagan, K. Geboes, S. B. Hanauer, E. J. Irvine, M. Lémann, P. Marteau, P. Rutgeerts, J. Schölmerich, and L. R. Sutherland, “A review of activity indices and efficacy end points for clinical trials of medical therapy in adults with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 132(2), 763–786 (2007).
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Izumi, K.

W. L. Lo, J. Y. Lai, S. E. Feinberg, K. Izumi, S. Y. Kao, C. S. Chang, A. Lin, and H. K. Chiang, “Raman spectroscopy monitoring of the cellular activities of a tissue-engineered ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 174–178 (2011).
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H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska, and R. Kordek, “The label-free Raman imaging of human breast cancer,” J. Mol. Liq. 164(1-2), 123–131 (2011).
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H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, and R. Kordek, “Raman ‘optical biopsy’ of human breast cancer,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 108(1-2), 74–81 (2012).
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Jahnsen, J.

K. F. Frøslie, J. Jahnsen, B. A. Moum, M. H. Vatn, and IBSEN Group, “Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease: results from a Norwegian population-based cohort,” Gastroenterology 133(2), 412–422 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jirasek, A.

Jordan, M.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Judexova, M.

A. Synytsya, M. Judexova, D. Hoskovec, M. Miskovicova, and L. Petruzelka, “Raman spectroscopy at different excitation wavelengths (1064, 785 and 532 nm) as a tool for diagnosis of colon cancer,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 903–911 (2014).
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Kaczor, A.

A. Rygula, K. Majzner, K. M. Marzec, A. Kaczor, M. Pilarczyk, and M. Baranska, “Raman spectroscopy of proteins: a review,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(8), 1061–1076 (2013).
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Kamm, M.

M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kao, S. Y.

W. L. Lo, J. Y. Lai, S. E. Feinberg, K. Izumi, S. Y. Kao, C. S. Chang, A. Lin, and H. K. Chiang, “Raman spectroscopy monitoring of the cellular activities of a tissue-engineered ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 174–178 (2011).
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Kaplan, G. G.

N. A. Molodecky, I. S. Soon, D. M. Rabi, W. A. Ghali, M. Ferris, G. Chernoff, E. I. Benchimol, R. Panaccione, S. Ghosh, H. W. Barkema, and G. G. Kaplan, “Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases With Time, Based on Systematic Review,” Gastroenterology 142(1), 46–54 (2012).
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Kaplan, K.

M. H. Mosli, B. G. Feagan, G. Zou, W. J. Sandborn, G. D’Haens, R. Khanna, C. Behling, K. Kaplan, D. K. Driman, L. M. Shackelton, K. A. Baker, J. K. MacDonald, M. K. Vandervoort, M. A. Samaan, K. Geboes, M. A. Valasek, R. Pai, C. Langner, R. Riddell, N. Harpaz, M. Sewitch, M. Peterson, L. W. Stitt, and B. G. Levesque, “Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC,” Gut 64(11), 1765–1773 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kendall, C.

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N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
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Strauss, R.

J. F. Colombel, P. Rutgeerts, W. Reinisch, D. Esser, Y. Wang, Y. Lang, C. W. Marano, R. Strauss, B. J. Oddens, B. G. Feagan, S. B. Hanauer, G. R. Lichtenstein, D. Present, B. E. Sands, and W. J. Sandborn, “Early mucosal healing with infliximab is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 141(4), 1194–1201 (2011).
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Surmacki, J.

J. Surmacki, B. Brozek-Pluska, R. Kordek, and H. Abramczyk, “The lipid-reactive oxygen species phenotype of breast cancer. Raman spectroscopy and mapping, PCA and PLSDA for invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. Molecular tumorigenic mechanisms beyond Warburg effect,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(7), 2121–2133 (2015).
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H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, and R. Kordek, “Raman ‘optical biopsy’ of human breast cancer,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 108(1-2), 74–81 (2012).
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G. D’Haens, W. J. Sandborn, B. G. Feagan, K. Geboes, S. B. Hanauer, E. J. Irvine, M. Lémann, P. Marteau, P. Rutgeerts, J. Schölmerich, and L. R. Sutherland, “A review of activity indices and efficacy end points for clinical trials of medical therapy in adults with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 132(2), 763–786 (2007).
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A. C. S. Talari, Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(1), 46–111 (2015).
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M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
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Taylor, D. S.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
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Travis, S. P. L.

L. C. Dinesen, A. J. Walsh, M. N. Protic, G. Heap, F. Cummings, B. F. Warren, B. George, N. J. M. Mortensen, and S. P. L. Travis, “The pattern and outcome of acute severe colitis,” J. Crohn’s Colitis 4(4), 431–437 (2010).
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R. Tuma, “Raman spectroscopy of proteins: from peptides to large assemblies,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(4), 307–319 (2005).
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N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, B. Willekens, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Raman imaging of protein distribution in single human cells,” Biopolymers 72(1), 1–9 (2003).
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Valasek, M. A.

M. H. Mosli, B. G. Feagan, G. Zou, W. J. Sandborn, G. D’Haens, R. Khanna, C. Behling, K. Kaplan, D. K. Driman, L. M. Shackelton, K. A. Baker, J. K. MacDonald, M. K. Vandervoort, M. A. Samaan, K. Geboes, M. A. Valasek, R. Pai, C. Langner, R. Riddell, N. Harpaz, M. Sewitch, M. Peterson, L. W. Stitt, and B. G. Levesque, “Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC,” Gut 64(11), 1765–1773 (2015).
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Van Assche, G.

T. Bessissow, B. Lemmens, M. Ferrante, R. Bisschops, K. Van Steen, K. Geboes, G. Van Assche, S. Vermeire, P. Rutgeerts, and G. De Hertogh, “Prognostic value of serologic and histologic markers on clinical relapse in ulcerative colitis patients with mucosal healing,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(11), 1684–1692 (2012).
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T. Bessissow, B. Lemmens, M. Ferrante, R. Bisschops, K. Van Steen, K. Geboes, G. Van Assche, S. Vermeire, P. Rutgeerts, and G. De Hertogh, “Prognostic value of serologic and histologic markers on clinical relapse in ulcerative colitis patients with mucosal healing,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(11), 1684–1692 (2012).
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J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
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M. H. Mosli, B. G. Feagan, G. Zou, W. J. Sandborn, G. D’Haens, R. Khanna, C. Behling, K. Kaplan, D. K. Driman, L. M. Shackelton, K. A. Baker, J. K. MacDonald, M. K. Vandervoort, M. A. Samaan, K. Geboes, M. A. Valasek, R. Pai, C. Langner, R. Riddell, N. Harpaz, M. Sewitch, M. Peterson, L. W. Stitt, and B. G. Levesque, “Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC,” Gut 64(11), 1765–1773 (2015).
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K. F. Frøslie, J. Jahnsen, B. A. Moum, M. H. Vatn, and IBSEN Group, “Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease: results from a Norwegian population-based cohort,” Gastroenterology 133(2), 412–422 (2007).
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Vermeire, S.

T. Bessissow, B. Lemmens, M. Ferrante, R. Bisschops, K. Van Steen, K. Geboes, G. Van Assche, S. Vermeire, P. Rutgeerts, and G. De Hertogh, “Prognostic value of serologic and histologic markers on clinical relapse in ulcerative colitis patients with mucosal healing,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(11), 1684–1692 (2012).
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Verrier, S.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, S. Haque, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: living cells versus dead cells,” Biopolymers 72(4), 230–240 (2003).
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Vrensen, G.

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, B. Willekens, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Raman imaging of protein distribution in single human cells,” Biopolymers 72(1), 1–9 (2003).
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Wadsworth, J.

J. Powell-Tuck, D. W. Day, N. A. Buckell, J. Wadsworth, and J. E. Lennard-Jones, “Correlations between defined sigmoidoscopic appearances and other measures of disease activity in ulcerative colitis,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 27(6), 533–537 (1982).
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H. Abramczyk, M. Kolodziejski, and G. Waliszewska, “Vibrational relaxation of beta-carotene in acetonitrile solution in carrot in situ,” J. Mol. Liq. 79(3), 223–233 (1999).
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Walsh, A.

X. Bi, A. Walsh, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. Herline, “Development of spectral markers for the discrimination of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Colon Rectum 54(1), 48–53 (2011).
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Walsh, A. J.

L. C. Dinesen, A. J. Walsh, M. N. Protic, G. Heap, F. Cummings, B. F. Warren, B. George, N. J. M. Mortensen, and S. P. L. Travis, “The pattern and outcome of acute severe colitis,” J. Crohn’s Colitis 4(4), 431–437 (2010).
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Wang, F.

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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Wang, J. S.

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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Wang, Y.

J. F. Colombel, P. Rutgeerts, W. Reinisch, D. Esser, Y. Wang, Y. Lang, C. W. Marano, R. Strauss, B. J. Oddens, B. G. Feagan, S. B. Hanauer, G. R. Lichtenstein, D. Present, B. E. Sands, and W. J. Sandborn, “Early mucosal healing with infliximab is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 141(4), 1194–1201 (2011).
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L. C. Dinesen, A. J. Walsh, M. N. Protic, G. Heap, F. Cummings, B. F. Warren, B. George, N. J. M. Mortensen, and S. P. L. Travis, “The pattern and outcome of acute severe colitis,” J. Crohn’s Colitis 4(4), 431–437 (2010).
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A. Bitton, M. A. Peppercorn, D. A. Antonioli, J. L. Niles, S. Shah, A. Bousvaros, B. Ransil, G. Wild, A. Cohen, M. D. D. Edwardes, and A. C. Stevens, “Clinical, biological, and histologic parameters as predictors of relapse in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 13–20 (2001).
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Wilkinson, K.

M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
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Willekens, B.

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, B. Willekens, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Raman imaging of protein distribution in single human cells,” Biopolymers 72(1), 1–9 (2003).
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M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
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A. Molckovsky, L. M. W. K. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
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L. Rosenberg, K. S. Nanda, T. Zenlea, A. Gifford, G. O. Lawlor, K. R. Falchuk, J. L. Wolf, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histologic markers of inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 991–996 (2013).

T. Zenlea, E. U. Yee, L. Rosenberg, M. Boyle, K. S. Nanda, J. L. Wolf, K. R. Falchuk, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histology Grade Is Independently Associated With Relapse Risk in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis in Clinical Remission: A Prospective Study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2016).

Wood, J. J.

J. J. Wood, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. R. Lloyd, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, J. Day, and T. A. Cook, “Evaluation of a confocal Raman probe for pathological diagnosis during colonoscopy,” Colorectal Dis. 16(9), 732–738 (2014).
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Wu, J. G.

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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Xu, Z.

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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Yang, L. M.

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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Yee, E. U.

T. Zenlea, E. U. Yee, L. Rosenberg, M. Boyle, K. S. Nanda, J. L. Wolf, K. R. Falchuk, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histology Grade Is Independently Associated With Relapse Risk in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis in Clinical Remission: A Prospective Study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2016).

Zeng, H.

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated Autofluorescence Background Subtraction Algorithm for Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
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Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
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Zenlea, T.

L. Rosenberg, K. S. Nanda, T. Zenlea, A. Gifford, G. O. Lawlor, K. R. Falchuk, J. L. Wolf, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histologic markers of inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 991–996 (2013).

T. Zenlea, E. U. Yee, L. Rosenberg, M. Boyle, K. S. Nanda, J. L. Wolf, K. R. Falchuk, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histology Grade Is Independently Associated With Relapse Risk in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis in Clinical Remission: A Prospective Study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2016).

Zhang, L.

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, N. W.

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S. L. L.

Zhang, Y. F.

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Zhou, S.

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, X. S.

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, G.

M. H. Mosli, B. G. Feagan, G. Zou, W. J. Sandborn, G. D’Haens, R. Khanna, C. Behling, K. Kaplan, D. K. Driman, L. M. Shackelton, K. A. Baker, J. K. MacDonald, M. K. Vandervoort, M. A. Samaan, K. Geboes, M. A. Valasek, R. Pai, C. Langner, R. Riddell, N. Harpaz, M. Sewitch, M. Peterson, L. W. Stitt, and B. G. Levesque, “Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC,” Gut 64(11), 1765–1773 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zwerdling, T.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
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Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2)

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
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T. Bessissow, B. Lemmens, M. Ferrante, R. Bisschops, K. Van Steen, K. Geboes, G. Van Assche, S. Vermeire, P. Rutgeerts, and G. De Hertogh, “Prognostic value of serologic and histologic markers on clinical relapse in ulcerative colitis patients with mucosal healing,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(11), 1684–1692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal Methods-Uk (1)

O. J. Old, L. M. Fullwood, R. Scott, G. R. Lloyd, L. M. Almond, N. A. Shepherd, N. Stone, H. Barr, and C. Kendall, “Vibrational spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Anal Methods-Uk 6(12), 3901–3917 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

C. J. Frank, R. L. McCreery, and D. C. B. Redd, “Raman spectroscopy of normal and diseased human breast tissues,” Anal. Chem. 67(5), 777–783 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

J. Surmacki, B. Brozek-Pluska, R. Kordek, and H. Abramczyk, “The lipid-reactive oxygen species phenotype of breast cancer. Raman spectroscopy and mapping, PCA and PLSDA for invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. Molecular tumorigenic mechanisms beyond Warburg effect,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(7), 2121–2133 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

A. C. S. Talari, Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(1), 46–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biopolymers (2)

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, B. Willekens, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Raman imaging of protein distribution in single human cells,” Biopolymers 72(1), 1–9 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, S. Haque, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: living cells versus dead cells,” Biopolymers 72(4), 230–240 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

L. Rosenberg, K. S. Nanda, T. Zenlea, A. Gifford, G. O. Lawlor, K. R. Falchuk, J. L. Wolf, A. S. Cheifetz, J. D. Goldsmith, and A. C. Moss, “Histologic markers of inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 991–996 (2013).

Colorectal Dis. (1)

J. J. Wood, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. R. Lloyd, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, J. Day, and T. A. Cook, “Evaluation of a confocal Raman probe for pathological diagnosis during colonoscopy,” Colorectal Dis. 16(9), 732–738 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dig. Dis. Sci. (1)

J. Powell-Tuck, D. W. Day, N. A. Buckell, J. Wadsworth, and J. E. Lennard-Jones, “Correlations between defined sigmoidoscopic appearances and other measures of disease activity in ulcerative colitis,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 27(6), 533–537 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dis. Colon Rectum (1)

X. Bi, A. Walsh, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. Herline, “Development of spectral markers for the discrimination of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Colon Rectum 54(1), 48–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Mol. Med. (1)

S. K. Bai, S. J. Lee, H. J. Na, K. S. Ha, J. A. Han, H. Lee, Y. G. Kwon, C. K. Chung, and Y. M. Kim, “beta-Carotene inhibits inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages by suppressing redox-based NF-kappaB activation,” Exp. Mol. Med. 37(4), 323–334 (2005).
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Faraday Discuss. (1)

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
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Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (N. Y.) (1)

M. Dave and E. V. Loftus., “Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease-a true paradigm of success?” Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (N. Y.) 8(1), 29–38 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gastroenterology (7)

A. Bitton, M. A. Peppercorn, D. A. Antonioli, J. L. Niles, S. Shah, A. Bousvaros, B. Ransil, G. Wild, A. Cohen, M. D. D. Edwardes, and A. C. Stevens, “Clinical, biological, and histologic parameters as predictors of relapse in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 13–20 (2001).
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N. A. Molodecky, I. S. Soon, D. M. Rabi, W. A. Ghali, M. Ferris, G. Chernoff, E. I. Benchimol, R. Panaccione, S. Ghosh, H. W. Barkema, and G. G. Kaplan, “Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases With Time, Based on Systematic Review,” Gastroenterology 142(1), 46–54 (2012).
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E. Langholz, P. Munkholm, M. Davidsen, and V. Binder, “Course of ulcerative colitis: analysis of changes in disease activity over years,” Gastroenterology 107(1), 3–11 (1994).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Average background-subtracted normalised Raman spectra for endoscopically assessed colonic mucosa which showed either a) endoscopic MH (black) or b) endoscopic inflammation (red).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Plot of frequency of C = C (ν1) versus C-C stretching vibration (ν2) for beta-carotene isomers (black squares, values from [53]), colonic mucosa showing endoscopic MH (grey circle, our data), colonic mucosa showing endoscopic inflammation (red circle, our data), cancerous colon tissue (blue diamond [21],), cancerous breast tissue (pink triangle [22],), cancerous lung tissue (green triangle [37],). Figure adapted from [53].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Histogram displaying average Raman peak intensities, standard deviations and p values for endoscopically assessed colonic mucosa which showed either a) endoscopic MH (N = 24, filled grey) or b) endoscopic inflammation (N = 36, unfilled). No asterisk represents p > 0.10, a single asterisk * represents 0.10 ≥ p > 0.05 and two asterisks ** represent p ≤ 0.05. Abbreviations: Car = carotenoids; Myo = myoglobin, Oxy-Myo = oxy-myoglobin, Deoxy-Myo = deoxy-myoglobin, P-lipid = phospholipids.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Histogram displaying average Raman peak intensities, standard deviations and p values for histologically assessed colonic mucosa which showed either a) histological healing (N = 27, filled grey) or b) HA (N = 33, unfilled). The same key and abbreviations as for Fig. 3. apply.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Scatter plot of intensities of peaks 1, 3 and 15 for a) endoscopically assessed colonic mucosa which showed either endoscopic MH (open squares) or endoscopic inflammation (filled circles) and b) histologically assessed colonic mucosa which showed either histological healing (open squares) or HA (filled circles).

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Mayo endoscopic score

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Table 2 Tentative assignments of peaks in Raman spectra of colon tissue

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Table 3 Multivariate analysis for the a) endoscopically assessed group and b) histologically assessed group of colonic mucosa

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