Abstract

We propose a novel automated volumetric segmentation method to detect and quantify retinal fluid on optical coherence tomography (OCT). The fuzzy level set method was introduced for identifying the boundaries of fluid filled regions on B-scans (x and y-axes) and C-scans (z-axis). The boundaries identified from three types of scans were combined to generate a comprehensive volumetric segmentation of retinal fluid. Then, artefactual fluid regions were removed using morphological characteristics and by identifying vascular shadowing with OCT angiography obtained from the same scan. The accuracy of retinal fluid detection and quantification was evaluated on 10 eyes with diabetic macular edema. Automated segmentation had good agreement with manual segmentation qualitatively and quantitatively. The fluid map can be integrated with OCT angiogram for intuitive clinical evaluation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Joint retinal layer and fluid segmentation in OCT scans of eyes with severe macular edema using unsupervised representation and auto-context

Alessio Montuoro, Sebastian M. Waldstein, Bianca S. Gerendas, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, and Hrvoje Bogunović
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3) 1874-1888 (2017)

Kernel regression based segmentation of optical coherence tomography images with diabetic macular edema

Stephanie J. Chiu, Michael J. Allingham, Priyatham S. Mettu, Scott W. Cousins, Joseph A. Izatt, and Sina Farsiu
Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4) 1172-1194 (2015)

Fully automated detection of diabetic macular edema and dry age-related macular degeneration from optical coherence tomography images

Pratul P. Srinivasan, Leo A. Kim, Priyatham S. Mettu, Scott W. Cousins, Grant M. Comer, Joseph A. Izatt, and Sina Farsiu
Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10) 3568-3577 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. N. Frank, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 350(1), 48–58 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. R. Sadda, O. Tan, A. C. Walsh, J. S. Schuman, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Automated detection of clinically significant macular edema by grid scanning optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 113(7), 1187 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Lammer, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, T. Benesch, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and M. Bolz, “Retinal thickness and volume measurements in diabetic macular edema: a comparison of four optical coherence tomography systems,” Retina 31(1), 48–55 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. A. Yannuzzi, M. D. Ober, J. S. Slakter, R. F. Spaide, Y. L. Fisher, R. W. Flower, and R. Rosen, “Ophthalmic fundus imaging: today and beyond,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(3), 511–524 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. V. Regatieri, L. Branchini, J. Carmody, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy analyzed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(3), 563–568 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Mimouni, Y. Nahum, A. Levant, B. Levant, and D. Weinberger, “Cystoid macular edema: a correlation between macular volumetric parameters and visual acuity,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 49(2), 183–187 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, “Infrared scanning laser tomography of macular cysts,” Ophthalmology 107(2), 375–385 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. Lang, A. Carass, E. K. Swingle, O. Al-Louzi, P. Bhargava, S. Saidha, H. S. Ying, P. A. Calabresi, and J. L. Prince, “Automatic segmentation of microcystic macular edema in OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(1), 155–169 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. J. Chiu, M. J. Allingham, P. S. Mettu, S. W. Cousins, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Kernel regression based segmentation of optical coherence tomography images with diabetic macular edema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1172–1194 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D. C. Fernández, “Delineating fluid-filled region boundaries in optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(8), 929–945 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Zheng, J. Sahni, C. Campa, A. N. Stangos, A. Raj, and S. P. Harding, “Computerized assessment of intraretinal and subretinal fluid regions in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 155(2), 277–286 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. B. N. Li, C. K. Chui, S. Chang, and S. H. Ong, “Integrating spatial fuzzy clustering with level set methods for automated medical image segmentation,” Comput. Biol. Med. 41(1), 1–10 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 5658, 1–7 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. T. F. Chan and L. A. Vese, “Active contours without edges,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(2), 266–277 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. D. Cremers, M. Rousson, and R. Deriche, “A review of statistical approaches to level set segmentation: integrating color, texture, motion and shape,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 72(2), 195–215 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. H. Min, W. Jia, X. F. Wang, Y. Zhao, R. X. Hu, Y. T. Luo, F. Xue, and J. T. Lu, “An Intensity-Texture model based level set method for image segmentation,” Pattern Recognit. 48(4), 1547–1558 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. F. Mohammad, R. Ansari, J. Wanek, A. Francis, and M. Shahidi, “Feasibility of level-set analysis of enface OCT retinal images in diabetic retinopathy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1904–1918 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. C. Li, C. Xu, C. Gui, and M. D. Fox, “Level set evolution without re-initialization: a new variational formulation,” in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2005. CVPR 2005. IEEE Computer Society Conference on (IEEE, 2005), pp.430–436.
  32. M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, M. Sylwestrzak, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. F. Mokhtarian and A. Mackworth, “Scale-based description and recognition of planar curves and two-dimensional shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(1), 34–43 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. P. Massin, G. Duguid, A. Erginay, B. Haouchine, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography for evaluating diabetic macular edema before and after vitrectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(2), 169–177 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. T. Otani, S. Kishi, and Y. Maruyama, “Patterns of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127(6), 688–693 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. U. Eriksson, A. Alm, G. Bjärnhall, E. Granstam, and A. W. Matsson, “Macular edema and visual outcome following cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy and controls,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 249(3), 349–359 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. J. N. Weiss and L. A. Bynoe, “Injection of tissue plasminogen activator into a branch retinal vein in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 108(12), 2249–2257 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. M. Wang, I. C. Munch, P. W. Hasler, C. Prünte, and M. Larsen, “Central serous chorioretinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 86(2), 126–145 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. P. U. Dugel, N. A. Rao, S. Ozler, P. E. Liggett, and R. E. Smith, “Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Intraocular Inflammation-related Cystoid Macular Edema Unresponsive to Corticosteroids. A preliminary Study,” Ophthalmology 99(10), 1535–1541 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. G. R. Wilkins, O. M. Houghton, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal cystoid fluid in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(4), 1109–1114 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 5658, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (9)

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Min, W. Jia, X. F. Wang, Y. Zhao, R. X. Hu, Y. T. Luo, F. Xue, and J. T. Lu, “An Intensity-Texture model based level set method for image segmentation,” Pattern Recognit. 48(4), 1547–1558 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mohammad, R. Ansari, J. Wanek, A. Francis, and M. Shahidi, “Feasibility of level-set analysis of enface OCT retinal images in diabetic retinopathy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1904–1918 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lang, A. Carass, E. K. Swingle, O. Al-Louzi, P. Bhargava, S. Saidha, H. S. Ying, P. A. Calabresi, and J. L. Prince, “Automatic segmentation of microcystic macular edema in OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(1), 155–169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, M. J. Allingham, P. S. Mettu, S. W. Cousins, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Kernel regression based segmentation of optical coherence tomography images with diabetic macular edema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1172–1194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

M. Mimouni, Y. Nahum, A. Levant, B. Levant, and D. Weinberger, “Cystoid macular edema: a correlation between macular volumetric parameters and visual acuity,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 49(2), 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

Y. Zheng, J. Sahni, C. Campa, A. N. Stangos, A. Raj, and S. P. Harding, “Computerized assessment of intraretinal and subretinal fluid regions in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 155(2), 277–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

C. V. Regatieri, L. Branchini, J. Carmody, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy analyzed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(3), 563–568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, M. Sylwestrzak, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. R. Wilkins, O. M. Houghton, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal cystoid fluid in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(4), 1109–1114 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

U. Eriksson, A. Alm, G. Bjärnhall, E. Granstam, and A. W. Matsson, “Macular edema and visual outcome following cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy and controls,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 249(3), 349–359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lammer, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, T. Benesch, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and M. Bolz, “Retinal thickness and volume measurements in diabetic macular edema: a comparison of four optical coherence tomography systems,” Retina 31(1), 48–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. N. Li, C. K. Chui, S. Chang, and S. H. Ong, “Integrating spatial fuzzy clustering with level set methods for automated medical image segmentation,” Comput. Biol. Med. 41(1), 1–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. Wang, I. C. Munch, P. W. Hasler, C. Prünte, and M. Larsen, “Central serous chorioretinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 86(2), 126–145 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cremers, M. Rousson, and R. Deriche, “A review of statistical approaches to level set segmentation: integrating color, texture, motion and shape,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 72(2), 195–215 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. R. Sadda, O. Tan, A. C. Walsh, J. S. Schuman, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Automated detection of clinically significant macular edema by grid scanning optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 113(7), 1187 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. C. Fernández, “Delineating fluid-filled region boundaries in optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(8), 929–945 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

L. A. Yannuzzi, M. D. Ober, J. S. Slakter, R. F. Spaide, Y. L. Fisher, R. W. Flower, and R. Rosen, “Ophthalmic fundus imaging: today and beyond,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(3), 511–524 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Frank, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 350(1), 48–58 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. Massin, G. Duguid, A. Erginay, B. Haouchine, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography for evaluating diabetic macular edema before and after vitrectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(2), 169–177 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

T. F. Chan and L. A. Vese, “Active contours without edges,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(2), 266–277 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Weiss and L. A. Bynoe, “Injection of tissue plasminogen activator into a branch retinal vein in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 108(12), 2249–2257 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, “Infrared scanning laser tomography of macular cysts,” Ophthalmology 107(2), 375–385 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

T. Otani, S. Kishi, and Y. Maruyama, “Patterns of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127(6), 688–693 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

P. U. Dugel, N. A. Rao, S. Ozler, P. E. Liggett, and R. E. Smith, “Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Intraocular Inflammation-related Cystoid Macular Edema Unresponsive to Corticosteroids. A preliminary Study,” Ophthalmology 99(10), 1535–1541 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

F. Mokhtarian and A. Mackworth, “Scale-based description and recognition of planar curves and two-dimensional shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(1), 34–43 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abràmoff, M. D.

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aiello, L. P.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allingham, M. J.

Al-Louzi, O.

Alm, A.

U. Eriksson, A. Alm, G. Bjärnhall, E. Granstam, and A. W. Matsson, “Macular edema and visual outcome following cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy and controls,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 249(3), 349–359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ansari, R.

Antonetti, D. A.

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apte, R. S.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 5658, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Beausencourt, E.

E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, “Infrared scanning laser tomography of macular cysts,” Ophthalmology 107(2), 375–385 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, R. W.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benesch, T.

J. Lammer, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, T. Benesch, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and M. Bolz, “Retinal thickness and volume measurements in diabetic macular edema: a comparison of four optical coherence tomography systems,” Retina 31(1), 48–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, B. B.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhargava, P.

Bhavsar, A. R.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bjärnhall, G.

U. Eriksson, A. Alm, G. Bjärnhall, E. Granstam, and A. W. Matsson, “Macular edema and visual outcome following cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy and controls,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 249(3), 349–359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bock, R.

Bolz, M.

J. Lammer, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, T. Benesch, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and M. Bolz, “Retinal thickness and volume measurements in diabetic macular edema: a comparison of four optical coherence tomography systems,” Retina 31(1), 48–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Branchini, L.

C. V. Regatieri, L. Branchini, J. Carmody, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy analyzed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(3), 563–568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bressler, N. M.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, D. M.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Browning, D. J.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bynoe, L. A.

J. N. Weiss and L. A. Bynoe, “Injection of tissue plasminogen activator into a branch retinal vein in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 108(12), 2249–2257 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calabresi, P. A.

Campa, C.

Y. Zheng, J. Sahni, C. Campa, A. N. Stangos, A. Raj, and S. P. Harding, “Computerized assessment of intraretinal and subretinal fluid regions in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 155(2), 277–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carass, A.

Carmody, J.

C. V. Regatieri, L. Branchini, J. Carmody, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy analyzed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(3), 563–568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chambers, R. B.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, T. F.

T. F. Chan and L. A. Vese, “Active contours without edges,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(2), 266–277 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

B. N. Li, C. K. Chui, S. Chang, and S. H. Ong, “Integrating spatial fuzzy clustering with level set methods for automated medical image segmentation,” Comput. Biol. Med. 41(1), 1–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, S. J.

Chui, C. K.

B. N. Li, C. K. Chui, S. Chang, and S. H. Ong, “Integrating spatial fuzzy clustering with level set methods for automated medical image segmentation,” Comput. Biol. Med. 41(1), 1–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coker, J. G.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cousins, S. W.

Cremers, D.

D. Cremers, M. Rousson, and R. Deriche, “A review of statistical approaches to level set segmentation: integrating color, texture, motion and shape,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 72(2), 195–215 (2007).
[Crossref]

Danis, R. P.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, M. D.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deriche, R.

D. Cremers, M. Rousson, and R. Deriche, “A review of statistical approaches to level set segmentation: integrating color, texture, motion and shape,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 72(2), 195–215 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dolejsi, M.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dugel, P. U.

P. U. Dugel, N. A. Rao, S. Ozler, P. E. Liggett, and R. E. Smith, “Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Intraocular Inflammation-related Cystoid Macular Edema Unresponsive to Corticosteroids. A preliminary Study,” Ophthalmology 99(10), 1535–1541 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duguid, G.

P. Massin, G. Duguid, A. Erginay, B. Haouchine, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography for evaluating diabetic macular edema before and after vitrectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(2), 169–177 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

C. V. Regatieri, L. Branchini, J. Carmody, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy analyzed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(3), 563–568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, “Infrared scanning laser tomography of macular cysts,” Ophthalmology 107(2), 375–385 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erginay, A.

P. Massin, G. Duguid, A. Erginay, B. Haouchine, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography for evaluating diabetic macular edema before and after vitrectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(2), 169–177 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eriksson, U.

U. Eriksson, A. Alm, G. Bjärnhall, E. Granstam, and A. W. Matsson, “Macular edema and visual outcome following cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy and controls,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 249(3), 349–359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

Fernández, D. C.

D. C. Fernández, “Delineating fluid-filled region boundaries in optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(8), 929–945 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, Y. L.

L. A. Yannuzzi, M. D. Ober, J. S. Slakter, R. F. Spaide, Y. L. Fisher, R. W. Flower, and R. Rosen, “Ophthalmic fundus imaging: today and beyond,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(3), 511–524 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flaxel, C. J.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 5658, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flower, R. W.

L. A. Yannuzzi, M. D. Ober, J. S. Slakter, R. F. Spaide, Y. L. Fisher, R. W. Flower, and R. Rosen, “Ophthalmic fundus imaging: today and beyond,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(3), 511–524 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fong, D. S.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francis, A.

Frank, R. N.

R. N. Frank, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 350(1), 48–58 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. V. Regatieri, L. Branchini, J. Carmody, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy analyzed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(3), 563–568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, S. S.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 5658, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardner, T. W.

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garvin, M. K.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaudric, A.

P. Massin, G. Duguid, A. Erginay, B. Haouchine, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography for evaluating diabetic macular edema before and after vitrectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(2), 169–177 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glassman, A. R.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, V. H.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Gottlieb, J.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Granstam, E.

U. Eriksson, A. Alm, G. Bjärnhall, E. Granstam, and A. W. Matsson, “Macular edema and visual outcome following cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy and controls,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 249(3), 349–359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenberg, P. B.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gross, J. G.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haouchine, B.

P. Massin, G. Duguid, A. Erginay, B. Haouchine, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography for evaluating diabetic macular edema before and after vitrectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(2), 169–177 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harding, S. P.

Y. Zheng, J. Sahni, C. Campa, A. N. Stangos, A. Raj, and S. P. Harding, “Computerized assessment of intraretinal and subretinal fluid regions in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 155(2), 277–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartnett, M. E.

E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, “Infrared scanning laser tomography of macular cysts,” Ophthalmology 107(2), 375–385 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasler, P. W.

M. Wang, I. C. Munch, P. W. Hasler, C. Prünte, and M. Larsen, “Central serous chorioretinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 86(2), 126–145 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Houghton, O. M.

G. R. Wilkins, O. M. Houghton, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal cystoid fluid in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(4), 1109–1114 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, R. X.

H. Min, W. Jia, X. F. Wang, Y. Zhao, R. X. Hu, Y. T. Luo, F. Xue, and J. T. Lu, “An Intensity-Texture model based level set method for image segmentation,” Pattern Recognit. 48(4), 1547–1558 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 5658, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Sadda, O. Tan, A. C. Walsh, J. S. Schuman, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Automated detection of clinically significant macular edema by grid scanning optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 113(7), 1187 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, T. S.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 5658, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jia, W.

H. Min, W. Jia, X. F. Wang, Y. Zhao, R. X. Hu, Y. T. Luo, F. Xue, and J. T. Lu, “An Intensity-Texture model based level set method for image segmentation,” Pattern Recognit. 48(4), 1547–1558 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jia, Y.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 5658, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. E.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinyoun, J. L.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kishi, S.

T. Otani, S. Kishi, and Y. Maruyama, “Patterns of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127(6), 688–693 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, R.

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kollman, C.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kraus, M. F.

Krzystolik, M. G.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lammer, J.

J. Lammer, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, T. Benesch, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and M. Bolz, “Retinal thickness and volume measurements in diabetic macular edema: a comparison of four optical coherence tomography systems,” Retina 31(1), 48–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lang, A.

Larsen, M.

M. Wang, I. C. Munch, P. W. Hasler, C. Prünte, and M. Larsen, “Central serous chorioretinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 86(2), 126–145 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauer, A. K.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 5658, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levant, A.

M. Mimouni, Y. Nahum, A. Levant, B. Levant, and D. Weinberger, “Cystoid macular edema: a correlation between macular volumetric parameters and visual acuity,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 49(2), 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levant, B.

M. Mimouni, Y. Nahum, A. Levant, B. Levant, and D. Weinberger, “Cystoid macular edema: a correlation between macular volumetric parameters and visual acuity,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 49(2), 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, B. N.

B. N. Li, C. K. Chui, S. Chang, and S. H. Ong, “Integrating spatial fuzzy clustering with level set methods for automated medical image segmentation,” Comput. Biol. Med. 41(1), 1–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

Liggett, P. E.

P. U. Dugel, N. A. Rao, S. Ozler, P. E. Liggett, and R. E. Smith, “Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Intraocular Inflammation-related Cystoid Macular Edema Unresponsive to Corticosteroids. A preliminary Study,” Ophthalmology 99(10), 1535–1541 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, J. I.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

Lu, J. T.

H. Min, W. Jia, X. F. Wang, Y. Zhao, R. X. Hu, Y. T. Luo, F. Xue, and J. T. Lu, “An Intensity-Texture model based level set method for image segmentation,” Pattern Recognit. 48(4), 1547–1558 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y. T.

H. Min, W. Jia, X. F. Wang, Y. Zhao, R. X. Hu, Y. T. Luo, F. Xue, and J. T. Lu, “An Intensity-Texture model based level set method for image segmentation,” Pattern Recognit. 48(4), 1547–1558 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mackworth, A.

F. Mokhtarian and A. Mackworth, “Scale-based description and recognition of planar curves and two-dimensional shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(1), 34–43 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maruyama, Y.

T. Otani, S. Kishi, and Y. Maruyama, “Patterns of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127(6), 688–693 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massin, P.

P. Massin, G. Duguid, A. Erginay, B. Haouchine, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography for evaluating diabetic macular edema before and after vitrectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(2), 169–177 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsson, A. W.

U. Eriksson, A. Alm, G. Bjärnhall, E. Granstam, and A. W. Matsson, “Macular edema and visual outcome following cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy and controls,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 249(3), 349–359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayer, M. A.

McClintic, S. M.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mettu, P. S.

Mimouni, M.

M. Mimouni, Y. Nahum, A. Levant, B. Levant, and D. Weinberger, “Cystoid macular edema: a correlation between macular volumetric parameters and visual acuity,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 49(2), 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, H.

H. Min, W. Jia, X. F. Wang, Y. Zhao, R. X. Hu, Y. T. Luo, F. Xue, and J. T. Lu, “An Intensity-Texture model based level set method for image segmentation,” Pattern Recognit. 48(4), 1547–1558 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miskala, P. H.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohammad, F.

Mokhtarian, F.

F. Mokhtarian and A. Mackworth, “Scale-based description and recognition of planar curves and two-dimensional shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(1), 34–43 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munch, I. C.

M. Wang, I. C. Munch, P. W. Hasler, C. Prünte, and M. Larsen, “Central serous chorioretinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 86(2), 126–145 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nahum, Y.

M. Mimouni, Y. Nahum, A. Levant, B. Levant, and D. Weinberger, “Cystoid macular edema: a correlation between macular volumetric parameters and visual acuity,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 49(2), 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, Q. D.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niemeijer, M.

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ober, M. D.

L. A. Yannuzzi, M. D. Ober, J. S. Slakter, R. F. Spaide, Y. L. Fisher, R. W. Flower, and R. Rosen, “Ophthalmic fundus imaging: today and beyond,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(3), 511–524 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

G. R. Wilkins, O. M. Houghton, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal cystoid fluid in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(4), 1109–1114 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ong, S. H.

B. N. Li, C. K. Chui, S. Chang, and S. H. Ong, “Integrating spatial fuzzy clustering with level set methods for automated medical image segmentation,” Comput. Biol. Med. 41(1), 1–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otani, T.

T. Otani, S. Kishi, and Y. Maruyama, “Patterns of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127(6), 688–693 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozler, S.

P. U. Dugel, N. A. Rao, S. Ozler, P. E. Liggett, and R. E. Smith, “Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Intraocular Inflammation-related Cystoid Macular Edema Unresponsive to Corticosteroids. A preliminary Study,” Ophthalmology 99(10), 1535–1541 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pechauer, A. D.

Pennesi, M. E.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pieramici, D. J.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Prince, J. L.

Prünte, C.

J. Lammer, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, T. Benesch, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and M. Bolz, “Retinal thickness and volume measurements in diabetic macular edema: a comparison of four optical coherence tomography systems,” Retina 31(1), 48–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, I. C. Munch, P. W. Hasler, C. Prünte, and M. Larsen, “Central serous chorioretinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 86(2), 126–145 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quellec, G.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raj, A.

Y. Zheng, J. Sahni, C. Campa, A. N. Stangos, A. Raj, and S. P. Harding, “Computerized assessment of intraretinal and subretinal fluid regions in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 155(2), 277–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, N. A.

P. U. Dugel, N. A. Rao, S. Ozler, P. E. Liggett, and R. E. Smith, “Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Intraocular Inflammation-related Cystoid Macular Edema Unresponsive to Corticosteroids. A preliminary Study,” Ophthalmology 99(10), 1535–1541 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rauser, M. E.

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regatieri, C. V.

C. V. Regatieri, L. Branchini, J. Carmody, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy analyzed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(3), 563–568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichel, E.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Remky, A.

E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, “Infrared scanning laser tomography of macular cysts,” Ophthalmology 107(2), 375–385 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, R.

L. A. Yannuzzi, M. D. Ober, J. S. Slakter, R. F. Spaide, Y. L. Fisher, R. W. Flower, and R. Rosen, “Ophthalmic fundus imaging: today and beyond,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(3), 511–524 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rousson, M.

D. Cremers, M. Rousson, and R. Deriche, “A review of statistical approaches to level set segmentation: integrating color, texture, motion and shape,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 72(2), 195–215 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sadda, S. R.

S. R. Sadda, O. Tan, A. C. Walsh, J. S. Schuman, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Automated detection of clinically significant macular edema by grid scanning optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 113(7), 1187 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahni, J.

Y. Zheng, J. Sahni, C. Campa, A. N. Stangos, A. Raj, and S. P. Harding, “Computerized assessment of intraretinal and subretinal fluid regions in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 155(2), 277–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saidha, S.

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

J. Lammer, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, T. Benesch, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and M. Bolz, “Retinal thickness and volume measurements in diabetic macular edema: a comparison of four optical coherence tomography systems,” Retina 31(1), 48–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholda, C.

J. Lammer, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, T. Benesch, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and M. Bolz, “Retinal thickness and volume measurements in diabetic macular edema: a comparison of four optical coherence tomography systems,” Retina 31(1), 48–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

S. R. Sadda, O. Tan, A. C. Walsh, J. S. Schuman, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Automated detection of clinically significant macular edema by grid scanning optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 113(7), 1187 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shahidi, M.

Slakter, J. S.

L. A. Yannuzzi, M. D. Ober, J. S. Slakter, R. F. Spaide, Y. L. Fisher, R. W. Flower, and R. Rosen, “Ophthalmic fundus imaging: today and beyond,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(3), 511–524 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, R. E.

P. U. Dugel, N. A. Rao, S. Ozler, P. E. Liggett, and R. E. Smith, “Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Intraocular Inflammation-related Cystoid Macular Edema Unresponsive to Corticosteroids. A preliminary Study,” Ophthalmology 99(10), 1535–1541 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonka, M.

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaide, R. F.

L. A. Yannuzzi, M. D. Ober, J. S. Slakter, R. F. Spaide, Y. L. Fisher, R. W. Flower, and R. Rosen, “Ophthalmic fundus imaging: today and beyond,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(3), 511–524 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stangos, A. N.

Y. Zheng, J. Sahni, C. Campa, A. N. Stangos, A. Raj, and S. P. Harding, “Computerized assessment of intraretinal and subretinal fluid regions in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 155(2), 277–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strauber, S. F.

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subhash, H.

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swingle, E. K.

Sylwestrzak, M.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tan, O.

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Sadda, O. Tan, A. C. Walsh, J. S. Schuman, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Automated detection of clinically significant macular edema by grid scanning optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 113(7), 1187 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokayer, J.

Trempe, C. L.

E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, “Infrared scanning laser tomography of macular cysts,” Ophthalmology 107(2), 375–385 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varma, R.

S. R. Sadda, O. Tan, A. C. Walsh, J. S. Schuman, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Automated detection of clinically significant macular edema by grid scanning optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 113(7), 1187 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vese, L. A.

T. F. Chan and L. A. Vese, “Active contours without edges,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(2), 266–277 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, A. C.

S. R. Sadda, O. Tan, A. C. Walsh, J. S. Schuman, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Automated detection of clinically significant macular edema by grid scanning optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 113(7), 1187 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wanek, J.

Wang, J.

Wang, M.

M. Wang, I. C. Munch, P. W. Hasler, C. Prünte, and M. Larsen, “Central serous chorioretinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 86(2), 126–145 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. F.

H. Min, W. Jia, X. F. Wang, Y. Zhao, R. X. Hu, Y. T. Luo, F. Xue, and J. T. Lu, “An Intensity-Texture model based level set method for image segmentation,” Pattern Recognit. 48(4), 1547–1558 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Weinberger, D.

M. Mimouni, Y. Nahum, A. Levant, B. Levant, and D. Weinberger, “Cystoid macular edema: a correlation between macular volumetric parameters and visual acuity,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 49(2), 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, J. N.

J. N. Weiss and L. A. Bynoe, “Injection of tissue plasminogen activator into a branch retinal vein in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 108(12), 2249–2257 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkins, G. R.

G. R. Wilkins, O. M. Houghton, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal cystoid fluid in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(4), 1109–1114 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkins, J. R.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 5658, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Xue, F.

H. Min, W. Jia, X. F. Wang, Y. Zhao, R. X. Hu, Y. T. Luo, F. Xue, and J. T. Lu, “An Intensity-Texture model based level set method for image segmentation,” Pattern Recognit. 48(4), 1547–1558 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yannuzzi, L. A.

L. A. Yannuzzi, M. D. Ober, J. S. Slakter, R. F. Spaide, Y. L. Fisher, R. W. Flower, and R. Rosen, “Ophthalmic fundus imaging: today and beyond,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(3), 511–524 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ying, H. S.

Zhang, L.

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

Zhao, Y.

H. Min, W. Jia, X. F. Wang, Y. Zhao, R. X. Hu, Y. T. Luo, F. Xue, and J. T. Lu, “An Intensity-Texture model based level set method for image segmentation,” Pattern Recognit. 48(4), 1547–1558 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Zheng, J. Sahni, C. Campa, A. N. Stangos, A. Raj, and S. P. Harding, “Computerized assessment of intraretinal and subretinal fluid regions in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 155(2), 277–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Wang, I. C. Munch, P. W. Hasler, C. Prünte, and M. Larsen, “Central serous chorioretinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 86(2), 126–145 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (4)

P. Massin, G. Duguid, A. Erginay, B. Haouchine, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography for evaluating diabetic macular edema before and after vitrectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(2), 169–177 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Otani, S. Kishi, and Y. Maruyama, “Patterns of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127(6), 688–693 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, J. Sahni, C. Campa, A. N. Stangos, A. Raj, and S. P. Harding, “Computerized assessment of intraretinal and subretinal fluid regions in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 155(2), 277–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Yannuzzi, M. D. Ober, J. S. Slakter, R. F. Spaide, Y. L. Fisher, R. W. Flower, and R. Rosen, “Ophthalmic fundus imaging: today and beyond,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(3), 511–524 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (6)

A. Lang, A. Carass, E. K. Swingle, O. Al-Louzi, P. Bhargava, S. Saidha, H. S. Ying, P. A. Calabresi, and J. L. Prince, “Automatic segmentation of microcystic macular edema in OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(1), 155–169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Mohammad, R. Ansari, J. Wanek, A. Francis, and M. Shahidi, “Feasibility of level-set analysis of enface OCT retinal images in diabetic retinopathy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1904–1918 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, M. J. Allingham, P. S. Mettu, S. W. Cousins, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Kernel regression based segmentation of optical coherence tomography images with diabetic macular edema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1172–1194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Can. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Mimouni, Y. Nahum, A. Levant, B. Levant, and D. Weinberger, “Cystoid macular edema: a correlation between macular volumetric parameters and visual acuity,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 49(2), 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comput. Biol. Med. (1)

B. N. Li, C. K. Chui, S. Chang, and S. H. Ong, “Integrating spatial fuzzy clustering with level set methods for automated medical image segmentation,” Comput. Biol. Med. 41(1), 1–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

U. Eriksson, A. Alm, G. Bjärnhall, E. Granstam, and A. W. Matsson, “Macular edema and visual outcome following cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy and controls,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 249(3), 349–359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

G. R. Wilkins, O. M. Houghton, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal cystoid fluid in optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(4), 1109–1114 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

T. F. Chan and L. A. Vese, “Active contours without edges,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(2), 266–277 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (3)

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Fernández, “Delineating fluid-filled region boundaries in optical coherence tomography images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(8), 929–945 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

F. Mokhtarian and A. Mackworth, “Scale-based description and recognition of planar curves and two-dimensional shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(1), 34–43 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (1)

D. Cremers, M. Rousson, and R. Deriche, “A review of statistical approaches to level set segmentation: integrating color, texture, motion and shape,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 72(2), 195–215 (2007).
[Crossref]

JAMA Ophthalmol. (1)

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 5658, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (2)

R. N. Frank, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 350(1), 48–58 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (7)

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105(2), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Sadda, O. Tan, A. C. Walsh, J. S. Schuman, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Automated detection of clinically significant macular edema by grid scanning optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 113(7), 1187 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Browning, A. R. Glassman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, D. M. Brown, D. S. Fong, N. M. Bressler, R. P. Danis, J. L. Kinyoun, Q. D. Nguyen, A. R. Bhavsar, J. Gottlieb, D. J. Pieramici, M. E. Rauser, R. S. Apte, J. I. Lim, P. H. Miskala, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(3), 525–536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, A. E. Elsner, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, “Infrared scanning laser tomography of macular cysts,” Ophthalmology 107(2), 375–385 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Krzystolik, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck, B. B. Berger, N. M. Bressler, D. J. Browning, R. B. Chambers, R. P. Danis, M. D. Davis, A. R. Glassman, V. H. Gonzalez, P. B. Greenberg, J. G. Gross, J. E. Kim, C. Kollman, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Reproducibility of macular thickness and volume using Zeiss optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(8), 1520–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. U. Dugel, N. A. Rao, S. Ozler, P. E. Liggett, and R. E. Smith, “Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Intraocular Inflammation-related Cystoid Macular Edema Unresponsive to Corticosteroids. A preliminary Study,” Ophthalmology 99(10), 1535–1541 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Weiss and L. A. Bynoe, “Injection of tissue plasminogen activator into a branch retinal vein in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 108(12), 2249–2257 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pattern Recognit. (1)

H. Min, W. Jia, X. F. Wang, Y. Zhao, R. X. Hu, Y. T. Luo, F. Xue, and J. T. Lu, “An Intensity-Texture model based level set method for image segmentation,” Pattern Recognit. 48(4), 1547–1558 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Retina (3)

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lammer, C. Scholda, C. Prünte, T. Benesch, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and M. Bolz, “Retinal thickness and volume measurements in diabetic macular edema: a comparison of four optical coherence tomography systems,” Retina 31(1), 48–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. V. Regatieri, L. Branchini, J. Carmody, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy analyzed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(3), 563–568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. Li, C. Xu, C. Gui, and M. D. Fox, “Level set evolution without re-initialization: a new variational formulation,” in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2005. CVPR 2005. IEEE Computer Society Conference on (IEEE, 2005), pp.430–436.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Overview of the automated volumetric retinal fluid detection algorithm. ILM: inner limiting membrane, BM: Bruch’s membrane, IS/OS: junction of inner and outer photoreceptor segments.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (A) Original OCT structural volume. (B) OCT structural volume flattened according to the inner limiting membrane (ILM) boundary. B-scans (x and y-axes) and C-scans (z-axis) were indicated with red, green and blue, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (A) An example B-frame showing inner limiting membrane (ILM), Bruch’s membrane (BM) and junction of inner and outer photoreceptor segments (IS/OS) boundaries used in this study can be automatically segmented. (B) An example B-frame with subretinal fluid showing IS/OS needs be manually corrected in the position pointed by a white arrow.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (A) OCT structural B-scan (y-axis) image of a participant with severe macular edema. (B) Lowest intensity cluster generated by applying fuzzy C-means (FCM) on image (A). (C) Retinal fluid delineated by applying fuzzy level-set method on image (A).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Illustration of improving retinal fluid segmentation accuracy by voting of cross-sectional segmentations. (A1) (B1) and (C1) are the segmentation results obtained by applying the fuzzy level-set method on C-scan and two B-scans, respectively. (A2) (B2) and (C2) are the segmentation results represented on a C-scan extracted from (A1) (B1) and (C1). (A3) (B3) and (C3) show a zoomed in perspective of the yellow square region in (A2) (B2) and (C2). (D1) is the segmentation result after voting. (D2) shows a zoomed in perspective of the yellow square region in D1. It can be seen that D2 has much less error than (A3) (B3) and (C3).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Structural OCT B-scan images overlaid with SSADA (blue) and retinal fluid segmentation results (outlined by red). (A) Before post-processing results where segmentation artifacts due to retinal thickening (white arrow, green arrow) and vascular shadow (purple arrow) can be seen in the square regions. (B1) and (B2) showed the zoomed in perspective of the yellow and blue square regions in A. (C) After post-processing image where artifacts contained in the square regions have been removed.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Segmentation results compared to ground truth. (A1) and (B1) are original images on C-scan and B-scan. (A2) and (B2) are segmentation results of our proposed method. (A3) and (B3) are ground truth delineated by human expert. Yellow arrows identify the false positive segmentation results corrected by an expert human grader.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Segmentation results compared ground truth in a case with both IRF and SRF. (A1) and (B1) are original images on C-scan and B-scan. (A2) and (B2) are segmentation results of our proposed method. (A3) and (B3) are ground truth delineated by human expert. Yellow arrows identify the false negative segmentation results corrected by an expert human grader. Green arrows identify the rejected regions by both automated algorithm and manual correction.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Quantification of volumetric spaces of retinal fluid. (A) Thickness maps of intraretinal fluid (IRF). (B) Thickness maps of subretinal fluid (SRF). (C) En face retinal OCT angiogram. (D) 3D rending of IRF volume. (E) 3D rending of SRF volume. (F) OCT angiogram overlaid with retinal fluid thickness map.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The retinal fluid volumes detected by our proposed algorithm and ground truth

Tables Icon

Table 2 Agreement between automated segmentation and ground truth

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ t =μ[ Δϕdiv( ϕ | ϕ | ) ]+λδ(ϕ)div( g ϕ | ϕ | )+g(12 R b )δ(ϕ)
g=1/[ 1+ | M(I) | 2 ]
E= i=1 K j=1 N p i,j m I(j)C(i) 2 , with i K p i,j =1,j=1,2,,N
{ p i,j = ( k=1 K ( I(j)C(i) I(j)C(k) ) 2/(m1) ) 1 C(i)= j=1 N p i,j m I(j) j=1 N p i,j m
τ( l, σ 1 )= X ( l, σ 1 ) Y ( l, σ 1 ) Y ( l, σ 1 ) X ( l, σ 1 ) { [ X ( l, σ 1 ) ] 2 + [ Y ( l, σ 1 ) ] 2 } 3/2
R(l, σ 2 )=( [ x( l ) X o ] 2 + [ y( l ) Y o ] 2 )g( l, σ 2 )
J= | SG | | SG |

Metrics