Abstract

This paper describes a complex correlation mapping algorithm for optical coherence angiography (cmOCA). The proposed algorithm avoids the signal-to-noise ratio dependence and exhibits low noise in vasculature imaging. The complex correlation coefficient of the signals, rather than that of the measured data are estimated, and two-step averaging is introduced. Algorithms of motion artifact removal based on non perfusing tissue detection using correlation are developed. The algorithms are implemented with Jones-matrix OCT. Simultaneous imaging of pigmented tissue and vasculature is also achieved using degree of polarization uniformity imaging with cmOCA. An application of cmOCA to in vivo posterior human eyes is presented to demonstrate that high-contrast images of patients’ eyes can be obtained.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (3)

M. Miura, D. Muramatsu, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Noninvasive vascular imaging of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 3179–3186 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Miura, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, D. Muramatsu, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Three-dimensional vascular imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 528–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kurokawa, S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, and Y. Yasuno, “Two-dimensional micro-displacement measurement for laser coagulation using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 170–190 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (10)

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, I. Jahan, and Y. Yasuno, “Noise statistics of phase-resolved optical coherence tomography imaging: single-and dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 22, 4830–4848 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, M. de Groot, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive OCT of the human retina with correction of system polarization distortions,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2736–2758 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2931–2949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Nam, I. Chico-Calero, and B. J. Vakoc, “Complex differential variance algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3822–3832 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Degree of polarization uniformity with high noise immunity using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6783–6786 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Hong, M. Miura, M. J. Ju, S. Makita, T. Iwasaki, and Y. Yasuno, “Simultaneous investigation of vascular and retinal pigment epithelial pathologies of exudative macular diseases by multifunctional optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 5016–5031 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121, 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121, 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147, 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, R. Reif, S. Yousefi, and R. K. Wang, “Improved microcirculation imaging of human skin in vivo using optical microangiography with a correlation mapping mask,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 036010 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (9)

Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express 20, 2740–2760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20, 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.-H. Dhalla, D. Nankivil, and J. A. Izatt, “Complex conjugate resolved heterodyne swept source optical coherence tomography using coherence revival,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 633 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source / Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20, 10229–10241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lim, Y.-J. Hong, L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Passive component based multifunctional Jones matrix swept source optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1958–1960 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kurokawa, K. Sasaki, S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional retinal and choroidal capillary imaging by power Doppler optical coherence angiography with adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 20, 22796–22812 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2669–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31, 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19, 1271–1283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 3657–3666 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1184–1193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express 19, 11429–11440 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. D. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-μ m for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express 19, 20886–20903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

2009 (3)

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17, 4166–4176 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Garvin, M. Abramoff, X. Wu, S. Russell, T. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

2007 (2)

J. Fingler, D. Schwartz, C. Yang, and S. E. Fraser, “Mobility and transverse flow visualization using phase variance contrast with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15, 12636–12653 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical micro-angiography maps directional blood perfusion deep within microcirculation tissue beds in vivo,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52, N531–N537 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

B. Vakoc, S. Yun, J. d. Boer, G. Tearney, and B. Bouma, , “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13, 5483–5493 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Deppler variance tomography,” Opt. Commun. 242, 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350–358 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. Touzi, A. Lopes, J. Bruniquel, and P. Vachon, “Coherence estimation for SAR imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 135–149 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

R. J. A. Tough, D. Blacknell, and S. Quegan, “A statistical description of polarimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 449, 567–589 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abramoff, M.

M. Abramoff, M. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal imaging and image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Garvin, M. Abramoff, X. Wu, S. Russell, T. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlers, C.

Ahsen, O. O.

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147, 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2931–2949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, L.

Andre, R.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armour, R. L.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121, 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atochin, D. N.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31, 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayata, C.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31, 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachman, M.

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Deppler variance tomography,” Opt. Commun. 242, 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S. T.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121, 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, S.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31, 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 35, 43–45 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartlett, L. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Blacknell, D.

R. J. A. Tough, D. Blacknell, and S. Quegan, “A statistical description of polarimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 449, 567–589 (1995).
[Crossref]

Blatter, C.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Boer, J. d.

Boer, J. F. d.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. d. Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 3490–3497 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Bruniquel, J.

R. Touzi, A. Lopes, J. Bruniquel, and P. Vachon, “Coherence estimation for SAR imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 135–149 (1999).
[Crossref]

Burns, T.

M. Garvin, M. Abramoff, X. Wu, S. Russell, T. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147, 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31, 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 35, 43–45 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chen, D.

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28, 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z.

Chico-Calero, I.

Choi, B.

Choi, W.

Choi, W. J.

W. J. Choi, R. Reif, S. Yousefi, and R. K. Wang, “Improved microcirculation imaging of human skin in vivo using optical microangiography with a correlation mapping mask,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 036010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chou, L.

Cobbold, R. S.

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Davis, A. M.

de Boer, J. F.

de Groot, M.

Dhalla, A.-H.

Duan, L.

Duker, J. S.

Edmunds, B.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121, 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enfield, J.

Figueiredo, M.

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147, 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fingler, J.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Fingler, D. Schwartz, C. Yang, and S. E. Fraser, “Mobility and transverse flow visualization using phase variance contrast with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15, 12636–12653 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flaxel, C. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121, 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Fingler, D. Schwartz, C. Yang, and S. E. Fraser, “Mobility and transverse flow visualization using phase variance contrast with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15, 12636–12653 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147, 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121, 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121, 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2931–2949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source / Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20, 10229–10241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20, 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadžić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 2477–2494 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garvin, M.

M. Abramoff, M. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal imaging and image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Garvin, M. Abramoff, X. Wu, S. Russell, T. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gattey, D. M.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121, 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geissbuehler, M.

Geitzenauer, W.

Giacomelli, M. G.

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147, 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Gordon, M. L.

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Goto, H.

M. Miura, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, D. Muramatsu, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Three-dimensional vascular imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 528–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Miura, D. Muramatsu, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Noninvasive vascular imaging of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 3179–3186 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Grajciar, B.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Deppler variance tomography,” Opt. Commun. 242, 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.

Hong, Y.-J.

M. Miura, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, D. Muramatsu, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Three-dimensional vascular imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 528–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Miura, D. Muramatsu, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Noninvasive vascular imaging of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 3179–3186 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kurokawa, S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, and Y. Yasuno, “Two-dimensional micro-displacement measurement for laser coagulation using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 170–190 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Degree of polarization uniformity with high noise immunity using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6783–6786 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Hong, M. Miura, M. J. Ju, S. Makita, T. Iwasaki, and Y. Yasuno, “Simultaneous investigation of vascular and retinal pigment epithelial pathologies of exudative macular diseases by multifunctional optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 5016–5031 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Ju, Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, Y. Lim, K. Kurokawa, L. Duan, M. Miura, S. Tang, and Y. Yasuno, “Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 19412–19436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kurokawa, K. Sasaki, S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional retinal and choroidal capillary imaging by power Doppler optical coherence angiography with adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 20, 22796–22812 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lim, Y.-J. Hong, L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Passive component based multifunctional Jones matrix swept source optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1958–1960 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express 20, 2740–2760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121, 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121, 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20, 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source / Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20, 10229–10241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, P. L.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31, 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147, 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Iwasaki, T.

M. Miura, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, D. Muramatsu, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Three-dimensional vascular imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 528–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Miura, D. Muramatsu, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Noninvasive vascular imaging of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 3179–3186 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Hong, M. Miura, M. J. Ju, S. Makita, T. Iwasaki, and Y. Yasuno, “Simultaneous investigation of vascular and retinal pigment epithelial pathologies of exudative macular diseases by multifunctional optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 5016–5031 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jahan, I.

Jaillon, F.

Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayaraman, V.

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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121, 1435–1444 (2014).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20, 4710–4725 (2012).
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S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Degree of polarization uniformity with high noise immunity using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6783–6786 (2014).
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S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19, 1271–1283 (2011).
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M. Miura, D. Muramatsu, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Noninvasive vascular imaging of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 3179–3186 (2015).
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R. Touzi, A. Lopes, J. Bruniquel, and P. Vachon, “Coherence estimation for SAR imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 135–149 (1999).
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Tromberg, B. J.

Tsai, T.-H.

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147, 1219–1221 (2014).
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Tyrrell, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
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Vachon, P.

R. Touzi, A. Lopes, J. Bruniquel, and P. Vachon, “Coherence estimation for SAR imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 135–149 (1999).
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Vakoc, B.

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A. S. Nam, I. Chico-Calero, and B. J. Vakoc, “Complex differential variance algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3822–3832 (2014).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
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A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1530–1532 (2008).
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V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
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Wang, L.

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Deppler variance tomography,” Opt. Commun. 242, 345–350 (2005).
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Wang, L. V.

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350–358 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

W. J. Choi, R. Reif, S. Yousefi, and R. K. Wang, “Improved microcirculation imaging of human skin in vivo using optical microangiography with a correlation mapping mask,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 036010 (2014).
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L. An, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography for in vivo imaging of microcirculations within human skin tissue beds,” Opt. Express 18, 8220–8228 (2010).
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L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16, 11438–11452 (2008).
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R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional optical micro-angiography maps directional blood perfusion deep within microcirculation tissue beds in vivo,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52, N531–N537 (2007).
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Wang, X.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121, 1322–1332 (2014).
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Wang, Y.

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20, 4710–4725 (2012).
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L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Deppler variance tomography,” Opt. Commun. 242, 345–350 (2005).
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Wang, Z.

Wei, E.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121, 1322–1332 (2014).
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Werner, J. S.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 85–92 (2012).
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White, B. R.

Wieser, W.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070505 (2012).
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Wilson, B. C.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1530–1532 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wilson, D. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121, 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

Wu, X.

M. Garvin, M. Abramoff, X. Wu, S. Russell, T. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28, 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C.

Yang, V. X.

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, V. X. D.

Yaseen, M. A.

Yasuno, Y.

M. Miura, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, D. Muramatsu, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Three-dimensional vascular imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 528–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Miura, D. Muramatsu, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Noninvasive vascular imaging of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 3179–3186 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kurokawa, S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, and Y. Yasuno, “Two-dimensional micro-displacement measurement for laser coagulation using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 170–190 (2015).
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S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Degree of polarization uniformity with high noise immunity using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6783–6786 (2014).
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S. Makita, F. Jaillon, I. Jahan, and Y. Yasuno, “Noise statistics of phase-resolved optical coherence tomography imaging: single-and dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 22, 4830–4848 (2014).
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Y.-J. Hong, M. Miura, M. J. Ju, S. Makita, T. Iwasaki, and Y. Yasuno, “Simultaneous investigation of vascular and retinal pigment epithelial pathologies of exudative macular diseases by multifunctional optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 5016–5031 (2014).
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M. J. Ju, Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, Y. Lim, K. Kurokawa, L. Duan, M. Miura, S. Tang, and Y. Yasuno, “Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 19412–19436 (2013).
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Y. Lim, Y.-J. Hong, L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Passive component based multifunctional Jones matrix swept source optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1958–1960 (2012).
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K. Kurokawa, K. Sasaki, S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional retinal and choroidal capillary imaging by power Doppler optical coherence angiography with adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 20, 22796–22812 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express 20, 2740–2760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19, 1271–1283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, Y. Lim, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography by simultaneous transversal and spectral modulation,” Opt. Express 18, 13964–13980 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express 16, 5892–5906 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14, 7821–7840 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method,” Opt. Express 14, 6502–6515 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yatagai, T.

Yousefi, S.

W. J. Choi, R. Reif, S. Yousefi, and R. K. Wang, “Improved microcirculation imaging of human skin in vivo using optical microangiography with a correlation mapping mask,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 036010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

Yun, S.

Zawadzki, R. J.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Deppler variance tomography,” Opt. Commun. 242, 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121, 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Miura, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, D. Muramatsu, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Three-dimensional vascular imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159, 528–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (8)

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1184–1193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.-H. Dhalla, D. Nankivil, and J. A. Izatt, “Complex conjugate resolved heterodyne swept source optical coherence tomography using coherence revival,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 633 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2669–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, M. de Groot, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive OCT of the human retina with correction of system polarization distortions,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2736–2758 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2931–2949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Nam, I. Chico-Calero, and B. J. Vakoc, “Complex differential variance algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3822–3832 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kurokawa, S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, and Y. Yasuno, “Two-dimensional micro-displacement measurement for laser coagulation using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 170–190 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147, 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. Abramoff, M. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal imaging and image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

R. Touzi, A. Lopes, J. Bruniquel, and P. Vachon, “Coherence estimation for SAR imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 135–149 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

M. Garvin, M. Abramoff, X. Wu, S. Russell, T. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28, 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

Y.-J. Hong, M. Miura, M. J. Ju, S. Makita, T. Iwasaki, and Y. Yasuno, “Simultaneous investigation of vascular and retinal pigment epithelial pathologies of exudative macular diseases by multifunctional optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 5016–5031 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Miura, D. Muramatsu, Y.-J. Hong, Y. Yasuno, T. Iwasaki, and H. Goto, “Noninvasive vascular imaging of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 3179–3186 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350–358 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, R. Reif, S. Yousefi, and R. K. Wang, “Improved microcirculation imaging of human skin in vivo using optical microangiography with a correlation mapping mask,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 036010 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31, 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121, 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121, 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Deppler variance tomography,” Opt. Commun. 242, 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (24)

B. Vakoc, S. Yun, J. d. Boer, G. Tearney, and B. Bouma, , “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13, 5483–5493 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method,” Opt. Express 14, 6502–6515 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14, 7821–7840 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, D. Schwartz, C. Yang, and S. E. Fraser, “Mobility and transverse flow visualization using phase variance contrast with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15, 12636–12653 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express 16, 5892–5906 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16, 11438–11452 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express 16, 12350–12361 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16, 16410–16422 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17, 4166–4176 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadžić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 2477–2494 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. An, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography for in vivo imaging of microcirculations within human skin tissue beds,” Opt. Express 18, 8220–8228 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, Y. Lim, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography by simultaneous transversal and spectral modulation,” Opt. Express 18, 13964–13980 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19, 1271–1283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 3657–3666 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. d. Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 3490–3497 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source / Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20, 10229–10241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express 19, 11429–11440 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. D. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-μ m for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express 19, 20886–20903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source Doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express 20, 2740–2760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20, 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Geissbuehler and T. Lasser, “How to display data by color schemes compatible with red-green color perception deficiencies,” Opt. Express 21, 9862–9874 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic block diagrams of cmOCA processing. (a) Overall processing. (b) Covariance matrix estimate with bulk-phase-offset correction.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of applied scanning protocol.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Color change trajectory in L*a*b* color space according to cumulative polarization variance cPV.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Cross sections of the human retina. (a) Coherence composite OCT intensity, (b) SNR-dependent cmOCA, (c) SNR-independent cmOCA. The scale bar indicates 200 μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Complex correlation mapping image of the human retina. cmOCA (b, d) with multiple polarization channels, as described in Section 4.2, exhibits lower spurious noise than (a, c) single-channel estimation with a coherent composite signal. The cross sections (a, b) and en-face slices (c, d) are taken from the locations indicated by the black arrows. Both cmOCAs used the same kernel size.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 cmOCA cross sections without (a, b) and with (c, d) bulk-motion artifact removal. Bulk-phase-offset correction has been applied using the complex-mean method (a, c) and correlation-based method (b, d). The corresponding en-face projection images are shown in (e)–(h).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 cmOCA images with low-phase-stability SS-OCT system. The images were obtained using (a, d) the multichannel cmOCA algorithm (Section 4.2), (b, e) high phase-noise-immunity mode [Eq. (44)], and (c, f) high phase-noise-immunity mode with bulk-motion-artifact removal [Eq. (45)]. Cross sections (a, b, c) at the location indicated by the black arrow and en-face projections (d, e, f) are shown.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 cmOCAs at the human fovea, (a) cross-sectional cmOCA image with segmented results, en-face projection images at (b) NFL + GCL, (c) IPL + INL, (d) OPL + ONL. The scanning area is 3 × 3 mm2. The scale bar indicates 200 μm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 cmOCA images of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. En-face (a) OCT, (b) composition of cmOCA and mDOPU projection images. The scanning area is 6 × 6 mm2. The corresponding area is indicated by the yellow rectangle in fluorescein angiography (c). The cross-sectional (d) OCT + cmOCA and (e) mDOPU images at the center of the scan [yellow line in (b)] are shown. The scale bar indicates 500 μm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The numerical simulation results of correlation coefficient estimates. (a, b, c) Mean and (d, e, f) standard deviation of each correlation estimator, i.e., data correlation (×), signal correlation with previous method using coherent composite (▲), and the new method (●) are plotted with several SNR. The set correlation coefficients are (a, d) 0.99, (b, e) 0.9, and (c, f) 0.8.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Comparison of statistical properties at no signal region. Histograms of correlation estimates (a) without the sign ε, (b) without the sign ε and thresholding at 0 instead of absolute operation, and (c) with the sign ε Eq. (16) are shown. The numerical simulation of correlation estimates was applied at SNR=0.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Variance of correlation coefficient estimation σ r G.

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Table 2 Correlation coefficient ρG for each tissue type and SNR.

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Table 3 Assignment of averaging and variables for each imaging mode.

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Table 4 Assignment of averaging and variables of phase-noise-immune mode.

Equations (45)

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Σ G ( Δ r ; r ) = [ E [ | G ( r ) | 2 ] E [ G ( r ) G * ( r + Δ r ) ] E [ G ( r + Δ r ) G * ( r ) ] E [ | G ( r + Δ r ) | 2 ] ] ,
ρ G ( Δ r ; r ) e i θ G ( Δ r ; r ) = E [ G ( r ) G * ( r + Δ r ) ] E [ | G ( r ) | 2 ] E [ | G ( r + Δ r ) | 2 ]
S G ( Δ r ; r ) g ( Δ r ; r ) g ( Δ r ; r ) w 1 = [ | g ( r ) | 2 g ( r ) g * ( r + Δ r ) g * ( r ) g ( r + Δ r ) | g ( r + Δ r ) | 2 ] w 1 ,
g ( Δ r ; r ) = [ g ( r ) g ( r + Δ r ) ] ,
r G ( Δ r ; r ) ρ ^ G ( Δ r ; r ) | s G 12 | s G 11 s G 22 ,
G ( r ) = S ( r ) + N .
Σ G ( Δ r ; r ) = [ E [ | S ( r ) | 2 ] + E [ | N | 2 ] E [ S * ( r ) S ( r + Δ r ) ] E [ S * ( r + Δ r ) S ( r ) ] E [ | S ( r + Δ r ) | 2 ] + E [ | N | 2 ] . ]
ρ G ( Δ r ; r ) = ρ SNR ( Δ r ; r ) ρ S ( Δ r ; r ) ,
ρ S ( Δ r ; r ) = E [ S * ( r ) S ( r + Δ r ) ] E [ | S ( r ) | 2 ] E [ | S ( r + Δ r ) | 2 ]
ρ SNR ( Δ r ; r ) = [ 1 + SNR ( r ) 1 1 + SNR ( r + Δ r ) 1 ] 1 .
b r G = E [ r G ] ρ S ,
σ r G = E [ r G 2 ] E [ r G ] 2 .
r S ( Δ r ; r ) | s G 12 | | [ s G 11 q ^ N ] [ s G 22 q ^ N ] | ,
q ^ N | g n ( t ) g n ( t ) t | 2 t ,
r ¯ G ( Δ r ; r ) | s G 12 | w 2 s G 11 s G 22 w 2 .
r ¯ S ( Δ r ; r ) | s G 12 | w 2 ε | [ s G 11 q ^ N ] [ s G 22 q ^ N ] | w 2 ,
ε = sgn ( s G 11 q ^ N ) + sgn ( s G 22 q ^ N ) 2 .
r ¯ S ( τ ; x , z ) | g ( r ) g * ( r + ( 0 , 0 , τ ) ) w 1 | w 2 ε | [ | g ( r ) | 2 w 1 q ^ N ] [ | g ( r + ( 0 , 0 , τ ) ) | 2 w 1 q ^ N ] | w 2 .
S G ( τ ; r ) g ( τ ; r ) g ( τ ; r ) w 1 .
r ¯ G ( τ ; r ) | s G 12 | w 2 s G 11 s G 22 w 2 .
Δ ϕ m ( τ ; x , t ) arg { s G 12 ( τ ; r | z = z max ( τ ; x , t ) ) w 3 } .
S G ( τ ; x , z ) [ s G 11 s G 12 e i Δ ϕ m ( τ ; x , t ) { s G 12 e i Δ ϕ m ( τ ; x , t ) } * s G 22 ] w 1 .
r ¯ S ( τ ; x , z ) | g ( r ) g * ( r + ( 0 , 0 , τ ) ) w 1 e i Δ ϕ m ( τ ; x , τ ) w 1 | w 2 ε | [ | g ( r ) | 2 w 1 w 1 q ^ N ] [ | g ( r + ( 0 , 0 , τ ) ) | 2 w 1 w 1 q ^ N ] | w 2 .
S G ( τ ; r ) g ( τ ; r ) g ( τ ; r ) w 1 .
ρ S ( τ ; r ) ρ f ( τ ; r ) ρ m ( τ ; x , t ) ,
r ¯ S ( τ ; x , z ) r ˜ f ( τ ; x , z ) r m ( τ ; x ) ,
r ¯ G ( τ ; x , z ) | s G 12 | w 2 s G 11 s G 22 w 2 .
r ^ m ( τ ; x ) r ¯ S ( τ ; x , arg max Z r ¯ G ( τ ; x , z ) ) .
r ¯ S f ( τ ; x , z ) r ¯ S ( τ ; x , z ) r ^ m ( τ ; x ) .
S G M ( τ ; x , z , f , p ) 1 D d D g ( τ ; x , z + d , f , p ) g ( τ ; x , z + d , f , p )
r ¯ G M ( τ ; x , z , f ) p P 1 q ^ N ( p ) | s G 12 M | p P 1 q ^ N ( p ) s G 11 M s G 22 M ,
Δ ϕ m M ( τ ; x , f ) arg { Med x [ 1 P K p P k = 1 K s G 12 M ( τ ; x , z k max ( τ ; x , f ) , f , p ) ] } ,
r ¯ S M ( τ ; x , z ) p 1 q ^ N ( p ) | l , d , f L , D , F 1 g ( x + l , z + d , f , p ) g * ( x + l , z + d , f + 1 , p ) e i Δ ϕ m M ( τ ; x + l , f ) | p ε ( x , z , p ) q ^ N ( p ) { | [ l , d , f L , D , F 1 | g ( x + l , z + d , f , p ) | 2 L D ( F 1 ) q ^ N ( p ) ] × [ l , d , f L , D , F 1 | g ( x + l , z + d , f + 1 , p ) | 2 L D ( F 1 ) q ^ N ( p ) ] | } 1 2 ,
r ¯ S f M ( τ ; x , z ) r ¯ S M ( τ ; x , z ) r ^ m M ( τ ; x ) .
r S C ( τ ; x , z ) | l , d , f L , D , F 1 g C ( x + 1 , z + d , f ) g C * ( x + 1 , z + d , f + 1 ) e i Δ ϕ m C ( τ ; x + 1 , f ) | ε ( x , z ) { | [ l , d , f L , D , F 1 | g C ( x + 1 , z + d , f ) | 2 L D ( F 1 ) P 2 p P q ^ N ( p ) ] × [ l , d , f L , D , F 1 | g C ( x + 1 , z + d , f + 1 ) | 2 L D ( F 1 ) P 2 p P q ^ N ( p ) ] | } 1 2 ,
r S f C ( τ ; x , z ) r S C ( τ ; x , z ) r ^ m C ( τ ; x ) .
M [ x ] = { 1 , if x 1 < 1. x , otherwise .
E ( x ) = n = 0 N j c j ( x , z n ) m s ( j ) Δ z [ e i = 0 n j c j ( x , z i ) m a ( j ) Δ z L 0 ] ,
E ( x ) = n = 0 N { 1 M [ r ¯ S f ( τ ; x , z n ) ] } T [ W [ e c P V n ( x ) m Δ z L 0 ] ] ,
m = [ 1.167 0 0 83.067 0 0.236 0 27.944 0 0 0.283 1.932 0 0 0 0 ] [ μ m 1 ] .
e c P V n ( x ) m Δ z = V diag ( e c P V n ( x ) λ 1 Δ z , e c P V n ( x ) λ 2 Δ z , e c P V n ( x ) λ 3 Δ z , e c P V n ( x ) λ 4 Δ z ) V 1 .
W [ L in ] = { W L in ( v L in > 0 ) L in ( v L in 0 ) ,
W = [ 1 0 0 0 0 cos ( 2 θ ) sin ( 2 θ ) a o + a o cos ( 2 θ ) + b o sin ( 2 θ ) 0 sin ( 2 θ ) cos ( 2 θ ) b o b o cos ( 2 θ ) + a o sin ( 2 θ ) 0 0 0 1 ] .
r ¯ S ( τ ; x , z ) l , f L , F 1 | 1 D p , d P , D g ( x + l , z + d , f , p ) g * ( x + l , z + d , f + 1 , p ) | l , f L , F 1 ε ( τ ; x + l , z , f ) { | [ 1 D p , d P , D | g ( x + l , z + d , f , p ) | 2 p P q ^ N ( p ) ] × [ 1 D p , d P , D | g ( x + l , z + d , f + 1 , p ) | 2 p P q ^ N ( p ) ] | } 1 2 .
r ¯ S f ( τ ; x , z ) r ¯ S ( τ ; x , z ) r ^ m ( τ ; x , ) .

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