Abstract

We present a high resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system for ocular imaging in rodents. The system operates at 840 nm and uses a broadband superluminescent diode providing an axial resolution of 5.1 µm in air. PS-OCT data was acquired at 83 kHz A-scan rate by two identical custom-made spectrometers for orthogonal polarization states. Pigmented (Brown Norway, Long Evans) and non-pigmented (Sprague Dawley) rats as well as pigmented mice (C57BL/6) were imaged. Melanin pigment related depolarization was analyzed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid of these animals using the degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU). For all rat strains, significant differences between RPE and choroidal depolarization were observed. In contrast, DOPU characteristics of RPE and choroid were similar for C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, the depolarization within the same tissue type varied significantly between different rodent strains. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, phase retardation, and birefringence were mapped and quantitatively measured in Long Evans rats in vivo for the first time. In a circumpapillary annulus, retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence amounted to 0.16°/µm ± 0.02°/µm and 0.17°/µm ± 0.01°/µm for the left and right eyes, respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (8)

S. P. Chong, C. W. Merkle, C. Leahy, H. Radhakrishnan, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Quantitative microvascular hemoglobin mapping using visible light spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1429–1450 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fukuda, G. Kishino, S. Hoshi, S. Beheregaray, Y. Ueno, M. Fukuda, D. Kasaragod, Y. Yasuno, and T. Oshika, “Repeatability of Corneal Phase Retardation Measurements by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(5), 3196–3201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, S. Sacu, B. Baumann, M. Bolz, M. Platzer, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Identification of Drusen Characteristics in Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(2), 335–344 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, P. Roberts, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber bundle tracing and analysis in human eye by polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 1030–1054 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schütze, M. Wedl, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Progression of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Atrophy in Antiangiogenic Therapy of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159(6), 1100–1114 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, J. Schirmer, S. Rauscher, S. Fialová, M. Glösmann, M. Augustin, M. Pircher, M. Gröger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Melanin Pigmentation in Rat Eyes: In Vivo Imaging by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Comparison to Histology,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(12), 7462–7472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, A. J. Tatham, L. M. Zangwill, R. N. Weinreb, C. Zhang, and F. A. Medeiros, “Diagnostic Ability of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Imaging by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159(1), 193–201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

Z. Zhi, J. R. Chao, T. Wietecha, K. L. Hudkins, C. E. Alpers, and R. K. Wang, “Noninvasive Imaging of Retinal Morphology and Microvasculature in Obese Mice using Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Microangiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(2), 1024–1030 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Larrosa, E. Garcia-Martin, M. P. Bambo, J. Pinilla, V. Polo, S. Otin, M. Satue, R. Herrero, and L. E. Pablo, “Potential new diagnostic tool for Alzheimer’s disease using a linear discriminant function for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3043–3051 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, M. de Groot, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive OCT of the human retina with correction of system polarization distortions,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2736–2758 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, B. Gerendas, F. Schlanitz, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Detection and analysis of hard exudates by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(3), 1564–1571 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Berger, S. Cavallero, E. Dominguez, P. Barbe, M. Simonutti, J.-A. Sahel, F. Sennlaub, W. Raoul, M. Paques, and A.-P. Bemelmans, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the rodent eye: highlighting layers of the outer retina using signal averaging and comparison with histology,” PLoS One 9(5), e96494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, S. Rauscher, M. Glösmann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, S. Fialová, M. Gröger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Peripapillary Rat Sclera Investigated In Vivo With Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(11), 7686–7696 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Blatter, and L. Schmetterer, “Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 41, 26–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Nagase, S. Fukuda, K. Ishii, R. Tanaka, T. Yasui, T. Oshika, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Scleral birefringence as measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and ocular biometric parameters of human eyes in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1391–1402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, T. Torzicky, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, S. Holzer, J. Kroisamer, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measuring retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence, retardation, and thickness using wide-field, high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 72–84 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Fortune, C. F. Burgoyne, G. Cull, J. Reynaud, and L. Wang, “Onset and progression of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) retardance changes occur earlier than RNFL thickness changes in experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5653–5661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Sivak, “The aging eye: Common degenerative mechanisms between the Alzheimer’s brain and retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 871–880 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (13)

A. London, I. Benhar, and M. Schwartz, “The retina as a window to the brain-from eye research to CNS disorders,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 9(1), 44–53 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Torzicky, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, M. Bonesi, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High-Speed Retinal Imaging with Polarization-Sensitive OCT at 1040 nm,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 585–592 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hariri, A. A. Moayed, V. Choh, and K. Bizheva, “In vivo assessment of thickness and reflectivity in a rat outer retinal degeneration model with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1982–1989 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, F. Prager, G. Matt, S. Sacu, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Morphologic characteristics of idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasia using spectral-domain and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(2), 256–264 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, F. Schlanitz, C. Schütze, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides intrinsic contrast based on depolarization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(7), 1670–1683 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Pijanka, B. Coudrillier, K. Ziegler, T. Sorensen, K. M. Meek, T. D. Nguyen, H. A. Quigley, and C. Boote, “Quantitative mapping of collagen fiber orientation in non-glaucoma and glaucoma posterior human sclerae,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5258–5270 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Coudrillier, J. Tian, S. Alexander, K. M. Myers, H. A. Quigley, and T. D. Nguyen, “Biomechanics of the human posterior sclera: age- and glaucoma-related changes measured using inflation testing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1714–1728 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dwelle, S. Liu, B. Wang, A. McElroy, D. Ho, M. K. Markey, T. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, “Thickness, phase retardation, birefringence, and reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal and glaucomatous non-human primates,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(8), 4380–4395 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Bouhenni, J. Dunmire, A. Sewell, and D. P. Edward, “Animal models of glaucoma,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2012, 692609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Pennesi, M. Neuringer, and R. J. Courtney, “Animal models of age related macular degeneration,” Mol. Aspects Med. 33(4), 487–509 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, K. Ishii, S. Fukuda, Y. Lim, L. Duan, S. Makita, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical rheology of porcine sclera by birefringence imaging,” PLoS One 7(9), e44026 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Bhutto and G. Lutty, “Understanding age-related macular degeneration (AMD): relationships between the photoreceptor/retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch’s membrane/choriocapillaris complex,” Mol. Aspects Med. 33(4), 295–317 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Gabriele, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, L. Kagemann, J. Xu, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Optical Coherence Tomography: History, Current Status, and Laboratory Work,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2425–2436 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Quigley, “Glaucoma,” Lancet 377(9774), 1367–1377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

B. Baumann, E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Miyazawa, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, M. Miura, K. Kawana, K. Iwaya, H. Goto, and Y. Yasuno, “Tissue discrimination in anterior eye using three optical parameters obtained by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17426–17440 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Alencar, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, G. Vizzeri, P. A. Sample, and R. N. Weinreb, “Detection of progressive retinal nerve fiber layer loss in glaucoma using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1675–1681 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, G. N. Maguluri, Y. Umino, K. Cusato, R. B. Barlow, and J. F. de Boer, “Monitoring mouse retinal degeneration with high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Vis. 8(1), 17 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: a comparison,” J. Biophotonics 1(2), 129–139 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. L. Bonilha, “Age and disease-related structural changes in the retinal pigment epithelium,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 2(2), 413–424 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C. A. Puliafito, “In vivo three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of rodent retina with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1808–1814 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041210 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S.-E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive volumetric imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5522–5528 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Zangwill and C. Bowd, “Retinal nerve fiber layer analysis in the diagnosis of glaucoma,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(2), 120–131 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. C. Downs, J.-K. F. Suh, K. A. Thomas, A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Viscoelastic material properties of the peripapillary sclera in normal and early-glaucoma monkey eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(2), 540–546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, “Microtubules contribute to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(12), 4588–4593 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Invivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, “Linear birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer measured in vitro with a multispectral imaging micropolarimeter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(2), 199–204 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chang, N. L. Hawes, R. E. Hurd, M. T. Davisson, S. Nusinowitz, and J. R. Heckenlively, “Retinal degeneration mutants in the mouse,” Vision Res. 42(4), 517–525 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

C. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, A. M. Timmers, K. Hunter, C. Gonzalez-Pola, A. S. Lewin, D. H. Reitze, and W. W. Hauswirth, “Noninvasive imaging by optical coherence tomography to monitor retinal degeneration in the mouse,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(12), 2981–2989 (2001).
[PubMed]

E. Z. Blumenthal and R. N. Weinreb, “Assessment of the retinal nerve fiber layer in clinical trials of glaucoma neuroprotection,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(Suppl 3), S305–S334 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

J. B. Jonas and A. Dichtl, “Evaluation of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 40(5), 369–378 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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A. Sommer, J. Katz, H. A. Quigley, N. R. Miller, A. L. Robin, R. C. Richter, and K. A. Witt, “Clinically Detectable Nerve Fiber Atrophy Precedes the Onset of Glaucomatous Field Loss,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109(1), 77–83 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic Validation of Fourier-Ellipsometry Measurements of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

R. C. Haskell, F. D. Carlson, and P. S. Blank, “Form birefringence of muscle,” Biophys. J. 56(2), 401–413 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand, and S. Eldridge, “Aging human RPE: Morphometric analysis of macular, equatorial, and peripheral cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25(2), 195–200 (1984).
[PubMed]

M. L. Katz and W. G. Robison., “Age-related changes in the retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rats,” Exp. Eye Res. 38(2), 137–151 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlers, C.

C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, F. Prager, G. Matt, S. Sacu, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Morphologic characteristics of idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasia using spectral-domain and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(2), 256–264 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alencar, L. M.

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Alencar, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, G. Vizzeri, P. A. Sample, and R. N. Weinreb, “Detection of progressive retinal nerve fiber layer loss in glaucoma using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1675–1681 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexander, S.

B. Coudrillier, J. Tian, S. Alexander, K. M. Myers, H. A. Quigley, and T. D. Nguyen, “Biomechanics of the human posterior sclera: age- and glaucoma-related changes measured using inflation testing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1714–1728 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alpers, C. E.

Z. Zhi, J. R. Chao, T. Wietecha, K. L. Hudkins, C. E. Alpers, and R. K. Wang, “Noninvasive Imaging of Retinal Morphology and Microvasculature in Obese Mice using Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Microangiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(2), 1024–1030 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Augustin, M.

B. Baumann, J. Schirmer, S. Rauscher, S. Fialová, M. Glösmann, M. Augustin, M. Pircher, M. Gröger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Melanin Pigmentation in Rat Eyes: In Vivo Imaging by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Comparison to Histology,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(12), 7462–7472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bambo, M. P.

J. M. Larrosa, E. Garcia-Martin, M. P. Bambo, J. Pinilla, V. Polo, S. Otin, M. Satue, R. Herrero, and L. E. Pablo, “Potential new diagnostic tool for Alzheimer’s disease using a linear discriminant function for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3043–3051 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbe, P.

A. Berger, S. Cavallero, E. Dominguez, P. Barbe, M. Simonutti, J.-A. Sahel, F. Sennlaub, W. Raoul, M. Paques, and A.-P. Bemelmans, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the rodent eye: highlighting layers of the outer retina using signal averaging and comparison with histology,” PLoS One 9(5), e96494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barlow, R. B.

K. H. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, G. N. Maguluri, Y. Umino, K. Cusato, R. B. Barlow, and J. F. de Boer, “Monitoring mouse retinal degeneration with high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Vis. 8(1), 17 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Baumann, B.

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, P. Roberts, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber bundle tracing and analysis in human eye by polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 1030–1054 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, J. Schirmer, S. Rauscher, S. Fialová, M. Glösmann, M. Augustin, M. Pircher, M. Gröger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Melanin Pigmentation in Rat Eyes: In Vivo Imaging by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Comparison to Histology,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(12), 7462–7472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schütze, M. Wedl, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Progression of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Atrophy in Antiangiogenic Therapy of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159(6), 1100–1114 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, S. Sacu, B. Baumann, M. Bolz, M. Platzer, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Identification of Drusen Characteristics in Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(2), 335–344 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, B. Gerendas, F. Schlanitz, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Detection and analysis of hard exudates by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(3), 1564–1571 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, S. Rauscher, M. Glösmann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, S. Fialová, M. Gröger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Peripapillary Rat Sclera Investigated In Vivo With Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(11), 7686–7696 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, F. Prager, G. Matt, S. Sacu, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Morphologic characteristics of idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasia using spectral-domain and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(2), 256–264 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, F. Schlanitz, C. Schütze, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides intrinsic contrast based on depolarization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(7), 1670–1683 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: a comparison,” J. Biophotonics 1(2), 129–139 (2008).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Torzicky, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, M. Bonesi, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High-Speed Retinal Imaging with Polarization-Sensitive OCT at 1040 nm,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 585–592 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, F. Prager, G. Matt, S. Sacu, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Morphologic characteristics of idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasia using spectral-domain and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(2), 256–264 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, F. Schlanitz, C. Schütze, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides intrinsic contrast based on depolarization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(7), 1670–1683 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: a comparison,” J. Biophotonics 1(2), 129–139 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041210 (2007).
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
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M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C. A. Puliafito, “In vivo three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of rodent retina with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1808–1814 (2007).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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B. Baumann, J. Schirmer, S. Rauscher, S. Fialová, M. Glösmann, M. Augustin, M. Pircher, M. Gröger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Melanin Pigmentation in Rat Eyes: In Vivo Imaging by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Comparison to Histology,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(12), 7462–7472 (2015).
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B. Baumann, S. Rauscher, M. Glösmann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, S. Fialová, M. Gröger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Peripapillary Rat Sclera Investigated In Vivo With Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(11), 7686–7696 (2014).
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Hackam, A.

M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C. A. Puliafito, “In vivo three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of rodent retina with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1808–1814 (2007).
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Q. Li, A. M. Timmers, K. Hunter, C. Gonzalez-Pola, A. S. Lewin, D. H. Reitze, and W. W. Hauswirth, “Noninvasive imaging by optical coherence tomography to monitor retinal degeneration in the mouse,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(12), 2981–2989 (2001).
[PubMed]

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B. Chang, N. L. Hawes, R. E. Hurd, M. T. Davisson, S. Nusinowitz, and J. R. Heckenlively, “Retinal degeneration mutants in the mouse,” Vision Res. 42(4), 517–525 (2002).
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B. Chang, N. L. Hawes, R. E. Hurd, M. T. Davisson, S. Nusinowitz, and J. R. Heckenlively, “Retinal degeneration mutants in the mouse,” Vision Res. 42(4), 517–525 (2002).
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M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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J. M. Larrosa, E. Garcia-Martin, M. P. Bambo, J. Pinilla, V. Polo, S. Otin, M. Satue, R. Herrero, and L. E. Pablo, “Potential new diagnostic tool for Alzheimer’s disease using a linear discriminant function for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3043–3051 (2014).
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: a comparison,” J. Biophotonics 1(2), 129–139 (2008).
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Hirose, F.

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, T. Torzicky, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, S. Holzer, J. Kroisamer, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measuring retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence, retardation, and thickness using wide-field, high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 72–84 (2013).
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S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
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Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
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B. Baumann, J. Schirmer, S. Rauscher, S. Fialová, M. Glösmann, M. Augustin, M. Pircher, M. Gröger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Melanin Pigmentation in Rat Eyes: In Vivo Imaging by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Comparison to Histology,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(12), 7462–7472 (2015).
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C. Schütze, M. Wedl, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Progression of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Atrophy in Antiangiogenic Therapy of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 159(6), 1100–1114 (2015).
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J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, B. Gerendas, F. Schlanitz, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Detection and analysis of hard exudates by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(3), 1564–1571 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, S. Rauscher, M. Glösmann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, S. Fialová, M. Gröger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Peripapillary Rat Sclera Investigated In Vivo With Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(11), 7686–7696 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, T. Torzicky, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, S. Holzer, J. Kroisamer, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measuring retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence, retardation, and thickness using wide-field, high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 72–84 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, F. Prager, G. Matt, S. Sacu, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Morphologic characteristics of idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasia using spectral-domain and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Retina 32(2), 256–264 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Torzicky, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, M. Bonesi, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High-Speed Retinal Imaging with Polarization-Sensitive OCT at 1040 nm,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 585–592 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, F. Schlanitz, C. Schütze, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides intrinsic contrast based on depolarization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(7), 1670–1683 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
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B. Baumann, E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: a comparison,” J. Biophotonics 1(2), 129–139 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041210 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
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M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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X. R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, “Microtubules contribute to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(12), 4588–4593 (2005).
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X.-R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, “Linear birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer measured in vitro with a multispectral imaging micropolarimeter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(2), 199–204 (2002).
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[PubMed]

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B. Chang, N. L. Hawes, R. E. Hurd, M. T. Davisson, S. Nusinowitz, and J. R. Heckenlively, “Retinal degeneration mutants in the mouse,” Vision Res. 42(4), 517–525 (2002).
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Kasaragod, D.

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X. R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, “Microtubules contribute to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(12), 4588–4593 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, “Linear birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer measured in vitro with a multispectral imaging micropolarimeter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(2), 199–204 (2002).
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Kroisamer, J.

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, T. Torzicky, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, S. Holzer, J. Kroisamer, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measuring retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence, retardation, and thickness using wide-field, high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 72–84 (2013).
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Lammer, J.

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, B. Gerendas, F. Schlanitz, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Detection and analysis of hard exudates by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(3), 1564–1571 (2014).
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J. M. Larrosa, E. Garcia-Martin, M. P. Bambo, J. Pinilla, V. Polo, S. Otin, M. Satue, R. Herrero, and L. E. Pablo, “Potential new diagnostic tool for Alzheimer’s disease using a linear discriminant function for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3043–3051 (2014).
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Q. Li, A. M. Timmers, K. Hunter, C. Gonzalez-Pola, A. S. Lewin, D. H. Reitze, and W. W. Hauswirth, “Noninvasive imaging by optical coherence tomography to monitor retinal degeneration in the mouse,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(12), 2981–2989 (2001).
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M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, P. Roberts, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber bundle tracing and analysis in human eye by polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 1030–1054 (2015).
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M. Yamanari, S. Nagase, S. Fukuda, K. Ishii, R. Tanaka, T. Yasui, T. Oshika, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Scleral birefringence as measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and ocular biometric parameters of human eyes in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1391–1402 (2014).
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M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2661–2667 (2008).
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B. Baumann, J. Schirmer, S. Rauscher, S. Fialová, M. Glösmann, M. Augustin, M. Pircher, M. Gröger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Melanin Pigmentation in Rat Eyes: In Vivo Imaging by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Comparison to Histology,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(12), 7462–7472 (2015).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 3D rendering of OCT data set and sketch of the high-resolution PS-OCT system. (A) 3D rendering of a data set acquired from a Sprague Dawley rat retina (field of view 11° × 11°) together with the sketch of the rat eye to pinpoint the location. (B) Sketch of the OCT system, SLD - superluminescent diode, PC - polarization controller, SMF - single mode fiber, PMF - polarization maintaining fiber, GM - galvanometer mirrors, QWP - quarter wave plate, HWP - half wave plate, NPB - non-polarizing beamsplitter, GTP - Glan-Thomson polarizer, PB - polarizing beamsplitter, ND filter - neutral density filter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of the human, rat and mouse eyes and retinas. (A) Sketch of human, rat and mouse eye. Rodent eyes shown both in natural size and scaled to the size of the human eye. (B) Retinal OCT scan of human, rat and mouse retina (all pigmented). Human retina scanned near the fovea. The rodent eyes are much smaller than the human eye. The rodent retina is thinner than the human retina, but not proportionally to the size of the eye. Note that the layered structure of the retina is resolved in all eyes. However, higher axial resolution is required for rodent imaging in order to distinguish all the layers. The human retina was imaged using a clinical PS-OCT system described previously [25].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 PS-OCT images of the retina of the pigmented Brown Norway rat (averaged over 10 B-scans). (A) OCT fundus image, field of view 28° × 28°. (B) Cross section images obtained at the position indicated by the blue line on the fundus image (reflectivity, fast axis orientation and phase retardation image accordingly). (C) Cross section images at the position indicated by the red line on the fundus image (reflectivity, fast axis orientation, phase retardation image accordingly). White arrows indicate the depolarizing effect of pigment. Blue arrows indicate the birefringent effect of the sclera. The red arrow denotes higher penetration at the location of choroid vessels. The zero delays are at the top of the images. (D) Enlargement of the red rectangle in (B).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Imaging of pigmentation and depolarization by PS-OCT. Images are averaged over 10 B-scans of the retina of non-pigmented (Sprague Dawley) and pigmented (Brown Norway) rats. (A) Reflectivity and DOPU images of a non-pigmented Sprague Dawley rat, taken at the optic nerve head and in the peripheral retina. (B) Reflectivity and DOPU images of a pigmented Brown Norway rat taken at corresponding locations; blue arrows highlight higher signal beneath choroid vessels. (C) Reflectivity and DOPU images of a pigmented C57BL/6 mouse. In the DOPU images, polarization-preserving tissue exhibits values around 1 (red color), whereas depolarizing tissue exhibits lower values. The depolarizing effect of pigment is visible in the proximity of the blood vessel and in RPE and choroid. (D) Enlarged part of DOPU image of non-pigmented animal and pigmented animal, respectively, together with histological image from Brown Norway rat. On reflectivity images, red arrows show extraorbital tissue, on DOPU images white arrows mark the depolarization effect of the extraorbital tissue in the non-pigmented animal and in the proximity of the central vessels in pigmented animal. (E) Comparison of OCT reflectivity image, histological image (differential interference contrast) and DOPU image of non-pigmented rat, pigmented rat and pigmented mouse. White arrow points to choroid. In the histological images, melanin pigmentation is visible as brown color (present in RPE and choroid of pigmented animals, but absent in the RPE and choroid of non-pigmented animal).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 DOPU analysis in RPE and choroid. (A) Reflectivity fundus projection image and exemplary B-scan with BM segmentation in a Long Evans rat. Depolarization was analyzed in slabs indicated in green (RPE) and orange (choroid). (B) Reflectivity and DOPU images in four different rodent strains. (C) The left panel shows DOPU en face projections for a Long Evans rat. In the right panel, DOPUmean and DOPUmin are plotted for RPE and choroid in the four rodent strains (dark column represents left eye, light column represent right eye).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Birefringence estimation of RNFL. (A) On top, a representative B-scan and the segmentation of the RNFL is shown. Reflectivity, retardation, thickness and birefringence maps are shown below. Pixels with a RNFL thickness below 10 pixels are displayed in grey. On the right, an enlargement of the peripapillary retardation plot depicting the evaluation area is shown. (B) Circumpapillary plots of RNFL thickness, retardation and birefringence in left and right eyes of Long Evans rats. Different colors represent three analyzed individuals. TSNIT stands for temporal – superior – nasal – inferior – temporal regions.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Depolarization of RPE and choroid in different rodent strains/species. DOPUmean and DOPUmin are given as average of each six eyes ± standard deviation.

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Table 2 P-values of comparison between depolarization of RPE and choroid in different rodent strains/species. OS - left eye, OD - right eye.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Bonferroni corrected p-values of comparison between depolarization within the same tissue type in different rodent strains/species. BN – Brown Norway, LE – Long Evans, SD – Sprague Dawley, B6 – C57BL/6

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