Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of oral cavity and oropharyngeal anatomy may play an important role in the evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging are capable of providing 3D anatomical descriptions, this type of technology is not readily available in a clinic setting. Current imaging of the oropharynx is performed using a light source and tongue depressors. For better assessment of the inferior pole of the tonsils and tongue base flexible laryngoscopes are required which only provide a two dimensional (2D) rendering. As a result, clinical diagnosis is generally subjective in tonsillar hypertrophy where current physical examination has limitations. In this report, we designed a hand held portable oral camera with 3D imaging capability to reconstruct the anatomy of the oropharynx in tonsillar hypertrophy where the tonsils get enlarged and can lead to increased airway resistance. We were able to precisely reconstruct the 3D shape of the tonsils and from that estimate airway obstruction percentage and volume of the tonsils in 3D printed realistic models. Our results correlate well with Brodsky’s classification of tonsillar hypertrophy as well as intraoperative volume estimations.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (3)

M. A. Slaats, K. Van Hoorenbeeck, A. Van Eyck, W. G. Vos, J. W. De Backer, A. Boudewyns, W. De Backer, and S. L. Verhulst, “Upper airway imaging in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Sleep Med. Rev. 21, 59–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tang, M. Gropler, A. L. Duggins, R. S. Amin, S. R. Shott, B. Chini, and S. L. Ishman, “Gaps in evidence: Management of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy,” Laryngoscope 126, 758–762 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. J. Das, J. C. Estrada, Z. F. Ge, S. Dolcetti, D. Chen, and R. Raskar, “A compact structured light based otoscope for three dimensional imaging of the tympanic membrane,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93031F (2015).

2014 (1)

H. V. M. Kumar, J. W. Schroeder, Z. Gang, and S. H. Sheldon, “Mallampati Score and Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” J. Clin. Sleep Med. 10(9), 985–990 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (2)

K. T. Kang, C. H. Chou, W. C. Weng, P. L. Lee, and W. C. Hsu, “Associations between Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy, Age, and Obesity in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” PLoS One 8(10), e78666 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Au, C. K. Ho, Y. K. Wing, and A. M. Li, “The effect of childhood obstructive sleep apnea on ambulatory blood pressure is modulated by the distribution of respiratory events during rapid eye movement and nonrapid eye movement sleep,” Sleep Med. 14(12), 1317–1322 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Shott, “Sleep cine magnetic resonance imaging—A dynamic evaluation of the airway,” Oper. Tech. Otolaryngol. 23(1), 19–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Schmalz, F. Forster, A. Schick, and E. Angelopoulou, “An endoscopic 3D scanner based on structured light,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1063–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

J. Geng, “Structured-light 3D surface imaging: a tutorial,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 128–160 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. C. Estrada, M. Servin, and J. A. Quiroga, “Noise robust linear dynamic system for phase unwrapping and smoothing,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5126–5133 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Clawges, H. Ramadan, A. McBean, S. Insana, E. Santy, and H. E. Montgomery-Downs, “Digital Oral Photography for Pediatric Tonsillar Hypertrophy Grading,” Sleep 34, A274 (2011).

M. B. Cahali, C. F. D. Soares, D. A. D. Dantas, and G. G. S. Formigoni, “Tonsil volume, tonsil grade and obstructive sleep apnea: is there any meaningful correlation?” Clinics (Sao Paulo) 66(8), 1347–1352 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Nolan and S. E. Brietzke, “Systematic review of pediatric tonsil size and polysomnogram-measured obstructive sleep apnea severity,” Otolaryngology–head and neck surgery: official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surg. 144(6), 844–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. K. Ng, D. L. Lee, A. M. Li, Y. K. Wing, and M. C. Tong, “Reproducibility of clinical grading of tonsillar size,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(2), 159–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

N. S. Howard and S. E. Brietzke, “Pediatric tonsil size: objective vs subjective measurements correlated to overnight polysomnogram,” Otolaryngology 140(5), 675–681 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Servin, J. C. Estrada, and J. A. Quiroga, “The general theory of phase shifting algorithms,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21867–21881 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. A. George, F. F. M. de Mul, Q. Qiu, G. Rakhorst, and H. K. Schutte, “New laryngoscope for quantitative high-speed imaging of human vocal folds vibration in the horizontal and vertical direction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

D. Gozal and L. Kheirandish-Gozal, “Neurocognitive and behavioral morbidity in children with sleep disorders,” Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 13(6), 505–509 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Tavares and M. A. Vaz, “Linear calibration procedure for the phase-to-height relationship in phase measurement profilometry,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 307–314 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. E. Brietzke and D. Gallagher, “The effectiveness of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in the treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome: a meta-analysis,” Otolaryngology 134(6), 979–984 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. T. Costarino, S. Mahboubi, C. E. Tayag-Kier, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway structure of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164(4), 698–703 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. K. Shah, B. Nemati, L. V. Wang, M. S. Volk, and S. M. Shapshay, “Optical-thermal simulation of human tonsillar tissue irradiation: clinical implications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27(3), 269–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 10–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

M. S. Volk, Z. Wang, M. M. Pankratov, D. F. Perrault, D. R. Ingrams, and S. M. Shapshay, “Mucosal intact laser tonsillar ablation,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(12), 1355–1359 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

L. Brodsky, “Modern Assessment of Tonsils and Adenoids,” Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 36(6), 1551–1569 (1989).
[PubMed]

Amin, R. S.

A. Tang, M. Gropler, A. L. Duggins, R. S. Amin, S. R. Shott, B. Chini, and S. L. Ishman, “Gaps in evidence: Management of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy,” Laryngoscope 126, 758–762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Angelopoulou, E.

C. Schmalz, F. Forster, A. Schick, and E. Angelopoulou, “An endoscopic 3D scanner based on structured light,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1063–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arens, R.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. T. Costarino, S. Mahboubi, C. E. Tayag-Kier, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway structure of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164(4), 698–703 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Au, C. T.

C. T. Au, C. K. Ho, Y. K. Wing, and A. M. Li, “The effect of childhood obstructive sleep apnea on ambulatory blood pressure is modulated by the distribution of respiratory events during rapid eye movement and nonrapid eye movement sleep,” Sleep Med. 14(12), 1317–1322 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudewyns, A.

M. A. Slaats, K. Van Hoorenbeeck, A. Van Eyck, W. G. Vos, J. W. De Backer, A. Boudewyns, W. De Backer, and S. L. Verhulst, “Upper airway imaging in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Sleep Med. Rev. 21, 59–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brietzke, S. E.

J. Nolan and S. E. Brietzke, “Systematic review of pediatric tonsil size and polysomnogram-measured obstructive sleep apnea severity,” Otolaryngology–head and neck surgery: official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surg. 144(6), 844–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. S. Howard and S. E. Brietzke, “Pediatric tonsil size: objective vs subjective measurements correlated to overnight polysomnogram,” Otolaryngology 140(5), 675–681 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. E. Brietzke and D. Gallagher, “The effectiveness of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in the treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome: a meta-analysis,” Otolaryngology 134(6), 979–984 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brodsky, L.

L. Brodsky, “Modern Assessment of Tonsils and Adenoids,” Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 36(6), 1551–1569 (1989).
[PubMed]

Brooks, L. J.

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, G. M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 10–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cahali, M. B.

M. B. Cahali, C. F. D. Soares, D. A. D. Dantas, and G. G. S. Formigoni, “Tonsil volume, tonsil grade and obstructive sleep apnea: is there any meaningful correlation?” Clinics (Sao Paulo) 66(8), 1347–1352 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

A. J. Das, J. C. Estrada, Z. F. Ge, S. Dolcetti, D. Chen, and R. Raskar, “A compact structured light based otoscope for three dimensional imaging of the tympanic membrane,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93031F (2015).

Chen, F.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 10–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chini, B.

A. Tang, M. Gropler, A. L. Duggins, R. S. Amin, S. R. Shott, B. Chini, and S. L. Ishman, “Gaps in evidence: Management of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy,” Laryngoscope 126, 758–762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chou, C. H.

K. T. Kang, C. H. Chou, W. C. Weng, P. L. Lee, and W. C. Hsu, “Associations between Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy, Age, and Obesity in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” PLoS One 8(10), e78666 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chumakov, Y.

Clawges, H.

H. Clawges, H. Ramadan, A. McBean, S. Insana, E. Santy, and H. E. Montgomery-Downs, “Digital Oral Photography for Pediatric Tonsillar Hypertrophy Grading,” Sleep 34, A274 (2011).

Costarino, A. T.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. T. Costarino, S. Mahboubi, C. E. Tayag-Kier, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway structure of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164(4), 698–703 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dantas, D. A. D.

M. B. Cahali, C. F. D. Soares, D. A. D. Dantas, and G. G. S. Formigoni, “Tonsil volume, tonsil grade and obstructive sleep apnea: is there any meaningful correlation?” Clinics (Sao Paulo) 66(8), 1347–1352 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Das, A. J.

A. J. Das, J. C. Estrada, Z. F. Ge, S. Dolcetti, D. Chen, and R. Raskar, “A compact structured light based otoscope for three dimensional imaging of the tympanic membrane,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93031F (2015).

De Backer, J. W.

M. A. Slaats, K. Van Hoorenbeeck, A. Van Eyck, W. G. Vos, J. W. De Backer, A. Boudewyns, W. De Backer, and S. L. Verhulst, “Upper airway imaging in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Sleep Med. Rev. 21, 59–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Backer, W.

M. A. Slaats, K. Van Hoorenbeeck, A. Van Eyck, W. G. Vos, J. W. De Backer, A. Boudewyns, W. De Backer, and S. L. Verhulst, “Upper airway imaging in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Sleep Med. Rev. 21, 59–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Mul, F. F. M.

N. A. George, F. F. M. de Mul, Q. Qiu, G. Rakhorst, and H. K. Schutte, “New laryngoscope for quantitative high-speed imaging of human vocal folds vibration in the horizontal and vertical direction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolcetti, S.

A. J. Das, J. C. Estrada, Z. F. Ge, S. Dolcetti, D. Chen, and R. Raskar, “A compact structured light based otoscope for three dimensional imaging of the tympanic membrane,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93031F (2015).

Draper, K. A.

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duggins, A. L.

A. Tang, M. Gropler, A. L. Duggins, R. S. Amin, S. R. Shott, B. Chini, and S. L. Ishman, “Gaps in evidence: Management of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy,” Laryngoscope 126, 758–762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Estrada, J. C.

Feldchtein, F.

Formigoni, G. G. S.

M. B. Cahali, C. F. D. Soares, D. A. D. Dantas, and G. G. S. Formigoni, “Tonsil volume, tonsil grade and obstructive sleep apnea: is there any meaningful correlation?” Clinics (Sao Paulo) 66(8), 1347–1352 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forster, F.

C. Schmalz, F. Forster, A. Schick, and E. Angelopoulou, “An endoscopic 3D scanner based on structured light,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1063–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallagher, D.

S. E. Brietzke and D. Gallagher, “The effectiveness of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in the treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome: a meta-analysis,” Otolaryngology 134(6), 979–984 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gang, Z.

H. V. M. Kumar, J. W. Schroeder, Z. Gang, and S. H. Sheldon, “Mallampati Score and Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” J. Clin. Sleep Med. 10(9), 985–990 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ge, Z. F.

A. J. Das, J. C. Estrada, Z. F. Ge, S. Dolcetti, D. Chen, and R. Raskar, “A compact structured light based otoscope for three dimensional imaging of the tympanic membrane,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93031F (2015).

Gelikonov, G.

Gelikonov, V.

Geng, J.

J. Geng, “Structured-light 3D surface imaging: a tutorial,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 128–160 (2011).
[Crossref]

George, N. A.

N. A. George, F. F. M. de Mul, Q. Qiu, G. Rakhorst, and H. K. Schutte, “New laryngoscope for quantitative high-speed imaging of human vocal folds vibration in the horizontal and vertical direction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gladkova, N.

Gozal, D.

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gozal and L. Kheirandish-Gozal, “Neurocognitive and behavioral morbidity in children with sleep disorders,” Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 13(6), 505–509 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gropler, M.

A. Tang, M. Gropler, A. L. Duggins, R. S. Amin, S. R. Shott, B. Chini, and S. L. Ishman, “Gaps in evidence: Management of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy,” Laryngoscope 126, 758–762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Halbower, A. C.

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, C. K.

C. T. Au, C. K. Ho, Y. K. Wing, and A. M. Li, “The effect of childhood obstructive sleep apnea on ambulatory blood pressure is modulated by the distribution of respiratory events during rapid eye movement and nonrapid eye movement sleep,” Sleep Med. 14(12), 1317–1322 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howard, N. S.

N. S. Howard and S. E. Brietzke, “Pediatric tonsil size: objective vs subjective measurements correlated to overnight polysomnogram,” Otolaryngology 140(5), 675–681 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hsu, W. C.

K. T. Kang, C. H. Chou, W. C. Weng, P. L. Lee, and W. C. Hsu, “Associations between Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy, Age, and Obesity in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” PLoS One 8(10), e78666 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ingrams, D. R.

M. S. Volk, Z. Wang, M. M. Pankratov, D. F. Perrault, D. R. Ingrams, and S. M. Shapshay, “Mucosal intact laser tonsillar ablation,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(12), 1355–1359 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Insana, S.

H. Clawges, H. Ramadan, A. McBean, S. Insana, E. Santy, and H. E. Montgomery-Downs, “Digital Oral Photography for Pediatric Tonsillar Hypertrophy Grading,” Sleep 34, A274 (2011).

Ishman, S. L.

A. Tang, M. Gropler, A. L. Duggins, R. S. Amin, S. R. Shott, B. Chini, and S. L. Ishman, “Gaps in evidence: Management of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy,” Laryngoscope 126, 758–762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jones, J.

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, K. T.

K. T. Kang, C. H. Chou, W. C. Weng, P. L. Lee, and W. C. Hsu, “Associations between Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy, Age, and Obesity in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” PLoS One 8(10), e78666 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kheirandish-Gozal, L.

D. Gozal and L. Kheirandish-Gozal, “Neurocognitive and behavioral morbidity in children with sleep disorders,” Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 13(6), 505–509 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, H. V. M.

H. V. M. Kumar, J. W. Schroeder, Z. Gang, and S. H. Sheldon, “Mallampati Score and Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” J. Clin. Sleep Med. 10(9), 985–990 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kuranov, R.

Kuznetzova, I.

Lee, D. L.

S. K. Ng, D. L. Lee, A. M. Li, Y. K. Wing, and M. C. Tong, “Reproducibility of clinical grading of tonsillar size,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(2), 159–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, P. L.

K. T. Kang, C. H. Chou, W. C. Weng, P. L. Lee, and W. C. Hsu, “Associations between Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy, Age, and Obesity in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” PLoS One 8(10), e78666 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lehmann, C.

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, A. M.

C. T. Au, C. K. Ho, Y. K. Wing, and A. M. Li, “The effect of childhood obstructive sleep apnea on ambulatory blood pressure is modulated by the distribution of respiratory events during rapid eye movement and nonrapid eye movement sleep,” Sleep Med. 14(12), 1317–1322 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Ng, D. L. Lee, A. M. Li, Y. K. Wing, and M. C. Tong, “Reproducibility of clinical grading of tonsillar size,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(2), 159–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahboubi, S.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. T. Costarino, S. Mahboubi, C. E. Tayag-Kier, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway structure of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164(4), 698–703 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maislin, G.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. T. Costarino, S. Mahboubi, C. E. Tayag-Kier, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway structure of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164(4), 698–703 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcus, C. L.

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McBean, A.

H. Clawges, H. Ramadan, A. McBean, S. Insana, E. Santy, and H. E. Montgomery-Downs, “Digital Oral Photography for Pediatric Tonsillar Hypertrophy Grading,” Sleep 34, A274 (2011).

McDonough, J. M.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. T. Costarino, S. Mahboubi, C. E. Tayag-Kier, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway structure of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164(4), 698–703 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Montgomery-Downs, H. E.

H. Clawges, H. Ramadan, A. McBean, S. Insana, E. Santy, and H. E. Montgomery-Downs, “Digital Oral Photography for Pediatric Tonsillar Hypertrophy Grading,” Sleep 34, A274 (2011).

Nemati, B.

R. K. Shah, B. Nemati, L. V. Wang, M. S. Volk, and S. M. Shapshay, “Optical-thermal simulation of human tonsillar tissue irradiation: clinical implications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27(3), 269–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, S. K.

S. K. Ng, D. L. Lee, A. M. Li, Y. K. Wing, and M. C. Tong, “Reproducibility of clinical grading of tonsillar size,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(2), 159–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nolan, J.

J. Nolan and S. E. Brietzke, “Systematic review of pediatric tonsil size and polysomnogram-measured obstructive sleep apnea severity,” Otolaryngology–head and neck surgery: official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surg. 144(6), 844–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pack, A. I.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. T. Costarino, S. Mahboubi, C. E. Tayag-Kier, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway structure of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164(4), 698–703 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pankratov, M. M.

M. S. Volk, Z. Wang, M. M. Pankratov, D. F. Perrault, D. R. Ingrams, and S. M. Shapshay, “Mucosal intact laser tonsillar ablation,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(12), 1355–1359 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perrault, D. F.

M. S. Volk, Z. Wang, M. M. Pankratov, D. F. Perrault, D. R. Ingrams, and S. M. Shapshay, “Mucosal intact laser tonsillar ablation,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(12), 1355–1359 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, Q.

N. A. George, F. F. M. de Mul, Q. Qiu, G. Rakhorst, and H. K. Schutte, “New laryngoscope for quantitative high-speed imaging of human vocal folds vibration in the horizontal and vertical direction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quiroga, J. A.

Rakhorst, G.

N. A. George, F. F. M. de Mul, Q. Qiu, G. Rakhorst, and H. K. Schutte, “New laryngoscope for quantitative high-speed imaging of human vocal folds vibration in the horizontal and vertical direction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramadan, H.

H. Clawges, H. Ramadan, A. McBean, S. Insana, E. Santy, and H. E. Montgomery-Downs, “Digital Oral Photography for Pediatric Tonsillar Hypertrophy Grading,” Sleep 34, A274 (2011).

Raskar, R.

A. J. Das, J. C. Estrada, Z. F. Ge, S. Dolcetti, D. Chen, and R. Raskar, “A compact structured light based otoscope for three dimensional imaging of the tympanic membrane,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93031F (2015).

Santy, E.

H. Clawges, H. Ramadan, A. McBean, S. Insana, E. Santy, and H. E. Montgomery-Downs, “Digital Oral Photography for Pediatric Tonsillar Hypertrophy Grading,” Sleep 34, A274 (2011).

Schechter, M. S.

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schick, A.

C. Schmalz, F. Forster, A. Schick, and E. Angelopoulou, “An endoscopic 3D scanner based on structured light,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1063–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmalz, C.

C. Schmalz, F. Forster, A. Schick, and E. Angelopoulou, “An endoscopic 3D scanner based on structured light,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1063–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroeder, J. W.

H. V. M. Kumar, J. W. Schroeder, Z. Gang, and S. H. Sheldon, “Mallampati Score and Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” J. Clin. Sleep Med. 10(9), 985–990 (2014).
[PubMed]

Schutte, H. K.

N. A. George, F. F. M. de Mul, Q. Qiu, G. Rakhorst, and H. K. Schutte, “New laryngoscope for quantitative high-speed imaging of human vocal folds vibration in the horizontal and vertical direction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwab, R. J.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. T. Costarino, S. Mahboubi, C. E. Tayag-Kier, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway structure of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164(4), 698–703 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A.

Servin, M.

Shah, R. K.

R. K. Shah, B. Nemati, L. V. Wang, M. S. Volk, and S. M. Shapshay, “Optical-thermal simulation of human tonsillar tissue irradiation: clinical implications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27(3), 269–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shakhov, A.

Shakhova, N.

Shapshay, S. M.

R. K. Shah, B. Nemati, L. V. Wang, M. S. Volk, and S. M. Shapshay, “Optical-thermal simulation of human tonsillar tissue irradiation: clinical implications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27(3), 269–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Volk, Z. Wang, M. M. Pankratov, D. F. Perrault, D. R. Ingrams, and S. M. Shapshay, “Mucosal intact laser tonsillar ablation,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(12), 1355–1359 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheldon, S. H.

H. V. M. Kumar, J. W. Schroeder, Z. Gang, and S. H. Sheldon, “Mallampati Score and Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” J. Clin. Sleep Med. 10(9), 985–990 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiffman, R. N.

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shott, S. R.

A. Tang, M. Gropler, A. L. Duggins, R. S. Amin, S. R. Shott, B. Chini, and S. L. Ishman, “Gaps in evidence: Management of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy,” Laryngoscope 126, 758–762 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. R. Shott, “Sleep cine magnetic resonance imaging—A dynamic evaluation of the airway,” Oper. Tech. Otolaryngol. 23(1), 19–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

Slaats, M. A.

M. A. Slaats, K. Van Hoorenbeeck, A. Van Eyck, W. G. Vos, J. W. De Backer, A. Boudewyns, W. De Backer, and S. L. Verhulst, “Upper airway imaging in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Sleep Med. Rev. 21, 59–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snopova, L.

Soares, C. F. D.

M. B. Cahali, C. F. D. Soares, D. A. D. Dantas, and G. G. S. Formigoni, “Tonsil volume, tonsil grade and obstructive sleep apnea: is there any meaningful correlation?” Clinics (Sao Paulo) 66(8), 1347–1352 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, M. M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 10–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

Spruyt, K.

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, A.

A. Tang, M. Gropler, A. L. Duggins, R. S. Amin, S. R. Shott, B. Chini, and S. L. Ishman, “Gaps in evidence: Management of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy,” Laryngoscope 126, 758–762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Tavares, P. J.

P. J. Tavares and M. A. Vaz, “Linear calibration procedure for the phase-to-height relationship in phase measurement profilometry,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 307–314 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tayag-Kier, C. E.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. T. Costarino, S. Mahboubi, C. E. Tayag-Kier, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway structure of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164(4), 698–703 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terent’eva, A.

Tong, M. C.

S. K. Ng, D. L. Lee, A. M. Li, Y. K. Wing, and M. C. Tong, “Reproducibility of clinical grading of tonsillar size,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(2), 159–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Eyck, A.

M. A. Slaats, K. Van Hoorenbeeck, A. Van Eyck, W. G. Vos, J. W. De Backer, A. Boudewyns, W. De Backer, and S. L. Verhulst, “Upper airway imaging in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Sleep Med. Rev. 21, 59–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Hoorenbeeck, K.

M. A. Slaats, K. Van Hoorenbeeck, A. Van Eyck, W. G. Vos, J. W. De Backer, A. Boudewyns, W. De Backer, and S. L. Verhulst, “Upper airway imaging in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Sleep Med. Rev. 21, 59–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaz, M. A.

P. J. Tavares and M. A. Vaz, “Linear calibration procedure for the phase-to-height relationship in phase measurement profilometry,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 307–314 (2007).
[Crossref]

Verhulst, S. L.

M. A. Slaats, K. Van Hoorenbeeck, A. Van Eyck, W. G. Vos, J. W. De Backer, A. Boudewyns, W. De Backer, and S. L. Verhulst, “Upper airway imaging in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Sleep Med. Rev. 21, 59–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volk, M. S.

R. K. Shah, B. Nemati, L. V. Wang, M. S. Volk, and S. M. Shapshay, “Optical-thermal simulation of human tonsillar tissue irradiation: clinical implications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27(3), 269–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Volk, Z. Wang, M. M. Pankratov, D. F. Perrault, D. R. Ingrams, and S. M. Shapshay, “Mucosal intact laser tonsillar ablation,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(12), 1355–1359 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vos, W. G.

M. A. Slaats, K. Van Hoorenbeeck, A. Van Eyck, W. G. Vos, J. W. De Backer, A. Boudewyns, W. De Backer, and S. L. Verhulst, “Upper airway imaging in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Sleep Med. Rev. 21, 59–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

R. K. Shah, B. Nemati, L. V. Wang, M. S. Volk, and S. M. Shapshay, “Optical-thermal simulation of human tonsillar tissue irradiation: clinical implications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27(3), 269–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

M. S. Volk, Z. Wang, M. M. Pankratov, D. F. Perrault, D. R. Ingrams, and S. M. Shapshay, “Mucosal intact laser tonsillar ablation,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(12), 1355–1359 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ward, S. D.

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weng, W. C.

K. T. Kang, C. H. Chou, W. C. Weng, P. L. Lee, and W. C. Hsu, “Associations between Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy, Age, and Obesity in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” PLoS One 8(10), e78666 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wing, Y. K.

C. T. Au, C. K. Ho, Y. K. Wing, and A. M. Li, “The effect of childhood obstructive sleep apnea on ambulatory blood pressure is modulated by the distribution of respiratory events during rapid eye movement and nonrapid eye movement sleep,” Sleep Med. 14(12), 1317–1322 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Ng, D. L. Lee, A. M. Li, Y. K. Wing, and M. C. Tong, “Reproducibility of clinical grading of tonsillar size,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(2), 159–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zagainova, E.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

J. Geng, “Structured-light 3D surface imaging: a tutorial,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 128–160 (2011).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1)

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. T. Costarino, S. Mahboubi, C. E. Tayag-Kier, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway structure of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164(4), 698–703 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (2)

S. K. Ng, D. L. Lee, A. M. Li, Y. K. Wing, and M. C. Tong, “Reproducibility of clinical grading of tonsillar size,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(2), 159–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Volk, Z. Wang, M. M. Pankratov, D. F. Perrault, D. R. Ingrams, and S. M. Shapshay, “Mucosal intact laser tonsillar ablation,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(12), 1355–1359 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clinics (Sao Paulo) (1)

M. B. Cahali, C. F. D. Soares, D. A. D. Dantas, and G. G. S. Formigoni, “Tonsil volume, tonsil grade and obstructive sleep apnea: is there any meaningful correlation?” Clinics (Sao Paulo) 66(8), 1347–1352 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. (1)

D. Gozal and L. Kheirandish-Gozal, “Neurocognitive and behavioral morbidity in children with sleep disorders,” Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 13(6), 505–509 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

N. A. George, F. F. M. de Mul, Q. Qiu, G. Rakhorst, and H. K. Schutte, “New laryngoscope for quantitative high-speed imaging of human vocal folds vibration in the horizontal and vertical direction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Sleep Med. (1)

H. V. M. Kumar, J. W. Schroeder, Z. Gang, and S. H. Sheldon, “Mallampati Score and Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” J. Clin. Sleep Med. 10(9), 985–990 (2014).
[PubMed]

Laryngoscope (1)

A. Tang, M. Gropler, A. L. Duggins, R. S. Amin, S. R. Shott, B. Chini, and S. L. Ishman, “Gaps in evidence: Management of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy,” Laryngoscope 126, 758–762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

R. K. Shah, B. Nemati, L. V. Wang, M. S. Volk, and S. M. Shapshay, “Optical-thermal simulation of human tonsillar tissue irradiation: clinical implications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 27(3), 269–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Image Anal. (1)

C. Schmalz, F. Forster, A. Schick, and E. Angelopoulou, “An endoscopic 3D scanner based on structured light,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1063–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oper. Tech. Otolaryngol. (1)

S. R. Shott, “Sleep cine magnetic resonance imaging—A dynamic evaluation of the airway,” Oper. Tech. Otolaryngol. 23(1), 19–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. J. Tavares and M. A. Vaz, “Linear calibration procedure for the phase-to-height relationship in phase measurement profilometry,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 307–314 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 10–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Otolaryngology (2)

N. S. Howard and S. E. Brietzke, “Pediatric tonsil size: objective vs subjective measurements correlated to overnight polysomnogram,” Otolaryngology 140(5), 675–681 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. E. Brietzke and D. Gallagher, “The effectiveness of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in the treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome: a meta-analysis,” Otolaryngology 134(6), 979–984 (2006).
[Crossref]

Otolaryngology–head and neck surgery: official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surg. (1)

J. Nolan and S. E. Brietzke, “Systematic review of pediatric tonsil size and polysomnogram-measured obstructive sleep apnea severity,” Otolaryngology–head and neck surgery: official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surg. 144(6), 844–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pediatr. Clin. North Am. (1)

L. Brodsky, “Modern Assessment of Tonsils and Adenoids,” Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 36(6), 1551–1569 (1989).
[PubMed]

Pediatrics (1)

C. L. Marcus, L. J. Brooks, K. A. Draper, D. Gozal, A. C. Halbower, J. Jones, M. S. Schechter, S. D. Ward, S. H. Sheldon, R. N. Shiffman, C. Lehmann, and K. Spruyt, “Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Pediatrics 130(3), e714–e755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS One (1)

K. T. Kang, C. H. Chou, W. C. Weng, P. L. Lee, and W. C. Hsu, “Associations between Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy, Age, and Obesity in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” PLoS One 8(10), e78666 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. J. Das, J. C. Estrada, Z. F. Ge, S. Dolcetti, D. Chen, and R. Raskar, “A compact structured light based otoscope for three dimensional imaging of the tympanic membrane,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93031F (2015).

Sleep (1)

H. Clawges, H. Ramadan, A. McBean, S. Insana, E. Santy, and H. E. Montgomery-Downs, “Digital Oral Photography for Pediatric Tonsillar Hypertrophy Grading,” Sleep 34, A274 (2011).

Sleep Med. (1)

C. T. Au, C. K. Ho, Y. K. Wing, and A. M. Li, “The effect of childhood obstructive sleep apnea on ambulatory blood pressure is modulated by the distribution of respiratory events during rapid eye movement and nonrapid eye movement sleep,” Sleep Med. 14(12), 1317–1322 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sleep Med. Rev. (1)

M. A. Slaats, K. Van Hoorenbeeck, A. Van Eyck, W. G. Vos, J. W. De Backer, A. Boudewyns, W. De Backer, and S. L. Verhulst, “Upper airway imaging in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Sleep Med. Rev. 21, 59–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

N. Bedard, I. Tosic, L. Meng, and K. Berkner, “Light Field Otoscope,” in Imaging and Applied Optics 2014(Optical Society of America, Seattle, Washington, 2014), p. IM3C.6.

H. Li, A. Das, T. Swedish, H. Park, and R. Raskar, “Modeling and capturing the human body: for rendering, health and visualization,” presented at the ACM SIGGRAPH 2015 Courses, Los Angeles, California2015.
[Crossref]

H. Wisweh, N. Rohrbeck, A. Krüger, M. Kraft, K. Aleksandrov, and H. Lubatschowski, “A laryngoscope for office-based imaging of human vocal folds using OCT,” (2009), pp. 73720I–73720I–73726.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the optical arrangement of the oral camera. (b) Photograph of the prototype used for the study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CAD and 3D printed models of the four stages of tonsils in accordance with the Brodsky classification. (a) Grade 1 + , (b) Grade 2 + , (c) Grade 3 + and (d) Grade 4 + . Corresponding 3D printed models for the respective grades (e) Grade 1 + , (f) Grade 2 + , (g) Grade 3 + and (4) Grade 4 + . (i-j). Photographs of the measurement setup with the mouth model and the optical arrangement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Procedure for calculating height of an object using phase shifting fringe projection method. (b) Respective image after thresholding and segmention. The corresponding phase image (c) and reconstruced 3D map (d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a,c) 3D reconstruction for the cases of Grade 1 + and 2 + tonsillar hypertrophy. (b,d) Profile maps of Grade 1 + and Grade 2 + tonsils corresponding to the blue marker as indicated in the (a,c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a,c) 3D reconstruction for the cases of Grade 3 + and 4 + tonsillar hypertrophy. (b,d) Profile maps of Grade 3 + and Grade 4 + tonsils corresponding to the blue marker as indicated in the (a,c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Volume estimation of tonsils when viewed from an angle of 5-10° for (a) Grade 1 + , (b) Grade 2 + , (c) Grade 3 + and (d) Grade 4 + . Shaded regions in red indicate the region of interested selected for volume estimation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measurements on soft tissue-like models. (a) 3D shape map for the case of Grade 3 + soft model. (b) Line profile of the shaded blue line in (a). (c) Volume estimation of tonsils (red shaded region) when viewed from an angle of 5-10° for Grade 3 + soft model.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Geometric parameters for height conversion

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Table 2 Volume comparison using simulated, optical and fluid displacement methods

Equations (6)

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I n ( x,y )=a( x,y )+b( x,y )cos(ϕ( x,y )+ ω x x+ ω y y+ π 2 n).
f( x,y )=2 I 3 I 1 I 5 +i[I I 4 ],
p( x,y )= f(x,y)
Φ( x,y )=f(x,y).
ϕ( x,y )={ e Φ(x,y) e i( ω ^ x x+ ω ^ y y) }
h( x,y )= L 0 Δϕ(x,y) Δϕ( x,y )+2π f 0 d

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