Abstract

This study aims to develop a window chamber system in the skin of rats and to monitor the primo vascular system (PVS) inside the lymphatic vessels along the superficial epigastric vessels. The PVS in lymphatic vessels has been observed through many experiments under in vivo conditions, but monitoring the in vivo PVS in situ inside lymphatic vessels for a long time is difficult. To overcome the obstacles, we adapted the window chamber system for monitoring the PVS and Alcian blue (AB) staining dye solution for the contrast agent. The lymphatic vessels in the skin on the lateral side of the body, connecting the inguinal lymph nodes to the axillary lymph nodes, were the targets for setting the window system. After AB had been injected into the inguinal lymph nodes with a glass capillary, the morphological changes of the stained PVS were monitored through the window system for up to twenty hours, and the changes in the AB intensity in the PVS were quantified by using image processing. The results and histological images are presented in this study.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. C. Sandison, “Observations on the growth of blood vessels as seen in the transparent chamber introduced into the rabbit’s ear,” Am. J. Anat. 41(3), 475–496 (1928).
    [Crossref]
  2. Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. G. M. Palmer, A. N. Fontanella, S. Shan, G. Hanna, G. Zhang, C. L. Fraser, and M. W. Dewhirst, “In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters,” Nat. Protoc. 6(9), 1355–1366 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. I. Fuhrhop, M. Schroeder, S. L. Rafnsdóttir, L. Viezens, W. Rüther, N. Hansen-Algenstaedt, and C. Schaefer, “Dynamics of microvascular remodelling during tumor growth in bone,” J. Orthop. Res. 28(1), 27–31 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  5. N. M. Biel, J. A. Lee, B. S. Sorg, and D. W. Siemann, “Limitations of the dorsal skinfold window chamber model in evaluating anti-angiogenic therapy during early phase of angiogenesis,” Vasc. Cell 6(1), 17 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. R. McCormack, A. J. Walsh, W. Sit, C. L. Arteaga, J. Chen, R. S. Cook, and M. C. Skala, “In vivo hyperspectral imaging of microvessel response to trastuzumab treatment in breast cancer xenografts,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2247–2261 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. Schaeffer, J. A. Somarelli, G. Hanna, G. M. Palmer, and M. A. Garcia-Blanco, “Cellular migration and invasion uncoupled: increased migration is not an inexorable consequence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 34(18), 3486–3499 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. E. M. Sevick-Muraca, S. Kwon, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Emerging lymphatic imaging technologies for mouse and man,” J. Clin. Invest. 124(3), 905–914 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Weiler, T. Kassis, and J. B. Dixon, “Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066019 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. E. S. Lee, T. S. Kim, and S. K. Kim, “Current status of optical imaging for evaluating lymph nodes and lymphatic system,” Korean J. Radiol. 16(1), 21–31 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Mouse phenotyping with near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1403–1411 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. E. R. Clark and E. L. Clark, “Observations on the new growth of lymphatic vessels as seen in transparent chambers introduced into the rabbit’s ear,” Am. J. Anat. 51(1), 49–87 (1932).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. K. S. Soh, “Bonghan circulatory system as an extension of acupuncture meridians,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 2(2), 93–106 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Stefanov and J. Kim, “Primo vascular system as a new morphofunctional integrated system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 193–200 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. Stefanov, M. Potroz, J. Kim, J. Lim, R. Cha, and M. H. Nam, “The primo vascular system as a new anatomical system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 331–338 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. J. Lee, S. H. Park, Y. I. Kim, S. Hwang, P. M. Kwon, I. S. Han, and B. S. Kwon, “Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury,” Stem Cells Dev. 23(23), 2831–2840 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. J. Cai, J. Chen, Y. Zhuang, M. L. Liu, and F. R. Liang, “Review and comment on the relationship between primo vascular system and meridians,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 279176 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Y. I. Noh, M. Rho, Y. M. Yoo, S. J. Jung, and S. S. Lee, “Isolation and morphological features of primo vessels in rabbit lymph vessels,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 201–205 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, G. O. Kim, M. H. Nam, Y. B. Choi, H. M. Kwon, Y. Ryu, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system in the lymph vessel from the inguinal to the axillary nodes,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 472704 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. S. J. Jung, K. H. Bae, M. H. Nam, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system floating in lymph ducts of rats,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 306–318 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. J. Jung, S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 7(6), 337–345 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. B. H. Kim, “On the kyungrak system,” J. Acad. Med. Sci. DPRK. 90, 1–35 (1963).
  24. B. C. Lee, J. S. Yoo, K. Y. Baik, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Novel threadlike structures (Bonghan ducts) inside lymphatic vessels of rabbits visualized with a Janus Green B staining method,” Anat. Rec. B New Anat. 286(1), 1–7 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. C. Lee, S. K. Seol, B. C. Lee, Y. K. Hong, J. H. Je, and K. S. Soh, “Alcian blue staining method to visualize bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and x-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 4(4), 181–190 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. H. M. Johng, J. S. Yoo, T. J. Yoon, H. S. Shin, B. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. K. Lee, and K. S. Soh, “Use of magnetic nanoparticles to visualize threadlike structures inside lymphatic vessels of rats,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 4(1), 77–82 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. B. C. Lee and K. S. Soh, “Contrast-enhancing optical method to observe a Bonghan duct floating inside a lymph vessel of a rabbit,” Lymphology 41(4), 178–185 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  28. V. Ogay, K. H. Bae, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Comparison of the characteristic features of Bonghan ducts, blood and lymphatic capillaries,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 2(2), 107–117 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. I. H. Choi, H. K. Jeong, and Y. K. Hong, “ Detection of the primo vessels in the rodent thoracic lymphatic ducts,” in The Primo Vascular System: Its Role in Cancer and Regeneration, K. S. Soh, K. A. Kang, D. Harrison, eds. (Springer, 2011).

2015 (2)

E. S. Lee, T. S. Kim, and S. K. Kim, “Current status of optical imaging for evaluating lymph nodes and lymphatic system,” Korean J. Radiol. 16(1), 21–31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

S. J. Lee, S. H. Park, Y. I. Kim, S. Hwang, P. M. Kwon, I. S. Han, and B. S. Kwon, “Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury,” Stem Cells Dev. 23(23), 2831–2840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Biel, J. A. Lee, B. S. Sorg, and D. W. Siemann, “Limitations of the dorsal skinfold window chamber model in evaluating anti-angiogenic therapy during early phase of angiogenesis,” Vasc. Cell 6(1), 17 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. McCormack, A. J. Walsh, W. Sit, C. L. Arteaga, J. Chen, R. S. Cook, and M. C. Skala, “In vivo hyperspectral imaging of microvessel response to trastuzumab treatment in breast cancer xenografts,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2247–2261 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schaeffer, J. A. Somarelli, G. Hanna, G. M. Palmer, and M. A. Garcia-Blanco, “Cellular migration and invasion uncoupled: increased migration is not an inexorable consequence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 34(18), 3486–3499 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, S. Kwon, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Emerging lymphatic imaging technologies for mouse and man,” J. Clin. Invest. 124(3), 905–914 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Jung, S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 7(6), 337–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, G. O. Kim, M. H. Nam, Y. B. Choi, H. M. Kwon, Y. Ryu, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system in the lymph vessel from the inguinal to the axillary nodes,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 472704 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Jung, K. H. Bae, M. H. Nam, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system floating in lymph ducts of rats,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 306–318 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Cai, J. Chen, Y. Zhuang, M. L. Liu, and F. R. Liang, “Review and comment on the relationship between primo vascular system and meridians,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 279176 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Stefanov, M. Potroz, J. Kim, J. Lim, R. Cha, and M. H. Nam, “The primo vascular system as a new anatomical system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 331–338 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. Stefanov and J. Kim, “Primo vascular system as a new morphofunctional integrated system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 193–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. I. Noh, M. Rho, Y. M. Yoo, S. J. Jung, and S. S. Lee, “Isolation and morphological features of primo vessels in rabbit lymph vessels,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 201–205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Weiler, T. Kassis, and J. B. Dixon, “Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066019 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

G. M. Palmer, A. N. Fontanella, S. Shan, G. Hanna, G. Zhang, C. L. Fraser, and M. W. Dewhirst, “In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters,” Nat. Protoc. 6(9), 1355–1366 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Mouse phenotyping with near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1403–1411 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

I. Fuhrhop, M. Schroeder, S. L. Rafnsdóttir, L. Viezens, W. Rüther, N. Hansen-Algenstaedt, and C. Schaefer, “Dynamics of microvascular remodelling during tumor growth in bone,” J. Orthop. Res. 28(1), 27–31 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. S. Soh, “Bonghan circulatory system as an extension of acupuncture meridians,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 2(2), 93–106 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ogay, K. H. Bae, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Comparison of the characteristic features of Bonghan ducts, blood and lymphatic capillaries,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 2(2), 107–117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

B. C. Lee and K. S. Soh, “Contrast-enhancing optical method to observe a Bonghan duct floating inside a lymph vessel of a rabbit,” Lymphology 41(4), 178–185 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. M. Johng, J. S. Yoo, T. J. Yoon, H. S. Shin, B. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. K. Lee, and K. S. Soh, “Use of magnetic nanoparticles to visualize threadlike structures inside lymphatic vessels of rats,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 4(1), 77–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. Lee, S. K. Seol, B. C. Lee, Y. K. Hong, J. H. Je, and K. S. Soh, “Alcian blue staining method to visualize bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and x-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 4(4), 181–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. C. Lee, J. S. Yoo, K. Y. Baik, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Novel threadlike structures (Bonghan ducts) inside lymphatic vessels of rabbits visualized with a Janus Green B staining method,” Anat. Rec. B New Anat. 286(1), 1–7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

B. H. Kim, “On the kyungrak system,” J. Acad. Med. Sci. DPRK. 90, 1–35 (1963).

1932 (1)

E. R. Clark and E. L. Clark, “Observations on the new growth of lymphatic vessels as seen in transparent chambers introduced into the rabbit’s ear,” Am. J. Anat. 51(1), 49–87 (1932).
[Crossref]

1928 (1)

J. C. Sandison, “Observations on the growth of blood vessels as seen in the transparent chamber introduced into the rabbit’s ear,” Am. J. Anat. 41(3), 475–496 (1928).
[Crossref]

Anyrhambatla, G.

Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arteaga, C. L.

Bae, K. H.

S. J. Jung, S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 7(6), 337–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, G. O. Kim, M. H. Nam, Y. B. Choi, H. M. Kwon, Y. Ryu, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system in the lymph vessel from the inguinal to the axillary nodes,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 472704 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Jung, K. H. Bae, M. H. Nam, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system floating in lymph ducts of rats,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 306–318 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ogay, K. H. Bae, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Comparison of the characteristic features of Bonghan ducts, blood and lymphatic capillaries,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 2(2), 107–117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baik, K. Y.

B. C. Lee, J. S. Yoo, K. Y. Baik, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Novel threadlike structures (Bonghan ducts) inside lymphatic vessels of rabbits visualized with a Janus Green B staining method,” Anat. Rec. B New Anat. 286(1), 1–7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biel, N. M.

N. M. Biel, J. A. Lee, B. S. Sorg, and D. W. Siemann, “Limitations of the dorsal skinfold window chamber model in evaluating anti-angiogenic therapy during early phase of angiogenesis,” Vasc. Cell 6(1), 17 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borelli, M.

Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, R. D.

Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, D. J.

D. J. Cai, J. Chen, Y. Zhuang, M. L. Liu, and F. R. Liang, “Review and comment on the relationship between primo vascular system and meridians,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 279176 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castle, D.

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cha, R.

M. Stefanov, M. Potroz, J. Kim, J. Lim, R. Cha, and M. H. Nam, “The primo vascular system as a new anatomical system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 331–338 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

D. R. McCormack, A. J. Walsh, W. Sit, C. L. Arteaga, J. Chen, R. S. Cook, and M. C. Skala, “In vivo hyperspectral imaging of microvessel response to trastuzumab treatment in breast cancer xenografts,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2247–2261 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Cai, J. Chen, Y. Zhuang, M. L. Liu, and F. R. Liang, “Review and comment on the relationship between primo vascular system and meridians,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 279176 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, Y. B.

S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, G. O. Kim, M. H. Nam, Y. B. Choi, H. M. Kwon, Y. Ryu, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system in the lymph vessel from the inguinal to the axillary nodes,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 472704 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, E. L.

E. R. Clark and E. L. Clark, “Observations on the new growth of lymphatic vessels as seen in transparent chambers introduced into the rabbit’s ear,” Am. J. Anat. 51(1), 49–87 (1932).
[Crossref]

Clark, E. R.

E. R. Clark and E. L. Clark, “Observations on the new growth of lymphatic vessels as seen in transparent chambers introduced into the rabbit’s ear,” Am. J. Anat. 51(1), 49–87 (1932).
[Crossref]

Cook, R. S.

Corry, P.

Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Derecki, N. C.

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dewhirst, M. W.

G. M. Palmer, A. N. Fontanella, S. Shan, G. Hanna, G. Zhang, C. L. Fraser, and M. W. Dewhirst, “In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters,” Nat. Protoc. 6(9), 1355–1366 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dixon, J. B.

M. Weiler, T. Kassis, and J. B. Dixon, “Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066019 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eccles, J. D.

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fontanella, A. N.

G. M. Palmer, A. N. Fontanella, S. Shan, G. Hanna, G. Zhang, C. L. Fraser, and M. W. Dewhirst, “In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters,” Nat. Protoc. 6(9), 1355–1366 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraser, C. L.

G. M. Palmer, A. N. Fontanella, S. Shan, G. Hanna, G. Zhang, C. L. Fraser, and M. W. Dewhirst, “In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters,” Nat. Protoc. 6(9), 1355–1366 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuhrhop, I.

I. Fuhrhop, M. Schroeder, S. L. Rafnsdóttir, L. Viezens, W. Rüther, N. Hansen-Algenstaedt, and C. Schaefer, “Dynamics of microvascular remodelling during tumor growth in bone,” J. Orthop. Res. 28(1), 27–31 (2010).
[PubMed]

Garcia-Blanco, M. A.

D. Schaeffer, J. A. Somarelli, G. Hanna, G. M. Palmer, and M. A. Garcia-Blanco, “Cellular migration and invasion uncoupled: increased migration is not an inexorable consequence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 34(18), 3486–3499 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, I. S.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Park, Y. I. Kim, S. Hwang, P. M. Kwon, I. S. Han, and B. S. Kwon, “Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury,” Stem Cells Dev. 23(23), 2831–2840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanna, G.

D. Schaeffer, J. A. Somarelli, G. Hanna, G. M. Palmer, and M. A. Garcia-Blanco, “Cellular migration and invasion uncoupled: increased migration is not an inexorable consequence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 34(18), 3486–3499 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, A. N. Fontanella, S. Shan, G. Hanna, G. Zhang, C. L. Fraser, and M. W. Dewhirst, “In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters,” Nat. Protoc. 6(9), 1355–1366 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen-Algenstaedt, N.

I. Fuhrhop, M. Schroeder, S. L. Rafnsdóttir, L. Viezens, W. Rüther, N. Hansen-Algenstaedt, and C. Schaefer, “Dynamics of microvascular remodelling during tumor growth in bone,” J. Orthop. Res. 28(1), 27–31 (2010).
[PubMed]

Harris, T. H.

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, Y. K.

C. Lee, S. K. Seol, B. C. Lee, Y. K. Hong, J. H. Je, and K. S. Soh, “Alcian blue staining method to visualize bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and x-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 4(4), 181–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, S.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Park, Y. I. Kim, S. Hwang, P. M. Kwon, I. S. Han, and B. S. Kwon, “Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury,” Stem Cells Dev. 23(23), 2831–2840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Je, J. H.

C. Lee, S. K. Seol, B. C. Lee, Y. K. Hong, J. H. Je, and K. S. Soh, “Alcian blue staining method to visualize bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and x-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 4(4), 181–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johng, H. M.

H. M. Johng, J. S. Yoo, T. J. Yoon, H. S. Shin, B. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. K. Lee, and K. S. Soh, “Use of magnetic nanoparticles to visualize threadlike structures inside lymphatic vessels of rats,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 4(1), 77–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, S. J.

S. J. Jung, S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 7(6), 337–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Jung, K. H. Bae, M. H. Nam, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system floating in lymph ducts of rats,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 306–318 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. I. Noh, M. Rho, Y. M. Yoo, S. J. Jung, and S. S. Lee, “Isolation and morphological features of primo vessels in rabbit lymph vessels,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 201–205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kassis, T.

M. Weiler, T. Kassis, and J. B. Dixon, “Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066019 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keyes, T. J.

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B. H.

B. H. Kim, “On the kyungrak system,” J. Acad. Med. Sci. DPRK. 90, 1–35 (1963).

Kim, G. O.

S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, G. O. Kim, M. H. Nam, Y. B. Choi, H. M. Kwon, Y. Ryu, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system in the lymph vessel from the inguinal to the axillary nodes,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 472704 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

M. Stefanov, M. Potroz, J. Kim, J. Lim, R. Cha, and M. H. Nam, “The primo vascular system as a new anatomical system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 331–338 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Stefanov and J. Kim, “Primo vascular system as a new morphofunctional integrated system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 193–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. W.

V. Ogay, K. H. Bae, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Comparison of the characteristic features of Bonghan ducts, blood and lymphatic capillaries,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 2(2), 107–117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Lee, J. S. Yoo, K. Y. Baik, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Novel threadlike structures (Bonghan ducts) inside lymphatic vessels of rabbits visualized with a Janus Green B staining method,” Anat. Rec. B New Anat. 286(1), 1–7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. K.

E. S. Lee, T. S. Kim, and S. K. Kim, “Current status of optical imaging for evaluating lymph nodes and lymphatic system,” Korean J. Radiol. 16(1), 21–31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T. S.

E. S. Lee, T. S. Kim, and S. K. Kim, “Current status of optical imaging for evaluating lymph nodes and lymphatic system,” Korean J. Radiol. 16(1), 21–31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. I.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Park, Y. I. Kim, S. Hwang, P. M. Kwon, I. S. Han, and B. S. Kwon, “Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury,” Stem Cells Dev. 23(23), 2831–2840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kipnis, J.

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, G.

Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, B. S.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Park, Y. I. Kim, S. Hwang, P. M. Kwon, I. S. Han, and B. S. Kwon, “Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury,” Stem Cells Dev. 23(23), 2831–2840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, H. M.

S. J. Jung, S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 7(6), 337–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Jung, K. H. Bae, M. H. Nam, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system floating in lymph ducts of rats,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 306–318 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, G. O. Kim, M. H. Nam, Y. B. Choi, H. M. Kwon, Y. Ryu, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system in the lymph vessel from the inguinal to the axillary nodes,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 472704 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, P. M.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Park, Y. I. Kim, S. Hwang, P. M. Kwon, I. S. Han, and B. S. Kwon, “Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury,” Stem Cells Dev. 23(23), 2831–2840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, S. Kwon, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Emerging lymphatic imaging technologies for mouse and man,” J. Clin. Invest. 124(3), 905–914 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Mouse phenotyping with near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1403–1411 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lanzen, J.

Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B. C.

B. C. Lee and K. S. Soh, “Contrast-enhancing optical method to observe a Bonghan duct floating inside a lymph vessel of a rabbit,” Lymphology 41(4), 178–185 (2008).
[PubMed]

H. M. Johng, J. S. Yoo, T. J. Yoon, H. S. Shin, B. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. K. Lee, and K. S. Soh, “Use of magnetic nanoparticles to visualize threadlike structures inside lymphatic vessels of rats,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 4(1), 77–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, S. K. Seol, B. C. Lee, Y. K. Hong, J. H. Je, and K. S. Soh, “Alcian blue staining method to visualize bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and x-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 4(4), 181–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Lee, J. S. Yoo, K. Y. Baik, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Novel threadlike structures (Bonghan ducts) inside lymphatic vessels of rabbits visualized with a Janus Green B staining method,” Anat. Rec. B New Anat. 286(1), 1–7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

H. M. Johng, J. S. Yoo, T. J. Yoon, H. S. Shin, B. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. K. Lee, and K. S. Soh, “Use of magnetic nanoparticles to visualize threadlike structures inside lymphatic vessels of rats,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 4(1), 77–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, S. K. Seol, B. C. Lee, Y. K. Hong, J. H. Je, and K. S. Soh, “Alcian blue staining method to visualize bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and x-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 4(4), 181–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, E. S.

E. S. Lee, T. S. Kim, and S. K. Kim, “Current status of optical imaging for evaluating lymph nodes and lymphatic system,” Korean J. Radiol. 16(1), 21–31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. A.

N. M. Biel, J. A. Lee, B. S. Sorg, and D. W. Siemann, “Limitations of the dorsal skinfold window chamber model in evaluating anti-angiogenic therapy during early phase of angiogenesis,” Vasc. Cell 6(1), 17 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. K.

H. M. Johng, J. S. Yoo, T. J. Yoon, H. S. Shin, B. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. K. Lee, and K. S. Soh, “Use of magnetic nanoparticles to visualize threadlike structures inside lymphatic vessels of rats,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 4(1), 77–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. S.

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

S. J. Jung, S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 7(6), 337–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, G. O. Kim, M. H. Nam, Y. B. Choi, H. M. Kwon, Y. Ryu, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system in the lymph vessel from the inguinal to the axillary nodes,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 472704 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Park, Y. I. Kim, S. Hwang, P. M. Kwon, I. S. Han, and B. S. Kwon, “Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury,” Stem Cells Dev. 23(23), 2831–2840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. S.

Y. I. Noh, M. Rho, Y. M. Yoo, S. J. Jung, and S. S. Lee, “Isolation and morphological features of primo vessels in rabbit lymph vessels,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 201–205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C. Y.

Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, F. R.

D. J. Cai, J. Chen, Y. Zhuang, M. L. Liu, and F. R. Liang, “Review and comment on the relationship between primo vascular system and meridians,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 279176 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, J.

M. Stefanov, M. Potroz, J. Kim, J. Lim, R. Cha, and M. H. Nam, “The primo vascular system as a new anatomical system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 331–338 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M. L.

D. J. Cai, J. Chen, Y. Zhuang, M. L. Liu, and F. R. Liang, “Review and comment on the relationship between primo vascular system and meridians,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 279176 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Louveau, A.

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandell, J. W.

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCormack, D. R.

Nam, M. H.

M. Stefanov, M. Potroz, J. Kim, J. Lim, R. Cha, and M. H. Nam, “The primo vascular system as a new anatomical system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 331–338 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, G. O. Kim, M. H. Nam, Y. B. Choi, H. M. Kwon, Y. Ryu, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system in the lymph vessel from the inguinal to the axillary nodes,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 472704 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Jung, K. H. Bae, M. H. Nam, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system floating in lymph ducts of rats,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 306–318 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, Y. I.

Y. I. Noh, M. Rho, Y. M. Yoo, S. J. Jung, and S. S. Lee, “Isolation and morphological features of primo vessels in rabbit lymph vessels,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 201–205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogay, V.

V. Ogay, K. H. Bae, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Comparison of the characteristic features of Bonghan ducts, blood and lymphatic capillaries,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 2(2), 107–117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

D. Schaeffer, J. A. Somarelli, G. Hanna, G. M. Palmer, and M. A. Garcia-Blanco, “Cellular migration and invasion uncoupled: increased migration is not an inexorable consequence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 34(18), 3486–3499 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, A. N. Fontanella, S. Shan, G. Hanna, G. Zhang, C. L. Fraser, and M. W. Dewhirst, “In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters,” Nat. Protoc. 6(9), 1355–1366 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Park, Y. I. Kim, S. Hwang, P. M. Kwon, I. S. Han, and B. S. Kwon, “Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury,” Stem Cells Dev. 23(23), 2831–2840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peske, J. D.

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potroz, M.

M. Stefanov, M. Potroz, J. Kim, J. Lim, R. Cha, and M. H. Nam, “The primo vascular system as a new anatomical system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 331–338 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rafnsdóttir, S. L.

I. Fuhrhop, M. Schroeder, S. L. Rafnsdóttir, L. Viezens, W. Rüther, N. Hansen-Algenstaedt, and C. Schaefer, “Dynamics of microvascular remodelling during tumor growth in bone,” J. Orthop. Res. 28(1), 27–31 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rasmussen, J. C.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, S. Kwon, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Emerging lymphatic imaging technologies for mouse and man,” J. Clin. Invest. 124(3), 905–914 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rho, M.

Y. I. Noh, M. Rho, Y. M. Yoo, S. J. Jung, and S. S. Lee, “Isolation and morphological features of primo vessels in rabbit lymph vessels,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 201–205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rouhani, S. J.

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rüther, W.

I. Fuhrhop, M. Schroeder, S. L. Rafnsdóttir, L. Viezens, W. Rüther, N. Hansen-Algenstaedt, and C. Schaefer, “Dynamics of microvascular remodelling during tumor growth in bone,” J. Orthop. Res. 28(1), 27–31 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ryu, Y.

S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, G. O. Kim, M. H. Nam, Y. B. Choi, H. M. Kwon, Y. Ryu, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system in the lymph vessel from the inguinal to the axillary nodes,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 472704 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandison, J. C.

J. C. Sandison, “Observations on the growth of blood vessels as seen in the transparent chamber introduced into the rabbit’s ear,” Am. J. Anat. 41(3), 475–496 (1928).
[Crossref]

Schaefer, C.

I. Fuhrhop, M. Schroeder, S. L. Rafnsdóttir, L. Viezens, W. Rüther, N. Hansen-Algenstaedt, and C. Schaefer, “Dynamics of microvascular remodelling during tumor growth in bone,” J. Orthop. Res. 28(1), 27–31 (2010).
[PubMed]

Schaeffer, D.

D. Schaeffer, J. A. Somarelli, G. Hanna, G. M. Palmer, and M. A. Garcia-Blanco, “Cellular migration and invasion uncoupled: increased migration is not an inexorable consequence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 34(18), 3486–3499 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroeder, M.

I. Fuhrhop, M. Schroeder, S. L. Rafnsdóttir, L. Viezens, W. Rüther, N. Hansen-Algenstaedt, and C. Schaefer, “Dynamics of microvascular remodelling during tumor growth in bone,” J. Orthop. Res. 28(1), 27–31 (2010).
[PubMed]

Seol, S. K.

C. Lee, S. K. Seol, B. C. Lee, Y. K. Hong, J. H. Je, and K. S. Soh, “Alcian blue staining method to visualize bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and x-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 4(4), 181–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, S. Kwon, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Emerging lymphatic imaging technologies for mouse and man,” J. Clin. Invest. 124(3), 905–914 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Mouse phenotyping with near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1403–1411 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shan, S.

G. M. Palmer, A. N. Fontanella, S. Shan, G. Hanna, G. Zhang, C. L. Fraser, and M. W. Dewhirst, “In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters,” Nat. Protoc. 6(9), 1355–1366 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, H. S.

H. M. Johng, J. S. Yoo, T. J. Yoon, H. S. Shin, B. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. K. Lee, and K. S. Soh, “Use of magnetic nanoparticles to visualize threadlike structures inside lymphatic vessels of rats,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 4(1), 77–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siemann, D. W.

N. M. Biel, J. A. Lee, B. S. Sorg, and D. W. Siemann, “Limitations of the dorsal skinfold window chamber model in evaluating anti-angiogenic therapy during early phase of angiogenesis,” Vasc. Cell 6(1), 17 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sit, W.

Skala, M. C.

Smirnov, I.

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soh, K. S.

S. J. Jung, S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 7(6), 337–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Jung, K. H. Bae, M. H. Nam, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system floating in lymph ducts of rats,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 306–318 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, G. O. Kim, M. H. Nam, Y. B. Choi, H. M. Kwon, Y. Ryu, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system in the lymph vessel from the inguinal to the axillary nodes,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 472704 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Soh, “Bonghan circulatory system as an extension of acupuncture meridians,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 2(2), 93–106 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ogay, K. H. Bae, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Comparison of the characteristic features of Bonghan ducts, blood and lymphatic capillaries,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 2(2), 107–117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Lee and K. S. Soh, “Contrast-enhancing optical method to observe a Bonghan duct floating inside a lymph vessel of a rabbit,” Lymphology 41(4), 178–185 (2008).
[PubMed]

H. M. Johng, J. S. Yoo, T. J. Yoon, H. S. Shin, B. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. K. Lee, and K. S. Soh, “Use of magnetic nanoparticles to visualize threadlike structures inside lymphatic vessels of rats,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 4(1), 77–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, S. K. Seol, B. C. Lee, Y. K. Hong, J. H. Je, and K. S. Soh, “Alcian blue staining method to visualize bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and x-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 4(4), 181–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Lee, J. S. Yoo, K. Y. Baik, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Novel threadlike structures (Bonghan ducts) inside lymphatic vessels of rabbits visualized with a Janus Green B staining method,” Anat. Rec. B New Anat. 286(1), 1–7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Somarelli, J. A.

D. Schaeffer, J. A. Somarelli, G. Hanna, G. M. Palmer, and M. A. Garcia-Blanco, “Cellular migration and invasion uncoupled: increased migration is not an inexorable consequence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 34(18), 3486–3499 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y. K.

S. J. Jung, S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 7(6), 337–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Jung, K. H. Bae, M. H. Nam, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system floating in lymph ducts of rats,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 306–318 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorg, B. S.

N. M. Biel, J. A. Lee, B. S. Sorg, and D. W. Siemann, “Limitations of the dorsal skinfold window chamber model in evaluating anti-angiogenic therapy during early phase of angiogenesis,” Vasc. Cell 6(1), 17 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stefanov, M.

M. Stefanov, M. Potroz, J. Kim, J. Lim, R. Cha, and M. H. Nam, “The primo vascular system as a new anatomical system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 331–338 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Stefanov and J. Kim, “Primo vascular system as a new morphofunctional integrated system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 193–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viezens, L.

I. Fuhrhop, M. Schroeder, S. L. Rafnsdóttir, L. Viezens, W. Rüther, N. Hansen-Algenstaedt, and C. Schaefer, “Dynamics of microvascular remodelling during tumor growth in bone,” J. Orthop. Res. 28(1), 27–31 (2010).
[PubMed]

Walsh, A. J.

Weiler, M.

M. Weiler, T. Kassis, and J. B. Dixon, “Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066019 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, J. S.

H. M. Johng, J. S. Yoo, T. J. Yoon, H. S. Shin, B. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. K. Lee, and K. S. Soh, “Use of magnetic nanoparticles to visualize threadlike structures inside lymphatic vessels of rats,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 4(1), 77–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Lee, J. S. Yoo, K. Y. Baik, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Novel threadlike structures (Bonghan ducts) inside lymphatic vessels of rabbits visualized with a Janus Green B staining method,” Anat. Rec. B New Anat. 286(1), 1–7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, Y. M.

Y. I. Noh, M. Rho, Y. M. Yoo, S. J. Jung, and S. S. Lee, “Isolation and morphological features of primo vessels in rabbit lymph vessels,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 201–205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, T. J.

H. M. Johng, J. S. Yoo, T. J. Yoon, H. S. Shin, B. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. K. Lee, and K. S. Soh, “Use of magnetic nanoparticles to visualize threadlike structures inside lymphatic vessels of rats,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 4(1), 77–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

G. M. Palmer, A. N. Fontanella, S. Shan, G. Hanna, G. Zhang, C. L. Fraser, and M. W. Dewhirst, “In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters,” Nat. Protoc. 6(9), 1355–1366 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, Y.

D. J. Cai, J. Chen, Y. Zhuang, M. L. Liu, and F. R. Liang, “Review and comment on the relationship between primo vascular system and meridians,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 279176 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Anat. (2)

J. C. Sandison, “Observations on the growth of blood vessels as seen in the transparent chamber introduced into the rabbit’s ear,” Am. J. Anat. 41(3), 475–496 (1928).
[Crossref]

E. R. Clark and E. L. Clark, “Observations on the new growth of lymphatic vessels as seen in transparent chambers introduced into the rabbit’s ear,” Am. J. Anat. 51(1), 49–87 (1932).
[Crossref]

Anat. Rec. B New Anat. (1)

B. C. Lee, J. S. Yoo, K. Y. Baik, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Novel threadlike structures (Bonghan ducts) inside lymphatic vessels of rabbits visualized with a Janus Green B staining method,” Anat. Rec. B New Anat. 286(1), 1–7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. (3)

H. M. Johng, J. S. Yoo, T. J. Yoon, H. S. Shin, B. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. K. Lee, and K. S. Soh, “Use of magnetic nanoparticles to visualize threadlike structures inside lymphatic vessels of rats,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 4(1), 77–82 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Cai, J. Chen, Y. Zhuang, M. L. Liu, and F. R. Liang, “Review and comment on the relationship between primo vascular system and meridians,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 279176 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, G. O. Kim, M. H. Nam, Y. B. Choi, H. M. Kwon, Y. Ryu, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system in the lymph vessel from the inguinal to the axillary nodes,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, 472704 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Acad. Med. Sci. DPRK. (1)

B. H. Kim, “On the kyungrak system,” J. Acad. Med. Sci. DPRK. 90, 1–35 (1963).

J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. (7)

V. Ogay, K. H. Bae, K. W. Kim, and K. S. Soh, “Comparison of the characteristic features of Bonghan ducts, blood and lymphatic capillaries,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 2(2), 107–117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Jung, K. H. Bae, M. H. Nam, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Primo vascular system floating in lymph ducts of rats,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 306–318 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Jung, S. H. Lee, K. H. Bae, H. M. Kwon, Y. K. Song, and K. S. Soh, “Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 7(6), 337–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. I. Noh, M. Rho, Y. M. Yoo, S. J. Jung, and S. S. Lee, “Isolation and morphological features of primo vessels in rabbit lymph vessels,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 201–205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Soh, “Bonghan circulatory system as an extension of acupuncture meridians,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 2(2), 93–106 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Stefanov and J. Kim, “Primo vascular system as a new morphofunctional integrated system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 5(5), 193–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Stefanov, M. Potroz, J. Kim, J. Lim, R. Cha, and M. H. Nam, “The primo vascular system as a new anatomical system,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 6(6), 331–338 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Weiler, T. Kassis, and J. B. Dixon, “Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066019 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Invest. (1)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, S. Kwon, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Emerging lymphatic imaging technologies for mouse and man,” J. Clin. Invest. 124(3), 905–914 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Orthop. Res. (1)

I. Fuhrhop, M. Schroeder, S. L. Rafnsdóttir, L. Viezens, W. Rüther, N. Hansen-Algenstaedt, and C. Schaefer, “Dynamics of microvascular remodelling during tumor growth in bone,” J. Orthop. Res. 28(1), 27–31 (2010).
[PubMed]

Korean J. Radiol. (1)

E. S. Lee, T. S. Kim, and S. K. Kim, “Current status of optical imaging for evaluating lymph nodes and lymphatic system,” Korean J. Radiol. 16(1), 21–31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lymphat. Res. Biol. (1)

C. Lee, S. K. Seol, B. C. Lee, Y. K. Hong, J. H. Je, and K. S. Soh, “Alcian blue staining method to visualize bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and x-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 4(4), 181–190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lymphology (1)

B. C. Lee and K. S. Soh, “Contrast-enhancing optical method to observe a Bonghan duct floating inside a lymph vessel of a rabbit,” Lymphology 41(4), 178–185 (2008).
[PubMed]

Mol. Cell. Biol. (1)

D. Schaeffer, J. A. Somarelli, G. Hanna, G. M. Palmer, and M. A. Garcia-Blanco, “Cellular migration and invasion uncoupled: increased migration is not an inexorable consequence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 34(18), 3486–3499 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

Q. Huang, S. Shan, R. D. Braun, J. Lanzen, G. Anyrhambatla, G. Kong, M. Borelli, P. Corry, M. W. Dewhirst, and C. Y. Li, “Noninvasive visualization of tumors in rodent dorsal skin window chambers,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(10), 1033–1035 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

G. M. Palmer, A. N. Fontanella, S. Shan, G. Hanna, G. Zhang, C. L. Fraser, and M. W. Dewhirst, “In vivo optical molecular imaging and analysis in mice using dorsal window chamber models applied to hypoxia, vasculature and fluorescent reporters,” Nat. Protoc. 6(9), 1355–1366 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

A. Louveau, I. Smirnov, T. J. Keyes, J. D. Eccles, S. J. Rouhani, J. D. Peske, N. C. Derecki, D. Castle, J. W. Mandell, K. S. Lee, T. H. Harris, and J. Kipnis, “Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels,” Nature 523(7560), 337–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stem Cells Dev. (1)

S. J. Lee, S. H. Park, Y. I. Kim, S. Hwang, P. M. Kwon, I. S. Han, and B. S. Kwon, “Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury,” Stem Cells Dev. 23(23), 2831–2840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasc. Cell (1)

N. M. Biel, J. A. Lee, B. S. Sorg, and D. W. Siemann, “Limitations of the dorsal skinfold window chamber model in evaluating anti-angiogenic therapy during early phase of angiogenesis,” Vasc. Cell 6(1), 17 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

I. H. Choi, H. K. Jeong, and Y. K. Hong, “ Detection of the primo vessels in the rodent thoracic lymphatic ducts,” in The Primo Vascular System: Its Role in Cancer and Regeneration, K. S. Soh, K. A. Kang, D. Harrison, eds. (Springer, 2011).

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (3542 KB)      2 hours after AB injection
» Visualization 2: AVI (1245 KB)      20 hours after AB injection

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental procedure for and schematic diagram of the imaging instruments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Imaging process for isolating the intensity of AB-stained tissue in the PVS: (A) the original image, (B) the red component of the original image, and (C) the inverted image of the red component gray image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-lapse images after AB had been injected into the inguinal lymph node. The large blood vessels in the figure are superficial epigastric veins. On the left is the caudal vein, and on the right is the cranial wein. The AB flows from left to right. At 20 hours after injection, the SB-stained PVS inside the lymphatic vessel is seen to be disconnected. (Visualization 1 and Visualization 2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal changes in the AB intensity along the PVS. Two regions were selected for magnified views, and the images were quantified by image processing the changes in the relative AB intensity for up to 20 hours.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histological images and confocal images. (A) A phase contrast image of the AB-stained PVS inside the lymphatic vessel. (B) A DAPI image. The arrows indicate rod-shaped nuclei. The left hand part of the PV shows non-rod-shaped nuclei, which are lymphocytes that aggregated to the PV. (C) A phallodin image showing the cytoskeleton of F-actin. (D) A combined image of B and C. The part belonging to the PV is different from the aggregated lymphocytes (arrow heads).

Metrics