Abstract

Combination therapies of photochemical internalization (PCI) and moderate hyperthermia (MHT) were investigated in an in vitro system consisting of human and rat glioma spheroids. PCI using the amphiphilic photosensitizer, AlPcS2a and two anti cancer agents BLM or 5-FU were used. Spheroids were irradiated with λ = 670 nm laser light in an incubator at temperatures ranging from 37 to 44°C. For each temperature investigated, spheroids were divided into 4 groups: control, drug-only, photodynamic therapy (PDT), and PCI. PDT and PCI spheroids were exposed to radiant exposures ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 J cm−2 using an irradiance of 5 mW cm−2. Toxicity was evaluated from spheroid growth kinetics. The combination of PCI and MHT resulted in significant increases in BLM efficacy at 44°C for both cell line derived spheroids compared to controls at 37°C over the range of radiant exposures examined. 5-FU PCI was ineffective for the human cell line at both 37 and 44°C.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

A. Weyergang, M. E. Berstad, B. Bull-Hansen, C. E. Olsen, P. K. Selbo, and K. Berg, “Photochemical activation of drugs for the treatment of therapy-resistant cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 14(8), 1465–1475 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Christie, S. J. Madsen, Q. Peng, and H. Hirschberg, “Macrophages as nanoparticle delivery vectors for photothermal therapy of brain tumors,” Ther. Deliv. 6(3), 371–384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

A. J. Trinidad, S. J. Hong, Q. Peng, S. J. Madsen, and H. Hirschberg, “Combined concurrent photodynamic and gold nanoshell loaded macrophage-mediated photothermal therapies: an in vitro study on squamous cell head and neck carcinoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(4), 310–318 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Tysoe and S. G. Withers, “Fluorinated mechanism-based inhibitors: common themes and recent developments,” Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 14(7), 865–874 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Ma, “Enhancing endosomal escape for nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery,” Nanoscale 6(12), 6415–6425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Mehtala, S. Torregrosa-Allen, B. D. Elzey, M. Jeon, C. Kim, and A. Wei, “Synergistic effects of cisplatin chemotherapy and gold nanorod-mediated hyperthermia on ovarian cancer cells and tumors,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 9(13), 1939–1955 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

H. Kim, D. Lee, J. Kim, T. I. Kim, and W. J. Kim, “Photothermally triggered cytosolic drug delivery via endosome disruption using a functionalized reduced graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 7(8), 6735–6746 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

M. S. Mathews, J. W. Blickenstaff, E. C. Shih, G. Zamora, V. Vo, C. H. Sun, H. Hirschberg, and S. J. Madsen, “Photochemical internalization of bleomycin for glioma treatment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 058001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

J. Zhou, X. Wang, L. Du, L. Zhao, F. Lei, W. Ouyang, Y. Zhang, Y. Liao, and J. Tang, “Effect of hyperthermia on the apoptosis and proliferation of CaSki cells,” Mol. Med. Rep. 4(1), 187–191 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. C. Chamberlain, “Radiographic patterns of relapse in glioblastoma,” J. Neurooncol. 101(2), 319–323 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Dobelbower, O. L. Burnett, R. A. Nordal, L. B. Nabors, J. M. Markert, M. D. Hyatt, and J. B. Fiveash, “Patterns of failure for glioblastoma multiforme following concurrent radiation and temozolomide,” J. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol. 55(1), 77–81 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

N. G. Huilgol, S. Gupta, and R. Dixit, “Chemoradiation with hyperthermia in the treatment of head and neck cancer,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 26(1), 21–25 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Selbo, A. Weyergang, A. Høgset, O. J. Norum, M. B. Berstad, M. Vikdal, and K. Berg, “Photochemical internalization provides time- and space-controlled endolysosomal escape of therapeutic molecules,” J. Control. Release 148(1), 2–12 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tang and A. J. McGoron, “Combined effects of laser-ICG photothermotherapy and doxorubicin chemotherapy on ovarian cancer cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 97(3), 138–144 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Schwartz, A. M. Shetty, R. E. Price, R. J. Stafford, J. C. Wang, R. K. Uthamanthil, K. Pham, R. J. McNichols, C. L. Coleman, and J. D. Payne, “Feasibility study of particle-assisted laser ablation of brain tumors in orthotopic canine model,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1659–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Michalakis, S. D. Georgatos, E. de Bree, H. Polioudaki, J. Romanos, V. Georgoulias, D. D. Tsiftsis, and P. A. Theodoropoulos, “Short-term exposure of cancer cells to micromolar doses of paclitaxel, with or without hyperthermia, induces long-term inhibition of cell proliferation and cell death in vitro,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1220–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Determination of the minimum temperature required for selective photothermal destruction of cancer cells with the use of immunotargeted gold nanoparticles,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(2), 412–417 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H. Hirschberg, C. H. Sun, B. J. Tromberg, A. T. Yeh, and S. J. Madsen, “Enhanced cytotoxic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy by concurrent hyperthermia in glioma spheroids,” J. Neurooncol. 70(3), 289–299 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

B. Hildebrandt, P. Wust, O. Ahlers, A. Dieing, G. Sreenivasa, T. Kerner, R. Felix, and H. Riess, “The cellular and molecular basis of hyperthermia,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 43(1), 33–56 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wust, B. Hildebrandt, G. Sreenivasa, B. Rau, J. Gellermann, H. Riess, R. Felix, and P. M. Schlag, “Hyperthermia in Combined Treatment of Cancer,” Lancet Oncol. 3(8), 487–497 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van der Zee, “Heating the patient: A promising approach?” Ann. Oncol. 13(8), 1173–1184 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

H. H. Kampinga and E. Dikomey, “Hyperthermic radiosensitization: mode of action and clinical relevance,” Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 77(4), 399–408 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. Issels, “Hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy-biological rationale, clinical application, and treatment results,” Onkologie 22(5), 374–381 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. F. Barth, “Rat brain tumor models in experimental neuro-oncology: the 9L, C6, T9, F98, RG2 (D74), RT-2 and CNS-1 gliomas,” J. Neurooncol. 36(1), 91–102 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

Q. Chen, H. Chen, H. Shapiro, and F. W. Hetzel, “Sequencing of combined hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 146(3), 293–297 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. O. Dereski, L. Madigan, and M. Chopp, “The effect of hypothermia and hyperthermia on photodynamic therapy of normal brain,” Neurosurgery 36(1), 141–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. A. Mackey and J. L. Roti Roti, “A model of heat-induced clonogenic cell death,” J. Theor. Biol. 156(2), 133–146 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

R. Valdagni, F. F. Liu, and D. S. Kapp, “Important prognostic factors influencing outcome of combined radiation and hyperthermia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 15(4), 959–972 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

S. M. Hecht, “DNA strand scission by activated bleomycin group antibiotics,” Fed. Proc. 45(12), 2784–2791 (1986).
[PubMed]

1979 (1)

S. B. Field and N. M. Bleehen, “Hyperthermia in the treatment of cancer,” Cancer Treat. Rev. 6(2), 63–94 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

B. Drewinko, T. L. Loo, B. Brown, J. A. Gottlieb, and E. J. Freireich, “Combination chemotherapy in vitro with adriamycin. Observations of additive, antagonistic, and synergistic effects when used in two-drug combinations on cultured human lymphoma cells,” Cancer Biochem. Biophys. 1(4), 187–195 (1976).
[PubMed]

1975 (1)

G. M. Hahn, J. Braun, and I. Har-Kedar, “Thermochemotherapy: synergism between hyperthermia (42-43 degrees) and adriamycin (of bleomycin) in mammalian cell inactivation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72(3), 937–940 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlers, O.

B. Hildebrandt, P. Wust, O. Ahlers, A. Dieing, G. Sreenivasa, T. Kerner, R. Felix, and H. Riess, “The cellular and molecular basis of hyperthermia,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 43(1), 33–56 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allgeier, A.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bankson, J. A.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barth, R. F.

R. F. Barth, “Rat brain tumor models in experimental neuro-oncology: the 9L, C6, T9, F98, RG2 (D74), RT-2 and CNS-1 gliomas,” J. Neurooncol. 36(1), 91–102 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belanger, K.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berg, K.

A. Weyergang, M. E. Berstad, B. Bull-Hansen, C. E. Olsen, P. K. Selbo, and K. Berg, “Photochemical activation of drugs for the treatment of therapy-resistant cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 14(8), 1465–1475 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Selbo, A. Weyergang, A. Høgset, O. J. Norum, M. B. Berstad, M. Vikdal, and K. Berg, “Photochemical internalization provides time- and space-controlled endolysosomal escape of therapeutic molecules,” J. Control. Release 148(1), 2–12 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berstad, M. B.

P. K. Selbo, A. Weyergang, A. Høgset, O. J. Norum, M. B. Berstad, M. Vikdal, and K. Berg, “Photochemical internalization provides time- and space-controlled endolysosomal escape of therapeutic molecules,” J. Control. Release 148(1), 2–12 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berstad, M. E.

A. Weyergang, M. E. Berstad, B. Bull-Hansen, C. E. Olsen, P. K. Selbo, and K. Berg, “Photochemical activation of drugs for the treatment of therapy-resistant cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 14(8), 1465–1475 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bleehen, N. M.

S. B. Field and N. M. Bleehen, “Hyperthermia in the treatment of cancer,” Cancer Treat. Rev. 6(2), 63–94 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blickenstaff, J. W.

M. S. Mathews, J. W. Blickenstaff, E. C. Shih, G. Zamora, V. Vo, C. H. Sun, H. Hirschberg, and S. J. Madsen, “Photochemical internalization of bleomycin for glioma treatment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 058001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonsted, A.

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brandes, A. A.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, J.

G. M. Hahn, J. Braun, and I. Har-Kedar, “Thermochemotherapy: synergism between hyperthermia (42-43 degrees) and adriamycin (of bleomycin) in mammalian cell inactivation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72(3), 937–940 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, B.

B. Drewinko, T. L. Loo, B. Brown, J. A. Gottlieb, and E. J. Freireich, “Combination chemotherapy in vitro with adriamycin. Observations of additive, antagonistic, and synergistic effects when used in two-drug combinations on cultured human lymphoma cells,” Cancer Biochem. Biophys. 1(4), 187–195 (1976).
[PubMed]

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A. Weyergang, M. E. Berstad, B. Bull-Hansen, C. E. Olsen, P. K. Selbo, and K. Berg, “Photochemical activation of drugs for the treatment of therapy-resistant cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 14(8), 1465–1475 (2015).
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M. C. Dobelbower, O. L. Burnett, R. A. Nordal, L. B. Nabors, J. M. Markert, M. D. Hyatt, and J. B. Fiveash, “Patterns of failure for glioblastoma multiforme following concurrent radiation and temozolomide,” J. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol. 55(1), 77–81 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cairncross, J. G.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
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M. C. Chamberlain, “Radiographic patterns of relapse in glioblastoma,” J. Neurooncol. 101(2), 319–323 (2011).
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Chen, H.

Q. Chen, H. Chen, H. Shapiro, and F. W. Hetzel, “Sequencing of combined hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 146(3), 293–297 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, H. Chen, H. Shapiro, and F. W. Hetzel, “Sequencing of combined hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 146(3), 293–297 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chopp, M.

M. O. Dereski, L. Madigan, and M. Chopp, “The effect of hypothermia and hyperthermia on photodynamic therapy of normal brain,” Neurosurgery 36(1), 141–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christie, C.

C. Christie, S. J. Madsen, Q. Peng, and H. Hirschberg, “Macrophages as nanoparticle delivery vectors for photothermal therapy of brain tumors,” Ther. Deliv. 6(3), 371–384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coleman, C. L.

J. A. Schwartz, A. M. Shetty, R. E. Price, R. J. Stafford, J. C. Wang, R. K. Uthamanthil, K. Pham, R. J. McNichols, C. L. Coleman, and J. D. Payne, “Feasibility study of particle-assisted laser ablation of brain tumors in orthotopic canine model,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1659–1667 (2009).
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de Bree, E.

J. Michalakis, S. D. Georgatos, E. de Bree, H. Polioudaki, J. Romanos, V. Georgoulias, D. D. Tsiftsis, and P. A. Theodoropoulos, “Short-term exposure of cancer cells to micromolar doses of paclitaxel, with or without hyperthermia, induces long-term inhibition of cell proliferation and cell death in vitro,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1220–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dereski, M. O.

M. O. Dereski, L. Madigan, and M. Chopp, “The effect of hypothermia and hyperthermia on photodynamic therapy of normal brain,” Neurosurgery 36(1), 141–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dieing, A.

B. Hildebrandt, P. Wust, O. Ahlers, A. Dieing, G. Sreenivasa, T. Kerner, R. Felix, and H. Riess, “The cellular and molecular basis of hyperthermia,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 43(1), 33–56 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dietze, A.

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dikomey, E.

H. H. Kampinga and E. Dikomey, “Hyperthermic radiosensitization: mode of action and clinical relevance,” Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 77(4), 399–408 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dixit, R.

N. G. Huilgol, S. Gupta, and R. Dixit, “Chemoradiation with hyperthermia in the treatment of head and neck cancer,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 26(1), 21–25 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobelbower, M. C.

M. C. Dobelbower, O. L. Burnett, R. A. Nordal, L. B. Nabors, J. M. Markert, M. D. Hyatt, and J. B. Fiveash, “Patterns of failure for glioblastoma multiforme following concurrent radiation and temozolomide,” J. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol. 55(1), 77–81 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drewinko, B.

B. Drewinko, T. L. Loo, B. Brown, J. A. Gottlieb, and E. J. Freireich, “Combination chemotherapy in vitro with adriamycin. Observations of additive, antagonistic, and synergistic effects when used in two-drug combinations on cultured human lymphoma cells,” Cancer Biochem. Biophys. 1(4), 187–195 (1976).
[PubMed]

Du, L.

J. Zhou, X. Wang, L. Du, L. Zhao, F. Lei, W. Ouyang, Y. Zhang, Y. Liao, and J. Tang, “Effect of hyperthermia on the apoptosis and proliferation of CaSki cells,” Mol. Med. Rep. 4(1), 187–191 (2011).
[PubMed]

Eisenhauer, E.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, I. H.

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Determination of the minimum temperature required for selective photothermal destruction of cancer cells with the use of immunotargeted gold nanoparticles,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(2), 412–417 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Determination of the minimum temperature required for selective photothermal destruction of cancer cells with the use of immunotargeted gold nanoparticles,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(2), 412–417 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elzey, B. D.

J. G. Mehtala, S. Torregrosa-Allen, B. D. Elzey, M. Jeon, C. Kim, and A. Wei, “Synergistic effects of cisplatin chemotherapy and gold nanorod-mediated hyperthermia on ovarian cancer cells and tumors,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 9(13), 1939–1955 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engesæter, B. Ø.

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Felix, R.

B. Hildebrandt, P. Wust, O. Ahlers, A. Dieing, G. Sreenivasa, T. Kerner, R. Felix, and H. Riess, “The cellular and molecular basis of hyperthermia,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 43(1), 33–56 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wust, B. Hildebrandt, G. Sreenivasa, B. Rau, J. Gellermann, H. Riess, R. Felix, and P. M. Schlag, “Hyperthermia in Combined Treatment of Cancer,” Lancet Oncol. 3(8), 487–497 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. B. Field and N. M. Bleehen, “Hyperthermia in the treatment of cancer,” Cancer Treat. Rev. 6(2), 63–94 (1979).
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R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fiveash, J. B.

M. C. Dobelbower, O. L. Burnett, R. A. Nordal, L. B. Nabors, J. M. Markert, M. D. Hyatt, and J. B. Fiveash, “Patterns of failure for glioblastoma multiforme following concurrent radiation and temozolomide,” J. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol. 55(1), 77–81 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Folini, M.

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freireich, E. J.

B. Drewinko, T. L. Loo, B. Brown, J. A. Gottlieb, and E. J. Freireich, “Combination chemotherapy in vitro with adriamycin. Observations of additive, antagonistic, and synergistic effects when used in two-drug combinations on cultured human lymphoma cells,” Cancer Biochem. Biophys. 1(4), 187–195 (1976).
[PubMed]

Gellermann, J.

P. Wust, B. Hildebrandt, G. Sreenivasa, B. Rau, J. Gellermann, H. Riess, R. Felix, and P. M. Schlag, “Hyperthermia in Combined Treatment of Cancer,” Lancet Oncol. 3(8), 487–497 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Georgatos, S. D.

J. Michalakis, S. D. Georgatos, E. de Bree, H. Polioudaki, J. Romanos, V. Georgoulias, D. D. Tsiftsis, and P. A. Theodoropoulos, “Short-term exposure of cancer cells to micromolar doses of paclitaxel, with or without hyperthermia, induces long-term inhibition of cell proliferation and cell death in vitro,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1220–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Georgoulias, V.

J. Michalakis, S. D. Georgatos, E. de Bree, H. Polioudaki, J. Romanos, V. Georgoulias, D. D. Tsiftsis, and P. A. Theodoropoulos, “Short-term exposure of cancer cells to micromolar doses of paclitaxel, with or without hyperthermia, induces long-term inhibition of cell proliferation and cell death in vitro,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1220–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gijtenbeek, J.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorlia, T.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gottlieb, J. A.

B. Drewinko, T. L. Loo, B. Brown, J. A. Gottlieb, and E. J. Freireich, “Combination chemotherapy in vitro with adriamycin. Observations of additive, antagonistic, and synergistic effects when used in two-drug combinations on cultured human lymphoma cells,” Cancer Biochem. Biophys. 1(4), 187–195 (1976).
[PubMed]

Gupta, S.

N. G. Huilgol, S. Gupta, and R. Dixit, “Chemoradiation with hyperthermia in the treatment of head and neck cancer,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 26(1), 21–25 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, G. M.

G. M. Hahn, J. Braun, and I. Har-Kedar, “Thermochemotherapy: synergism between hyperthermia (42-43 degrees) and adriamycin (of bleomycin) in mammalian cell inactivation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72(3), 937–940 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Har-Kedar, I.

G. M. Hahn, J. Braun, and I. Har-Kedar, “Thermochemotherapy: synergism between hyperthermia (42-43 degrees) and adriamycin (of bleomycin) in mammalian cell inactivation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72(3), 937–940 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hau, P.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hazle, J. D.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
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S. M. Hecht, “DNA strand scission by activated bleomycin group antibiotics,” Fed. Proc. 45(12), 2784–2791 (1986).
[PubMed]

Hegi, M. E.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hetzel, F. W.

Q. Chen, H. Chen, H. Shapiro, and F. W. Hetzel, “Sequencing of combined hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 146(3), 293–297 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hildebrandt, B.

P. Wust, B. Hildebrandt, G. Sreenivasa, B. Rau, J. Gellermann, H. Riess, R. Felix, and P. M. Schlag, “Hyperthermia in Combined Treatment of Cancer,” Lancet Oncol. 3(8), 487–497 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hildebrandt, P. Wust, O. Ahlers, A. Dieing, G. Sreenivasa, T. Kerner, R. Felix, and H. Riess, “The cellular and molecular basis of hyperthermia,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 43(1), 33–56 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirsch, L. R.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirschberg, H.

C. Christie, S. J. Madsen, Q. Peng, and H. Hirschberg, “Macrophages as nanoparticle delivery vectors for photothermal therapy of brain tumors,” Ther. Deliv. 6(3), 371–384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Trinidad, S. J. Hong, Q. Peng, S. J. Madsen, and H. Hirschberg, “Combined concurrent photodynamic and gold nanoshell loaded macrophage-mediated photothermal therapies: an in vitro study on squamous cell head and neck carcinoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(4), 310–318 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Mathews, J. W. Blickenstaff, E. C. Shih, G. Zamora, V. Vo, C. H. Sun, H. Hirschberg, and S. J. Madsen, “Photochemical internalization of bleomycin for glioma treatment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 058001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirschberg, C. H. Sun, B. J. Tromberg, A. T. Yeh, and S. J. Madsen, “Enhanced cytotoxic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy by concurrent hyperthermia in glioma spheroids,” J. Neurooncol. 70(3), 289–299 (2004).
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Høgset, A.

P. K. Selbo, A. Weyergang, A. Høgset, O. J. Norum, M. B. Berstad, M. Vikdal, and K. Berg, “Photochemical internalization provides time- and space-controlled endolysosomal escape of therapeutic molecules,” J. Control. Release 148(1), 2–12 (2010).
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K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, S. J.

A. J. Trinidad, S. J. Hong, Q. Peng, S. J. Madsen, and H. Hirschberg, “Combined concurrent photodynamic and gold nanoshell loaded macrophage-mediated photothermal therapies: an in vitro study on squamous cell head and neck carcinoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(4), 310–318 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Determination of the minimum temperature required for selective photothermal destruction of cancer cells with the use of immunotargeted gold nanoparticles,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(2), 412–417 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huilgol, N. G.

N. G. Huilgol, S. Gupta, and R. Dixit, “Chemoradiation with hyperthermia in the treatment of head and neck cancer,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 26(1), 21–25 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hyatt, M. D.

M. C. Dobelbower, O. L. Burnett, R. A. Nordal, L. B. Nabors, J. M. Markert, M. D. Hyatt, and J. B. Fiveash, “Patterns of failure for glioblastoma multiforme following concurrent radiation and temozolomide,” J. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol. 55(1), 77–81 (2011).
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R. Issels, “Hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy-biological rationale, clinical application, and treatment results,” Onkologie 22(5), 374–381 (1999).
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Jain, P. K.

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Determination of the minimum temperature required for selective photothermal destruction of cancer cells with the use of immunotargeted gold nanoparticles,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(2), 412–417 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janzer, R. C.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, M.

J. G. Mehtala, S. Torregrosa-Allen, B. D. Elzey, M. Jeon, C. Kim, and A. Wei, “Synergistic effects of cisplatin chemotherapy and gold nanorod-mediated hyperthermia on ovarian cancer cells and tumors,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 9(13), 1939–1955 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kampinga, H. H.

H. H. Kampinga and E. Dikomey, “Hyperthermic radiosensitization: mode of action and clinical relevance,” Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 77(4), 399–408 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapp, D. S.

R. Valdagni, F. F. Liu, and D. S. Kapp, “Important prognostic factors influencing outcome of combined radiation and hyperthermia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 15(4), 959–972 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerner, T.

B. Hildebrandt, P. Wust, O. Ahlers, A. Dieing, G. Sreenivasa, T. Kerner, R. Felix, and H. Riess, “The cellular and molecular basis of hyperthermia,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 43(1), 33–56 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

J. G. Mehtala, S. Torregrosa-Allen, B. D. Elzey, M. Jeon, C. Kim, and A. Wei, “Synergistic effects of cisplatin chemotherapy and gold nanorod-mediated hyperthermia on ovarian cancer cells and tumors,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 9(13), 1939–1955 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, D. Lee, J. Kim, T. I. Kim, and W. J. Kim, “Photothermally triggered cytosolic drug delivery via endosome disruption using a functionalized reduced graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 7(8), 6735–6746 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

H. Kim, D. Lee, J. Kim, T. I. Kim, and W. J. Kim, “Photothermally triggered cytosolic drug delivery via endosome disruption using a functionalized reduced graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 7(8), 6735–6746 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T. I.

H. Kim, D. Lee, J. Kim, T. I. Kim, and W. J. Kim, “Photothermally triggered cytosolic drug delivery via endosome disruption using a functionalized reduced graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 7(8), 6735–6746 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, W. J.

H. Kim, D. Lee, J. Kim, T. I. Kim, and W. J. Kim, “Photothermally triggered cytosolic drug delivery via endosome disruption using a functionalized reduced graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 7(8), 6735–6746 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lacombe, D.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

H. Kim, D. Lee, J. Kim, T. I. Kim, and W. J. Kim, “Photothermally triggered cytosolic drug delivery via endosome disruption using a functionalized reduced graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 7(8), 6735–6746 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, F.

J. Zhou, X. Wang, L. Du, L. Zhao, F. Lei, W. Ouyang, Y. Zhang, Y. Liao, and J. Tang, “Effect of hyperthermia on the apoptosis and proliferation of CaSki cells,” Mol. Med. Rep. 4(1), 187–191 (2011).
[PubMed]

Liao, Y.

J. Zhou, X. Wang, L. Du, L. Zhao, F. Lei, W. Ouyang, Y. Zhang, Y. Liao, and J. Tang, “Effect of hyperthermia on the apoptosis and proliferation of CaSki cells,” Mol. Med. Rep. 4(1), 187–191 (2011).
[PubMed]

Liu, F. F.

R. Valdagni, F. F. Liu, and D. S. Kapp, “Important prognostic factors influencing outcome of combined radiation and hyperthermia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 15(4), 959–972 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loo, T. L.

B. Drewinko, T. L. Loo, B. Brown, J. A. Gottlieb, and E. J. Freireich, “Combination chemotherapy in vitro with adriamycin. Observations of additive, antagonistic, and synergistic effects when used in two-drug combinations on cultured human lymphoma cells,” Cancer Biochem. Biophys. 1(4), 187–195 (1976).
[PubMed]

Ludwin, S. K.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, D.

D. Ma, “Enhancing endosomal escape for nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery,” Nanoscale 6(12), 6415–6425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mackey, M. A.

M. A. Mackey and J. L. Roti Roti, “A model of heat-induced clonogenic cell death,” J. Theor. Biol. 156(2), 133–146 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madigan, L.

M. O. Dereski, L. Madigan, and M. Chopp, “The effect of hypothermia and hyperthermia on photodynamic therapy of normal brain,” Neurosurgery 36(1), 141–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madsen, S. J.

C. Christie, S. J. Madsen, Q. Peng, and H. Hirschberg, “Macrophages as nanoparticle delivery vectors for photothermal therapy of brain tumors,” Ther. Deliv. 6(3), 371–384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Trinidad, S. J. Hong, Q. Peng, S. J. Madsen, and H. Hirschberg, “Combined concurrent photodynamic and gold nanoshell loaded macrophage-mediated photothermal therapies: an in vitro study on squamous cell head and neck carcinoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(4), 310–318 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Mathews, J. W. Blickenstaff, E. C. Shih, G. Zamora, V. Vo, C. H. Sun, H. Hirschberg, and S. J. Madsen, “Photochemical internalization of bleomycin for glioma treatment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 058001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirschberg, C. H. Sun, B. J. Tromberg, A. T. Yeh, and S. J. Madsen, “Enhanced cytotoxic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy by concurrent hyperthermia in glioma spheroids,” J. Neurooncol. 70(3), 289–299 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maelandsmo, G. M.

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markert, J. M.

M. C. Dobelbower, O. L. Burnett, R. A. Nordal, L. B. Nabors, J. M. Markert, M. D. Hyatt, and J. B. Fiveash, “Patterns of failure for glioblastoma multiforme following concurrent radiation and temozolomide,” J. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol. 55(1), 77–81 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marosi, C.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mason, W. P.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathews, M. S.

M. S. Mathews, J. W. Blickenstaff, E. C. Shih, G. Zamora, V. Vo, C. H. Sun, H. Hirschberg, and S. J. Madsen, “Photochemical internalization of bleomycin for glioma treatment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 058001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGoron, A. J.

Y. Tang and A. J. McGoron, “Combined effects of laser-ICG photothermotherapy and doxorubicin chemotherapy on ovarian cancer cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 97(3), 138–144 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNichols, R. J.

J. A. Schwartz, A. M. Shetty, R. E. Price, R. J. Stafford, J. C. Wang, R. K. Uthamanthil, K. Pham, R. J. McNichols, C. L. Coleman, and J. D. Payne, “Feasibility study of particle-assisted laser ablation of brain tumors in orthotopic canine model,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1659–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehtala, J. G.

J. G. Mehtala, S. Torregrosa-Allen, B. D. Elzey, M. Jeon, C. Kim, and A. Wei, “Synergistic effects of cisplatin chemotherapy and gold nanorod-mediated hyperthermia on ovarian cancer cells and tumors,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 9(13), 1939–1955 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michalakis, J.

J. Michalakis, S. D. Georgatos, E. de Bree, H. Polioudaki, J. Romanos, V. Georgoulias, D. D. Tsiftsis, and P. A. Theodoropoulos, “Short-term exposure of cancer cells to micromolar doses of paclitaxel, with or without hyperthermia, induces long-term inhibition of cell proliferation and cell death in vitro,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1220–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mirimanoff, R. O.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mokhtari, K.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nabors, L. B.

M. C. Dobelbower, O. L. Burnett, R. A. Nordal, L. B. Nabors, J. M. Markert, M. D. Hyatt, and J. B. Fiveash, “Patterns of failure for glioblastoma multiforme following concurrent radiation and temozolomide,” J. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol. 55(1), 77–81 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordal, R. A.

M. C. Dobelbower, O. L. Burnett, R. A. Nordal, L. B. Nabors, J. M. Markert, M. D. Hyatt, and J. B. Fiveash, “Patterns of failure for glioblastoma multiforme following concurrent radiation and temozolomide,” J. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol. 55(1), 77–81 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norum, O. J.

P. K. Selbo, A. Weyergang, A. Høgset, O. J. Norum, M. B. Berstad, M. Vikdal, and K. Berg, “Photochemical internalization provides time- and space-controlled endolysosomal escape of therapeutic molecules,” J. Control. Release 148(1), 2–12 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olsen, C. E.

A. Weyergang, M. E. Berstad, B. Bull-Hansen, C. E. Olsen, P. K. Selbo, and K. Berg, “Photochemical activation of drugs for the treatment of therapy-resistant cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 14(8), 1465–1475 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ouyang, W.

J. Zhou, X. Wang, L. Du, L. Zhao, F. Lei, W. Ouyang, Y. Zhang, Y. Liao, and J. Tang, “Effect of hyperthermia on the apoptosis and proliferation of CaSki cells,” Mol. Med. Rep. 4(1), 187–191 (2011).
[PubMed]

Payne, J. D.

J. A. Schwartz, A. M. Shetty, R. E. Price, R. J. Stafford, J. C. Wang, R. K. Uthamanthil, K. Pham, R. J. McNichols, C. L. Coleman, and J. D. Payne, “Feasibility study of particle-assisted laser ablation of brain tumors in orthotopic canine model,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1659–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, Q.

C. Christie, S. J. Madsen, Q. Peng, and H. Hirschberg, “Macrophages as nanoparticle delivery vectors for photothermal therapy of brain tumors,” Ther. Deliv. 6(3), 371–384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Trinidad, S. J. Hong, Q. Peng, S. J. Madsen, and H. Hirschberg, “Combined concurrent photodynamic and gold nanoshell loaded macrophage-mediated photothermal therapies: an in vitro study on squamous cell head and neck carcinoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(4), 310–318 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, K.

J. A. Schwartz, A. M. Shetty, R. E. Price, R. J. Stafford, J. C. Wang, R. K. Uthamanthil, K. Pham, R. J. McNichols, C. L. Coleman, and J. D. Payne, “Feasibility study of particle-assisted laser ablation of brain tumors in orthotopic canine model,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1659–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polioudaki, H.

J. Michalakis, S. D. Georgatos, E. de Bree, H. Polioudaki, J. Romanos, V. Georgoulias, D. D. Tsiftsis, and P. A. Theodoropoulos, “Short-term exposure of cancer cells to micromolar doses of paclitaxel, with or without hyperthermia, induces long-term inhibition of cell proliferation and cell death in vitro,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1220–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasmickaite, L.

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Price, R. E.

J. A. Schwartz, A. M. Shetty, R. E. Price, R. J. Stafford, J. C. Wang, R. K. Uthamanthil, K. Pham, R. J. McNichols, C. L. Coleman, and J. D. Payne, “Feasibility study of particle-assisted laser ablation of brain tumors in orthotopic canine model,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1659–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rau, B.

P. Wust, B. Hildebrandt, G. Sreenivasa, B. Rau, J. Gellermann, H. Riess, R. Felix, and P. M. Schlag, “Hyperthermia in Combined Treatment of Cancer,” Lancet Oncol. 3(8), 487–497 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riess, H.

P. Wust, B. Hildebrandt, G. Sreenivasa, B. Rau, J. Gellermann, H. Riess, R. Felix, and P. M. Schlag, “Hyperthermia in Combined Treatment of Cancer,” Lancet Oncol. 3(8), 487–497 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hildebrandt, P. Wust, O. Ahlers, A. Dieing, G. Sreenivasa, T. Kerner, R. Felix, and H. Riess, “The cellular and molecular basis of hyperthermia,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 43(1), 33–56 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivera, B.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romanos, J.

J. Michalakis, S. D. Georgatos, E. de Bree, H. Polioudaki, J. Romanos, V. Georgoulias, D. D. Tsiftsis, and P. A. Theodoropoulos, “Short-term exposure of cancer cells to micromolar doses of paclitaxel, with or without hyperthermia, induces long-term inhibition of cell proliferation and cell death in vitro,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1220–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roti Roti, J. L.

M. A. Mackey and J. L. Roti Roti, “A model of heat-induced clonogenic cell death,” J. Theor. Biol. 156(2), 133–146 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlag, P. M.

P. Wust, B. Hildebrandt, G. Sreenivasa, B. Rau, J. Gellermann, H. Riess, R. Felix, and P. M. Schlag, “Hyperthermia in Combined Treatment of Cancer,” Lancet Oncol. 3(8), 487–497 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, J. A.

J. A. Schwartz, A. M. Shetty, R. E. Price, R. J. Stafford, J. C. Wang, R. K. Uthamanthil, K. Pham, R. J. McNichols, C. L. Coleman, and J. D. Payne, “Feasibility study of particle-assisted laser ablation of brain tumors in orthotopic canine model,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1659–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selbo, P. K.

A. Weyergang, M. E. Berstad, B. Bull-Hansen, C. E. Olsen, P. K. Selbo, and K. Berg, “Photochemical activation of drugs for the treatment of therapy-resistant cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 14(8), 1465–1475 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Selbo, A. Weyergang, A. Høgset, O. J. Norum, M. B. Berstad, M. Vikdal, and K. Berg, “Photochemical internalization provides time- and space-controlled endolysosomal escape of therapeutic molecules,” J. Control. Release 148(1), 2–12 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sershen, S. R.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, H.

Q. Chen, H. Chen, H. Shapiro, and F. W. Hetzel, “Sequencing of combined hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 146(3), 293–297 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shetty, A. M.

J. A. Schwartz, A. M. Shetty, R. E. Price, R. J. Stafford, J. C. Wang, R. K. Uthamanthil, K. Pham, R. J. McNichols, C. L. Coleman, and J. D. Payne, “Feasibility study of particle-assisted laser ablation of brain tumors in orthotopic canine model,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1659–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, E. C.

M. S. Mathews, J. W. Blickenstaff, E. C. Shih, G. Zamora, V. Vo, C. H. Sun, H. Hirschberg, and S. J. Madsen, “Photochemical internalization of bleomycin for glioma treatment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 058001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sreenivasa, G.

B. Hildebrandt, P. Wust, O. Ahlers, A. Dieing, G. Sreenivasa, T. Kerner, R. Felix, and H. Riess, “The cellular and molecular basis of hyperthermia,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 43(1), 33–56 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wust, B. Hildebrandt, G. Sreenivasa, B. Rau, J. Gellermann, H. Riess, R. Felix, and P. M. Schlag, “Hyperthermia in Combined Treatment of Cancer,” Lancet Oncol. 3(8), 487–497 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stafford, R. J.

J. A. Schwartz, A. M. Shetty, R. E. Price, R. J. Stafford, J. C. Wang, R. K. Uthamanthil, K. Pham, R. J. McNichols, C. L. Coleman, and J. D. Payne, “Feasibility study of particle-assisted laser ablation of brain tumors in orthotopic canine model,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1659–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stupp, R.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C. H.

M. S. Mathews, J. W. Blickenstaff, E. C. Shih, G. Zamora, V. Vo, C. H. Sun, H. Hirschberg, and S. J. Madsen, “Photochemical internalization of bleomycin for glioma treatment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 058001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirschberg, C. H. Sun, B. J. Tromberg, A. T. Yeh, and S. J. Madsen, “Enhanced cytotoxic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy by concurrent hyperthermia in glioma spheroids,” J. Neurooncol. 70(3), 289–299 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, J.

J. Zhou, X. Wang, L. Du, L. Zhao, F. Lei, W. Ouyang, Y. Zhang, Y. Liao, and J. Tang, “Effect of hyperthermia on the apoptosis and proliferation of CaSki cells,” Mol. Med. Rep. 4(1), 187–191 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang and A. J. McGoron, “Combined effects of laser-ICG photothermotherapy and doxorubicin chemotherapy on ovarian cancer cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 97(3), 138–144 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taphoorn, M. J.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theodoropoulos, P. A.

J. Michalakis, S. D. Georgatos, E. de Bree, H. Polioudaki, J. Romanos, V. Georgoulias, D. D. Tsiftsis, and P. A. Theodoropoulos, “Short-term exposure of cancer cells to micromolar doses of paclitaxel, with or without hyperthermia, induces long-term inhibition of cell proliferation and cell death in vitro,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1220–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torregrosa-Allen, S.

J. G. Mehtala, S. Torregrosa-Allen, B. D. Elzey, M. Jeon, C. Kim, and A. Wei, “Synergistic effects of cisplatin chemotherapy and gold nanorod-mediated hyperthermia on ovarian cancer cells and tumors,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 9(13), 1939–1955 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trinidad, A. J.

A. J. Trinidad, S. J. Hong, Q. Peng, S. J. Madsen, and H. Hirschberg, “Combined concurrent photodynamic and gold nanoshell loaded macrophage-mediated photothermal therapies: an in vitro study on squamous cell head and neck carcinoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(4), 310–318 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

H. Hirschberg, C. H. Sun, B. J. Tromberg, A. T. Yeh, and S. J. Madsen, “Enhanced cytotoxic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy by concurrent hyperthermia in glioma spheroids,” J. Neurooncol. 70(3), 289–299 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsiftsis, D. D.

J. Michalakis, S. D. Georgatos, E. de Bree, H. Polioudaki, J. Romanos, V. Georgoulias, D. D. Tsiftsis, and P. A. Theodoropoulos, “Short-term exposure of cancer cells to micromolar doses of paclitaxel, with or without hyperthermia, induces long-term inhibition of cell proliferation and cell death in vitro,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1220–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tysoe, C.

C. Tysoe and S. G. Withers, “Fluorinated mechanism-based inhibitors: common themes and recent developments,” Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 14(7), 865–874 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uthamanthil, R. K.

J. A. Schwartz, A. M. Shetty, R. E. Price, R. J. Stafford, J. C. Wang, R. K. Uthamanthil, K. Pham, R. J. McNichols, C. L. Coleman, and J. D. Payne, “Feasibility study of particle-assisted laser ablation of brain tumors in orthotopic canine model,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1659–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valdagni, R.

R. Valdagni, F. F. Liu, and D. S. Kapp, “Important prognostic factors influencing outcome of combined radiation and hyperthermia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 15(4), 959–972 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van den Bent, M. J.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Zee, J.

J. van der Zee, “Heating the patient: A promising approach?” Ann. Oncol. 13(8), 1173–1184 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vecht, C. J.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vikdal, M.

P. K. Selbo, A. Weyergang, A. Høgset, O. J. Norum, M. B. Berstad, M. Vikdal, and K. Berg, “Photochemical internalization provides time- and space-controlled endolysosomal escape of therapeutic molecules,” J. Control. Release 148(1), 2–12 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villa, S.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vo, V.

M. S. Mathews, J. W. Blickenstaff, E. C. Shih, G. Zamora, V. Vo, C. H. Sun, H. Hirschberg, and S. J. Madsen, “Photochemical internalization of bleomycin for glioma treatment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 058001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, E.

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J. C.

J. A. Schwartz, A. M. Shetty, R. E. Price, R. J. Stafford, J. C. Wang, R. K. Uthamanthil, K. Pham, R. J. McNichols, C. L. Coleman, and J. D. Payne, “Feasibility study of particle-assisted laser ablation of brain tumors in orthotopic canine model,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1659–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

J. Zhou, X. Wang, L. Du, L. Zhao, F. Lei, W. Ouyang, Y. Zhang, Y. Liao, and J. Tang, “Effect of hyperthermia on the apoptosis and proliferation of CaSki cells,” Mol. Med. Rep. 4(1), 187–191 (2011).
[PubMed]

Wei, A.

J. G. Mehtala, S. Torregrosa-Allen, B. D. Elzey, M. Jeon, C. Kim, and A. Wei, “Synergistic effects of cisplatin chemotherapy and gold nanorod-mediated hyperthermia on ovarian cancer cells and tumors,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 9(13), 1939–1955 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weller, M.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wesseling, P.

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, J. L.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weyergang, A.

A. Weyergang, M. E. Berstad, B. Bull-Hansen, C. E. Olsen, P. K. Selbo, and K. Berg, “Photochemical activation of drugs for the treatment of therapy-resistant cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 14(8), 1465–1475 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Selbo, A. Weyergang, A. Høgset, O. J. Norum, M. B. Berstad, M. Vikdal, and K. Berg, “Photochemical internalization provides time- and space-controlled endolysosomal escape of therapeutic molecules,” J. Control. Release 148(1), 2–12 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withers, S. G.

C. Tysoe and S. G. Withers, “Fluorinated mechanism-based inhibitors: common themes and recent developments,” Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 14(7), 865–874 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wust, P.

B. Hildebrandt, P. Wust, O. Ahlers, A. Dieing, G. Sreenivasa, T. Kerner, R. Felix, and H. Riess, “The cellular and molecular basis of hyperthermia,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 43(1), 33–56 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wust, B. Hildebrandt, G. Sreenivasa, B. Rau, J. Gellermann, H. Riess, R. Felix, and P. M. Schlag, “Hyperthermia in Combined Treatment of Cancer,” Lancet Oncol. 3(8), 487–497 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, A. T.

H. Hirschberg, C. H. Sun, B. J. Tromberg, A. T. Yeh, and S. J. Madsen, “Enhanced cytotoxic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy by concurrent hyperthermia in glioma spheroids,” J. Neurooncol. 70(3), 289–299 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaffaroni, N.

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zamora, G.

M. S. Mathews, J. W. Blickenstaff, E. C. Shih, G. Zamora, V. Vo, C. H. Sun, H. Hirschberg, and S. J. Madsen, “Photochemical internalization of bleomycin for glioma treatment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 058001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

J. Zhou, X. Wang, L. Du, L. Zhao, F. Lei, W. Ouyang, Y. Zhang, Y. Liao, and J. Tang, “Effect of hyperthermia on the apoptosis and proliferation of CaSki cells,” Mol. Med. Rep. 4(1), 187–191 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zhao, L.

J. Zhou, X. Wang, L. Du, L. Zhao, F. Lei, W. Ouyang, Y. Zhang, Y. Liao, and J. Tang, “Effect of hyperthermia on the apoptosis and proliferation of CaSki cells,” Mol. Med. Rep. 4(1), 187–191 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, X. Wang, L. Du, L. Zhao, F. Lei, W. Ouyang, Y. Zhang, Y. Liao, and J. Tang, “Effect of hyperthermia on the apoptosis and proliferation of CaSki cells,” Mol. Med. Rep. 4(1), 187–191 (2011).
[PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

H. Kim, D. Lee, J. Kim, T. I. Kim, and W. J. Kim, “Photothermally triggered cytosolic drug delivery via endosome disruption using a functionalized reduced graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 7(8), 6735–6746 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Oncol. (1)

J. van der Zee, “Heating the patient: A promising approach?” Ann. Oncol. 13(8), 1173–1184 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1)

J. Michalakis, S. D. Georgatos, E. de Bree, H. Polioudaki, J. Romanos, V. Georgoulias, D. D. Tsiftsis, and P. A. Theodoropoulos, “Short-term exposure of cancer cells to micromolar doses of paclitaxel, with or without hyperthermia, induces long-term inhibition of cell proliferation and cell death in vitro,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1220–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Biochem. Biophys. (1)

B. Drewinko, T. L. Loo, B. Brown, J. A. Gottlieb, and E. J. Freireich, “Combination chemotherapy in vitro with adriamycin. Observations of additive, antagonistic, and synergistic effects when used in two-drug combinations on cultured human lymphoma cells,” Cancer Biochem. Biophys. 1(4), 187–195 (1976).
[PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

J. A. Schwartz, A. M. Shetty, R. E. Price, R. J. Stafford, J. C. Wang, R. K. Uthamanthil, K. Pham, R. J. McNichols, C. L. Coleman, and J. D. Payne, “Feasibility study of particle-assisted laser ablation of brain tumors in orthotopic canine model,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1659–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Treat. Rev. (1)

S. B. Field and N. M. Bleehen, “Hyperthermia in the treatment of cancer,” Cancer Treat. Rev. 6(2), 63–94 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. (1)

B. Hildebrandt, P. Wust, O. Ahlers, A. Dieing, G. Sreenivasa, T. Kerner, R. Felix, and H. Riess, “The cellular and molecular basis of hyperthermia,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 43(1), 33–56 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. (1)

K. Berg, M. Folini, L. Prasmickaite, P. K. Selbo, A. Bonsted, B. Ø. Engesæter, N. Zaffaroni, A. Weyergang, A. Dietze, G. M. Maelandsmo, E. Wagner, O. J. Norum, and A. Høgset, “Photochemical internalization: a new tool for drug delivery,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 8(6), 362–372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Top. Med. Chem. (1)

C. Tysoe and S. G. Withers, “Fluorinated mechanism-based inhibitors: common themes and recent developments,” Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 14(7), 865–874 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fed. Proc. (1)

S. M. Hecht, “DNA strand scission by activated bleomycin group antibiotics,” Fed. Proc. 45(12), 2784–2791 (1986).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Hyperthermia (1)

N. G. Huilgol, S. Gupta, and R. Dixit, “Chemoradiation with hyperthermia in the treatment of head and neck cancer,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 26(1), 21–25 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (1)

H. H. Kampinga and E. Dikomey, “Hyperthermic radiosensitization: mode of action and clinical relevance,” Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 77(4), 399–408 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1)

R. Valdagni, F. F. Liu, and D. S. Kapp, “Important prognostic factors influencing outcome of combined radiation and hyperthermia,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 15(4), 959–972 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. S. Mathews, J. W. Blickenstaff, E. C. Shih, G. Zamora, V. Vo, C. H. Sun, H. Hirschberg, and S. J. Madsen, “Photochemical internalization of bleomycin for glioma treatment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 058001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Control. Release (1)

P. K. Selbo, A. Weyergang, A. Høgset, O. J. Norum, M. B. Berstad, M. Vikdal, and K. Berg, “Photochemical internalization provides time- and space-controlled endolysosomal escape of therapeutic molecules,” J. Control. Release 148(1), 2–12 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol. (1)

M. C. Dobelbower, O. L. Burnett, R. A. Nordal, L. B. Nabors, J. M. Markert, M. D. Hyatt, and J. B. Fiveash, “Patterns of failure for glioblastoma multiforme following concurrent radiation and temozolomide,” J. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol. 55(1), 77–81 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurooncol. (3)

M. C. Chamberlain, “Radiographic patterns of relapse in glioblastoma,” J. Neurooncol. 101(2), 319–323 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Barth, “Rat brain tumor models in experimental neuro-oncology: the 9L, C6, T9, F98, RG2 (D74), RT-2 and CNS-1 gliomas,” J. Neurooncol. 36(1), 91–102 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirschberg, C. H. Sun, B. J. Tromberg, A. T. Yeh, and S. J. Madsen, “Enhanced cytotoxic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy by concurrent hyperthermia in glioma spheroids,” J. Neurooncol. 70(3), 289–299 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

Y. Tang and A. J. McGoron, “Combined effects of laser-ICG photothermotherapy and doxorubicin chemotherapy on ovarian cancer cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 97(3), 138–144 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Theor. Biol. (1)

M. A. Mackey and J. L. Roti Roti, “A model of heat-induced clonogenic cell death,” J. Theor. Biol. 156(2), 133–146 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancet Oncol. (2)

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, W. P. Mason, M. J. van den Bent, M. J. Taphoorn, R. C. Janzer, S. K. Ludwin, A. Allgeier, B. Fisher, K. Belanger, P. Hau, A. A. Brandes, J. Gijtenbeek, C. Marosi, C. J. Vecht, K. Mokhtari, P. Wesseling, S. Villa, E. Eisenhauer, T. Gorlia, M. Weller, D. Lacombe, J. G. Cairncross, R. O. Mirimanoff, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology GroupsNational Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, “Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial,” Lancet Oncol. 10(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wust, B. Hildebrandt, G. Sreenivasa, B. Rau, J. Gellermann, H. Riess, R. Felix, and P. M. Schlag, “Hyperthermia in Combined Treatment of Cancer,” Lancet Oncol. 3(8), 487–497 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

A. J. Trinidad, S. J. Hong, Q. Peng, S. J. Madsen, and H. Hirschberg, “Combined concurrent photodynamic and gold nanoshell loaded macrophage-mediated photothermal therapies: an in vitro study on squamous cell head and neck carcinoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(4), 310–318 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mol. Med. Rep. (1)

J. Zhou, X. Wang, L. Du, L. Zhao, F. Lei, W. Ouyang, Y. Zhang, Y. Liao, and J. Tang, “Effect of hyperthermia on the apoptosis and proliferation of CaSki cells,” Mol. Med. Rep. 4(1), 187–191 (2011).
[PubMed]

Nanomedicine (Lond.) (1)

J. G. Mehtala, S. Torregrosa-Allen, B. D. Elzey, M. Jeon, C. Kim, and A. Wei, “Synergistic effects of cisplatin chemotherapy and gold nanorod-mediated hyperthermia on ovarian cancer cells and tumors,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 9(13), 1939–1955 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

D. Ma, “Enhancing endosomal escape for nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery,” Nanoscale 6(12), 6415–6425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurosurgery (1)

M. O. Dereski, L. Madigan, and M. Chopp, “The effect of hypothermia and hyperthermia on photodynamic therapy of normal brain,” Neurosurgery 36(1), 141–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onkologie (1)

R. Issels, “Hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy-biological rationale, clinical application, and treatment results,” Onkologie 22(5), 374–381 (1999).
[Crossref]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Determination of the minimum temperature required for selective photothermal destruction of cancer cells with the use of immunotargeted gold nanoparticles,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(2), 412–417 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. (1)

A. Weyergang, M. E. Berstad, B. Bull-Hansen, C. E. Olsen, P. K. Selbo, and K. Berg, “Photochemical activation of drugs for the treatment of therapy-resistant cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 14(8), 1465–1475 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

G. M. Hahn, J. Braun, and I. Har-Kedar, “Thermochemotherapy: synergism between hyperthermia (42-43 degrees) and adriamycin (of bleomycin) in mammalian cell inactivation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72(3), 937–940 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radiat. Res. (1)

Q. Chen, H. Chen, H. Shapiro, and F. W. Hetzel, “Sequencing of combined hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 146(3), 293–297 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ther. Deliv. (1)

C. Christie, S. J. Madsen, Q. Peng, and H. Hirschberg, “Macrophages as nanoparticle delivery vectors for photothermal therapy of brain tumors,” Ther. Deliv. 6(3), 371–384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

O. Dahl, “Mechanism of thermal enhancement of chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity,” Hyperthermia and Oncology. Utrecht: VSP, 29 (1994).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Endosomal escape of hydrophilic drug by combined MHT and PCI 1. An amphiphilic photosensitizer is given before administration of the drug. The photosensitizer binds to the plasma membrane and is 2. taken into the cell together with the drug by endocytosis. The photosensitizer and the drug co-localize in the endosomes. Since the photosensitizer is partly hydrophilic and partly hydrophobic it will remain in the membrane of the endosome, while the hydrophilic drug will localize in the lumen. 3. Combined thermal and light exposure leads to induced rupture of the endosome with subsequent release of the sequestered drug into the cytosol or nucleus resulting in cell death.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Effects of temperature on F98 or ACBT spheroid growth: Spheroids, 48 hours after initiation were incubated at temperatures ranging from 37 to 46°C, for 45 minutes. Each data point represents spheroid volume after 2 weeks in culture as a % of 37°C controls and is the mean of 3 experiments. Error bars denote standard errors.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Effects of MHT on drug toxicity: Spheroids, 48 hours after initiation, were incubated with increasing concentrations of BLM (a, c) or 5-FU (b, d,) at temperatures of 37 or 44°C, for 45 minutes. Incubation was continued at 37°C for an additional 14 days. Each data point represents spheroid volume after 2 weeks in post treatment culture as a % of 37°C controls and is the mean of 3 experiments. Error bars denote standard errors.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Effects of MHT on PDT, drug, or PCI on spheroid growth 24 hours after initiation, spheroids undergoing PDT or PCI were incubated with1 μg/ml AlPcS2a for 18 h. Drug concentrations used were 0.6 and 0.12 μg/ml for BLM (Fig. 4 a, c) and 5-FU (Fig. 4 (b, c) respectively. Four hours following drug addition PDT/PCI light treatment at fluence levels of 0.3 J/cm2 or 1.5 J/cm2 (F98 Fig. 4 a, b) or (ACBT Fig. 4 c, d). Light treatment was done at 37, 40 or 44°C following a 45 min MHT incubation. Incubation was continued at 37°C for an additional 14 days. Each data point represents spheroid volume after 2 weeks in post treatment culture as a % of 37°C controls at 14 days and is the mean of 3 experiments. Error bars denote standard errors. Asterisks (*) denote significant differences (p<0.05) compared to control values.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Kinetics of F98 spheroid growth following MHT-PCI 24 hours after initiation spheroids undergoing PCI were incubated with1 μg/ml AlPcS2a for 18 h. Drug concentrations used were 0.6 and 0.12 ug/ml for BLM and 5-FU respectively. Four hours following drug addition, PCI light treatment at fluence levels of 0.3 J/cm2 was done at 37 or 44°C following a 45 min MHT incubation. The spheroid volume was evaluated 7 and 14 days post treatment. Each data point represents spheroid volume as a % of 37°C controls at day 14 and is the mean of 3 experiments. Error bars denote standard errors. Asterisks (*) denote significant differences (p<0.05) compared to MHT-PCI values at 37°C.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Live/dead assay of control and or PCI treated spheroids Two-photon fluorescence microscopy images of F98 spheroids stained with Hoechst 33342 (green: live) and Ethidium Homodimer (red: dead). Spheroids were stained 24 h after treatment: (a) Control, (b) BLM-PCI; 37°C. (c) BLM-PCI; 44°C. The images have been cropped, scale bars as shown.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Calculated alpha values for MHT and PCI combination therapies

Equations (1)

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α= S F MHT  x S F Chemo S F MHT+PCI  

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