Abstract

Muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer is one of the most lethal cancers and its detection at the time of transurethral resection remains limited and diagnostic methods are urgently needed. We have developed a muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) model of the bladder using porcine bladder scaffold and the human bladder cancer cell line 5637. The progression of implanted cancer cells to muscle invasion can be monitored by measuring changes in the spectrum of endogenous fluorophores such as reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) and flavins. We believe this could act as a useful tool for the study of fluorescence dynamics of developing muscle invasive bladder cancer in patients.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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  10. F. Koenig, F. J. McGovern, A. F. Althausen, T. F. Deutsch, and K. T. Schomacker, “Laser induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder cancer,” J. Urol. 156(5), 1597–1601 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  17. D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. Huygens, A. R. Kamuhabwa, T. Roskams, B. VAN Cleynenbreugel, H. VAN Poppel, and P. A. de Witte, “Permeation of hypericin in spheroids composed of different grade transitional cell carcinoma cell lines and normal human urothelial cells,” J. Urol. 174(1), 69–72 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Leighton, R. Tchao, and K. L. Tencer, “Organoid structure of normal rat bladder in unilaminar and bilaminar histophysiologic gradient culture : methods and observations,” In Vitro 20(3), 183–197 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. C. Fujiyama, A. Jones, S. Fuggle, R. Bicknell, D. Cranston, and A. L. Harris, “Human bladder cancer invasion model using rat bladder in vitro and its use to test mechanisms and therapeutic inhibitors of invasion,” Br. J. Cancer 84(4), 558–564 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. K. Nakamura, C. Fujiyama, Y. Tokuda, H. Sugihara, and Z. Masaki, “Bladder cancer cell implantation in reconstructed bladder in vitro: a model of tumour recurrence,” BJU Int. 89(1), 119–125 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. V. Dunaev, V. V. Dremin, E. A. Zherebtsov, I. E. Rafailov, K. S. Litvinova, S. G. Palmer, N. A. Stewart, S. G. Sokolovski, and E. U. Rafailov, “Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow,” Med. Eng. Phys. 37(6), 574–583 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. N. Akbar, S. Sokolovski, A. Dunaev, J. J. Belch, E. Rafailov, and F. Khan, “In vivo noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence biomarkers relate to cardiovascular disease in mice,” J. Microsc. 255(1), 42–48 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. O. D. Smirnova, D. A. Rogatkin, and K. S. Litvinova, “Collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of abnormal tissue changes,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 5(2), 1250010 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. A. Janssen, P. J. Geutjes, J. Odenthal, T. H. van Kuppevelt, J. A. Schalken, W. F. Feitz, and J. F. Heesakkers, “A new, straightforward ex vivo organoid bladder mucosal model for preclinical research,” J. Urol. 190(1), 341–349 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. A. J. Walsh, R. S. Cook, M. E. Sanders, L. Aurisicchio, G. Ciliberto, C. L. Arteaga, and M. C. Skala, “Quantitative optical imaging of primary tumor organoid metabolism predicts drug response in breast cancer,” Cancer Res. 74(18), 5184–5194 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (4)

A. A. Salahudeen and C. J. Kuo, “Toward recreating colon cancer in human organoids,” Nat. Med. 21(3), 215–216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Dunaev, V. V. Dremin, E. A. Zherebtsov, I. E. Rafailov, K. S. Litvinova, S. G. Palmer, N. A. Stewart, S. G. Sokolovski, and E. U. Rafailov, “Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow,” Med. Eng. Phys. 37(6), 574–583 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rafailov, S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, V. Dremin, A. Dunaev, and G. Nabi, “A novel excitation-emission wavelength model to facilitate the diagnosis of urinary bladder diseases,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93030W (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, E. U. Rafailov, and G. Nabi, “Detection of urinary bladder cancer cells using redox ratio and double excitation wavelengths autofluorescence,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 977–986 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

A. J. Walsh, R. S. Cook, M. E. Sanders, L. Aurisicchio, G. Ciliberto, C. L. Arteaga, and M. C. Skala, “Quantitative optical imaging of primary tumor organoid metabolism predicts drug response in breast cancer,” Cancer Res. 74(18), 5184–5194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Akbar, S. Sokolovski, A. Dunaev, J. J. Belch, E. Rafailov, and F. Khan, “In vivo noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence biomarkers relate to cardiovascular disease in mice,” J. Microsc. 255(1), 42–48 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Varone, J. Xylas, K. P. Quinn, D. Pouli, G. Sridharan, M. E. McLaughlin-Drubin, C. Alonzo, K. Lee, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon fluorescence imaging elucidates metabolic changes related to enhanced glycolysis and glutamine consumption in precancerous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 74(11), 3067–3075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

D. A. Janssen, P. J. Geutjes, J. Odenthal, T. H. van Kuppevelt, J. A. Schalken, W. F. Feitz, and J. F. Heesakkers, “A new, straightforward ex vivo organoid bladder mucosal model for preclinical research,” J. Urol. 190(1), 341–349 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. D. Smirnova, D. A. Rogatkin, and K. S. Litvinova, “Collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of abnormal tissue changes,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 5(2), 1250010 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

C. L. Varley and J. Southgate, “Organotypic and 3D reconstructed cultures of the human bladder and urinary tract,” Methods Mol. Biol. 695, 197–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Mowatt, J. N’Dow, L. Vale, G. Nabi, C. Boachie, J. A. Cook, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, and Aberdeen Technology Assessment Review (TAR) Group, “Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with white light cystoscopy: Systematic review and meta-analysis,” Int. J. Technol. Assess. Health Care 27(1), 3–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

G. Mowatt, S. Zhu, M. Kilonzo, C. Boachie, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, J. N’Dow, G. Nabi, J. Cook, and L. Vale, “Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic diagnosis and urine biomarkers (FISH, ImmunoCyt, NMP22) and cytology for the detection and follow-up of bladder cancer,” Health Technol. Assess. 14(4), 1–331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Hemani and C. L. Bennett, “The excessive cost of early stage bladder cancer care: are providers really to blame?” Cancer 116(15), 3530–3532 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Ostrander, C. M. McMahon, S. Lem, S. R. Millon, J. Q. Brown, V. L. Seewaldt, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical redox ratio differentiates breast cancer cell lines based on estrogen receptor status,” Cancer Res. 70(11), 4759–4766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. D. Sievert, B. Amend, U. Nagele, D. Schilling, J. Bedke, M. Horstmann, J. Hennenlotter, S. Kruck, and A. Stenzl, “Economic aspects of bladder cancer: what are the benefits and costs?” World J. Urol. 27(3), 295–300 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. van der Heijden and J. A. Witjes, “Recurrence, progression, and follow-up in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer,” Eur. Urol. Suppl. 8(7), 556–562 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

A. Huygens, A. R. Kamuhabwa, T. Roskams, B. VAN Cleynenbreugel, H. VAN Poppel, and P. A. de Witte, “Permeation of hypericin in spheroids composed of different grade transitional cell carcinoma cell lines and normal human urothelial cells,” J. Urol. 174(1), 69–72 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Stein, “Choosing Earlier Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer,” Rev. Urol. 7(3), 190–192 (2005).
[PubMed]

D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

K. Nakamura, C. Fujiyama, Y. Tokuda, H. Sugihara, and Z. Masaki, “Bladder cancer cell implantation in reconstructed bladder in vitro: a model of tumour recurrence,” BJU Int. 89(1), 119–125 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. Fujiyama, A. Jones, S. Fuggle, R. Bicknell, D. Cranston, and A. L. Harris, “Human bladder cancer invasion model using rat bladder in vitro and its use to test mechanisms and therapeutic inhibitors of invasion,” Br. J. Cancer 84(4), 558–564 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

N. Ramanujam, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 89–117 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

F. Koenig, F. J. McGovern, A. F. Althausen, T. F. Deutsch, and K. T. Schomacker, “Laser induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder cancer,” J. Urol. 156(5), 1597–1601 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

J. Leighton, R. Tchao, and K. L. Tencer, “Organoid structure of normal rat bladder in unilaminar and bilaminar histophysiologic gradient culture : methods and observations,” In Vitro 20(3), 183–197 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akbar, N.

N. Akbar, S. Sokolovski, A. Dunaev, J. J. Belch, E. Rafailov, and F. Khan, “In vivo noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence biomarkers relate to cardiovascular disease in mice,” J. Microsc. 255(1), 42–48 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonzo, C.

A. Varone, J. Xylas, K. P. Quinn, D. Pouli, G. Sridharan, M. E. McLaughlin-Drubin, C. Alonzo, K. Lee, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon fluorescence imaging elucidates metabolic changes related to enhanced glycolysis and glutamine consumption in precancerous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 74(11), 3067–3075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Althausen, A. F.

F. Koenig, F. J. McGovern, A. F. Althausen, T. F. Deutsch, and K. T. Schomacker, “Laser induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder cancer,” J. Urol. 156(5), 1597–1601 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amend, B.

K. D. Sievert, B. Amend, U. Nagele, D. Schilling, J. Bedke, M. Horstmann, J. Hennenlotter, S. Kruck, and A. Stenzl, “Economic aspects of bladder cancer: what are the benefits and costs?” World J. Urol. 27(3), 295–300 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arora, V. K.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arteaga, C. L.

A. J. Walsh, R. S. Cook, M. E. Sanders, L. Aurisicchio, G. Ciliberto, C. L. Arteaga, and M. C. Skala, “Quantitative optical imaging of primary tumor organoid metabolism predicts drug response in breast cancer,” Cancer Res. 74(18), 5184–5194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aurisicchio, L.

A. J. Walsh, R. S. Cook, M. E. Sanders, L. Aurisicchio, G. Ciliberto, C. L. Arteaga, and M. C. Skala, “Quantitative optical imaging of primary tumor organoid metabolism predicts drug response in breast cancer,” Cancer Res. 74(18), 5184–5194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Barboza, L. P.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedke, J.

K. D. Sievert, B. Amend, U. Nagele, D. Schilling, J. Bedke, M. Horstmann, J. Hennenlotter, S. Kruck, and A. Stenzl, “Economic aspects of bladder cancer: what are the benefits and costs?” World J. Urol. 27(3), 295–300 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belch, J. J.

N. Akbar, S. Sokolovski, A. Dunaev, J. J. Belch, E. Rafailov, and F. Khan, “In vivo noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence biomarkers relate to cardiovascular disease in mice,” J. Microsc. 255(1), 42–48 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beltran, H.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, C. L.

M. L. Hemani and C. L. Bennett, “The excessive cost of early stage bladder cancer care: are providers really to blame?” Cancer 116(15), 3530–3532 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bicknell, R.

C. Fujiyama, A. Jones, S. Fuggle, R. Bicknell, D. Cranston, and A. L. Harris, “Human bladder cancer invasion model using rat bladder in vitro and its use to test mechanisms and therapeutic inhibitors of invasion,” Br. J. Cancer 84(4), 558–564 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boachie, C.

G. Mowatt, J. N’Dow, L. Vale, G. Nabi, C. Boachie, J. A. Cook, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, and Aberdeen Technology Assessment Review (TAR) Group, “Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with white light cystoscopy: Systematic review and meta-analysis,” Int. J. Technol. Assess. Health Care 27(1), 3–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Mowatt, S. Zhu, M. Kilonzo, C. Boachie, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, J. N’Dow, G. Nabi, J. Cook, and L. Vale, “Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic diagnosis and urine biomarkers (FISH, ImmunoCyt, NMP22) and cytology for the detection and follow-up of bladder cancer,” Health Technol. Assess. 14(4), 1–331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Brown, J. Q.

J. H. Ostrander, C. M. McMahon, S. Lem, S. R. Millon, J. Q. Brown, V. L. Seewaldt, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical redox ratio differentiates breast cancer cell lines based on estrogen receptor status,” Cancer Res. 70(11), 4759–4766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Z.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carr-Locke, D. L.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Carver, B.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chi, P.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciliberto, G.

A. J. Walsh, R. S. Cook, M. E. Sanders, L. Aurisicchio, G. Ciliberto, C. L. Arteaga, and M. C. Skala, “Quantitative optical imaging of primary tumor organoid metabolism predicts drug response in breast cancer,” Cancer Res. 74(18), 5184–5194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clevers, H.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, J.

G. Mowatt, S. Zhu, M. Kilonzo, C. Boachie, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, J. N’Dow, G. Nabi, J. Cook, and L. Vale, “Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic diagnosis and urine biomarkers (FISH, ImmunoCyt, NMP22) and cytology for the detection and follow-up of bladder cancer,” Health Technol. Assess. 14(4), 1–331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, J. A.

G. Mowatt, J. N’Dow, L. Vale, G. Nabi, C. Boachie, J. A. Cook, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, and Aberdeen Technology Assessment Review (TAR) Group, “Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with white light cystoscopy: Systematic review and meta-analysis,” Int. J. Technol. Assess. Health Care 27(1), 3–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, R. S.

A. J. Walsh, R. S. Cook, M. E. Sanders, L. Aurisicchio, G. Ciliberto, C. L. Arteaga, and M. C. Skala, “Quantitative optical imaging of primary tumor organoid metabolism predicts drug response in breast cancer,” Cancer Res. 74(18), 5184–5194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cranston, D.

C. Fujiyama, A. Jones, S. Fuggle, R. Bicknell, D. Cranston, and A. L. Harris, “Human bladder cancer invasion model using rat bladder in vitro and its use to test mechanisms and therapeutic inhibitors of invasion,” Br. J. Cancer 84(4), 558–564 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crum, C. P.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Curtis, K. R.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danila, D. C.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

De Veld, D. C.

D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Witte, P. A.

A. Huygens, A. R. Kamuhabwa, T. Roskams, B. VAN Cleynenbreugel, H. VAN Poppel, and P. A. de Witte, “Permeation of hypericin in spheroids composed of different grade transitional cell carcinoma cell lines and normal human urothelial cells,” J. Urol. 174(1), 69–72 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deutsch, T. F.

F. Koenig, F. J. McGovern, A. F. Althausen, T. F. Deutsch, and K. T. Schomacker, “Laser induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder cancer,” J. Urol. 156(5), 1597–1601 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di, W.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dowling, C.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dremin, V.

I. Rafailov, S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, V. Dremin, A. Dunaev, and G. Nabi, “A novel excitation-emission wavelength model to facilitate the diagnosis of urinary bladder diseases,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93030W (2015).
[Crossref]

Dremin, V. V.

A. V. Dunaev, V. V. Dremin, E. A. Zherebtsov, I. E. Rafailov, K. S. Litvinova, S. G. Palmer, N. A. Stewart, S. G. Sokolovski, and E. U. Rafailov, “Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow,” Med. Eng. Phys. 37(6), 574–583 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunaev, A.

I. Rafailov, S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, V. Dremin, A. Dunaev, and G. Nabi, “A novel excitation-emission wavelength model to facilitate the diagnosis of urinary bladder diseases,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93030W (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Akbar, S. Sokolovski, A. Dunaev, J. J. Belch, E. Rafailov, and F. Khan, “In vivo noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence biomarkers relate to cardiovascular disease in mice,” J. Microsc. 255(1), 42–48 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunaev, A. V.

A. V. Dunaev, V. V. Dremin, E. A. Zherebtsov, I. E. Rafailov, K. S. Litvinova, S. G. Palmer, N. A. Stewart, S. G. Sokolovski, and E. U. Rafailov, “Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow,” Med. Eng. Phys. 37(6), 574–583 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eastham, J. A.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eickhoff, J.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K. W.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feitz, W. F.

D. A. Janssen, P. J. Geutjes, J. Odenthal, T. H. van Kuppevelt, J. A. Schalken, W. F. Feitz, and J. F. Heesakkers, “A new, straightforward ex vivo organoid bladder mucosal model for preclinical research,” J. Urol. 190(1), 341–349 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Fraser, C.

G. Mowatt, J. N’Dow, L. Vale, G. Nabi, C. Boachie, J. A. Cook, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, and Aberdeen Technology Assessment Review (TAR) Group, “Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with white light cystoscopy: Systematic review and meta-analysis,” Int. J. Technol. Assess. Health Care 27(1), 3–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Mowatt, S. Zhu, M. Kilonzo, C. Boachie, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, J. N’Dow, G. Nabi, J. Cook, and L. Vale, “Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic diagnosis and urine biomarkers (FISH, ImmunoCyt, NMP22) and cytology for the detection and follow-up of bladder cancer,” Health Technol. Assess. 14(4), 1–331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuggle, S.

C. Fujiyama, A. Jones, S. Fuggle, R. Bicknell, D. Cranston, and A. L. Harris, “Human bladder cancer invasion model using rat bladder in vitro and its use to test mechanisms and therapeutic inhibitors of invasion,” Br. J. Cancer 84(4), 558–564 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujiyama, C.

K. Nakamura, C. Fujiyama, Y. Tokuda, H. Sugihara, and Z. Masaki, “Bladder cancer cell implantation in reconstructed bladder in vitro: a model of tumour recurrence,” BJU Int. 89(1), 119–125 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Fujiyama, A. Jones, S. Fuggle, R. Bicknell, D. Cranston, and A. L. Harris, “Human bladder cancer invasion model using rat bladder in vitro and its use to test mechanisms and therapeutic inhibitors of invasion,” Br. J. Cancer 84(4), 558–564 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, D.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

A. Varone, J. Xylas, K. P. Quinn, D. Pouli, G. Sridharan, M. E. McLaughlin-Drubin, C. Alonzo, K. Lee, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon fluorescence imaging elucidates metabolic changes related to enhanced glycolysis and glutamine consumption in precancerous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 74(11), 3067–3075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Geutjes, P. J.

D. A. Janssen, P. J. Geutjes, J. Odenthal, T. H. van Kuppevelt, J. A. Schalken, W. F. Feitz, and J. F. Heesakkers, “A new, straightforward ex vivo organoid bladder mucosal model for preclinical research,” J. Urol. 190(1), 341–349 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gopalan, A.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffiths, T. R.

G. Mowatt, J. N’Dow, L. Vale, G. Nabi, C. Boachie, J. A. Cook, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, and Aberdeen Technology Assessment Review (TAR) Group, “Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with white light cystoscopy: Systematic review and meta-analysis,” Int. J. Technol. Assess. Health Care 27(1), 3–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Mowatt, S. Zhu, M. Kilonzo, C. Boachie, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, J. N’Dow, G. Nabi, J. Cook, and L. Vale, “Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic diagnosis and urine biomarkers (FISH, ImmunoCyt, NMP22) and cytology for the detection and follow-up of bladder cancer,” Health Technol. Assess. 14(4), 1–331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, A. L.

C. Fujiyama, A. Jones, S. Fuggle, R. Bicknell, D. Cranston, and A. L. Harris, “Human bladder cancer invasion model using rat bladder in vitro and its use to test mechanisms and therapeutic inhibitors of invasion,” Br. J. Cancer 84(4), 558–564 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heesakkers, J. F.

D. A. Janssen, P. J. Geutjes, J. Odenthal, T. H. van Kuppevelt, J. A. Schalken, W. F. Feitz, and J. F. Heesakkers, “A new, straightforward ex vivo organoid bladder mucosal model for preclinical research,” J. Urol. 190(1), 341–349 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hemani, M. L.

M. L. Hemani and C. L. Bennett, “The excessive cost of early stage bladder cancer care: are providers really to blame?” Cancer 116(15), 3530–3532 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hennenlotter, J.

K. D. Sievert, B. Amend, U. Nagele, D. Schilling, J. Bedke, M. Horstmann, J. Hennenlotter, S. Kruck, and A. Stenzl, “Economic aspects of bladder cancer: what are the benefits and costs?” World J. Urol. 27(3), 295–300 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horstmann, M.

K. D. Sievert, B. Amend, U. Nagele, D. Schilling, J. Bedke, M. Horstmann, J. Hennenlotter, S. Kruck, and A. Stenzl, “Economic aspects of bladder cancer: what are the benefits and costs?” World J. Urol. 27(3), 295–300 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huygens, A.

A. Huygens, A. R. Kamuhabwa, T. Roskams, B. VAN Cleynenbreugel, H. VAN Poppel, and P. A. de Witte, “Permeation of hypericin in spheroids composed of different grade transitional cell carcinoma cell lines and normal human urothelial cells,” J. Urol. 174(1), 69–72 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iaquinta, P. J.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
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M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
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D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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Khan, F.

N. Akbar, S. Sokolovski, A. Dunaev, J. J. Belch, E. Rafailov, and F. Khan, “In vivo noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence biomarkers relate to cardiovascular disease in mice,” J. Microsc. 255(1), 42–48 (2014).
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Kilonzo, M.

G. Mowatt, S. Zhu, M. Kilonzo, C. Boachie, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, J. N’Dow, G. Nabi, J. Cook, and L. Vale, “Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic diagnosis and urine biomarkers (FISH, ImmunoCyt, NMP22) and cytology for the detection and follow-up of bladder cancer,” Health Technol. Assess. 14(4), 1–331 (2010).
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Koenig, F.

F. Koenig, F. J. McGovern, A. F. Althausen, T. F. Deutsch, and K. T. Schomacker, “Laser induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder cancer,” J. Urol. 156(5), 1597–1601 (1996).
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Kossai, M.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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Kruck, S.

K. D. Sievert, B. Amend, U. Nagele, D. Schilling, J. Bedke, M. Horstmann, J. Hennenlotter, S. Kruck, and A. Stenzl, “Economic aspects of bladder cancer: what are the benefits and costs?” World J. Urol. 27(3), 295–300 (2009).
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D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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Lee, K.

A. Varone, J. Xylas, K. P. Quinn, D. Pouli, G. Sridharan, M. E. McLaughlin-Drubin, C. Alonzo, K. Lee, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon fluorescence imaging elucidates metabolic changes related to enhanced glycolysis and glutamine consumption in precancerous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 74(11), 3067–3075 (2014).
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Lee, M. M.

M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
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J. Leighton, R. Tchao, and K. L. Tencer, “Organoid structure of normal rat bladder in unilaminar and bilaminar histophysiologic gradient culture : methods and observations,” In Vitro 20(3), 183–197 (1984).
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J. H. Ostrander, C. M. McMahon, S. Lem, S. R. Millon, J. Q. Brown, V. L. Seewaldt, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical redox ratio differentiates breast cancer cell lines based on estrogen receptor status,” Cancer Res. 70(11), 4759–4766 (2010).
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Litvinova, K.

I. Rafailov, S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, V. Dremin, A. Dunaev, and G. Nabi, “A novel excitation-emission wavelength model to facilitate the diagnosis of urinary bladder diseases,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93030W (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, E. U. Rafailov, and G. Nabi, “Detection of urinary bladder cancer cells using redox ratio and double excitation wavelengths autofluorescence,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 977–986 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Litvinova, K. S.

A. V. Dunaev, V. V. Dremin, E. A. Zherebtsov, I. E. Rafailov, K. S. Litvinova, S. G. Palmer, N. A. Stewart, S. G. Sokolovski, and E. U. Rafailov, “Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow,” Med. Eng. Phys. 37(6), 574–583 (2015).
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O. D. Smirnova, D. A. Rogatkin, and K. S. Litvinova, “Collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of abnormal tissue changes,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 5(2), 1250010 (2012).
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MacDonald, T. Y.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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Masaki, Z.

K. Nakamura, C. Fujiyama, Y. Tokuda, H. Sugihara, and Z. Masaki, “Bladder cancer cell implantation in reconstructed bladder in vitro: a model of tumour recurrence,” BJU Int. 89(1), 119–125 (2002).
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M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGovern, F. J.

F. Koenig, F. J. McGovern, A. F. Althausen, T. F. Deutsch, and K. T. Schomacker, “Laser induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder cancer,” J. Urol. 156(5), 1597–1601 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Varone, J. Xylas, K. P. Quinn, D. Pouli, G. Sridharan, M. E. McLaughlin-Drubin, C. Alonzo, K. Lee, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon fluorescence imaging elucidates metabolic changes related to enhanced glycolysis and glutamine consumption in precancerous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 74(11), 3067–3075 (2014).
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McMahon, C. M.

J. H. Ostrander, C. M. McMahon, S. Lem, S. R. Millon, J. Q. Brown, V. L. Seewaldt, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical redox ratio differentiates breast cancer cell lines based on estrogen receptor status,” Cancer Res. 70(11), 4759–4766 (2010).
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Millon, S. R.

J. H. Ostrander, C. M. McMahon, S. Lem, S. R. Millon, J. Q. Brown, V. L. Seewaldt, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical redox ratio differentiates breast cancer cell lines based on estrogen receptor status,” Cancer Res. 70(11), 4759–4766 (2010).
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Morris, M. J.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mosquera, J. M.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. Mowatt, J. N’Dow, L. Vale, G. Nabi, C. Boachie, J. A. Cook, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, and Aberdeen Technology Assessment Review (TAR) Group, “Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with white light cystoscopy: Systematic review and meta-analysis,” Int. J. Technol. Assess. Health Care 27(1), 3–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Mowatt, S. Zhu, M. Kilonzo, C. Boachie, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, J. N’Dow, G. Nabi, J. Cook, and L. Vale, “Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic diagnosis and urine biomarkers (FISH, ImmunoCyt, NMP22) and cytology for the detection and follow-up of bladder cancer,” Health Technol. Assess. 14(4), 1–331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukherjee, S.

M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, M. G.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Münger, K.

A. Varone, J. Xylas, K. P. Quinn, D. Pouli, G. Sridharan, M. E. McLaughlin-Drubin, C. Alonzo, K. Lee, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon fluorescence imaging elucidates metabolic changes related to enhanced glycolysis and glutamine consumption in precancerous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 74(11), 3067–3075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N’Dow, J.

G. Mowatt, J. N’Dow, L. Vale, G. Nabi, C. Boachie, J. A. Cook, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, and Aberdeen Technology Assessment Review (TAR) Group, “Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with white light cystoscopy: Systematic review and meta-analysis,” Int. J. Technol. Assess. Health Care 27(1), 3–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Mowatt, S. Zhu, M. Kilonzo, C. Boachie, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, J. N’Dow, G. Nabi, J. Cook, and L. Vale, “Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic diagnosis and urine biomarkers (FISH, ImmunoCyt, NMP22) and cytology for the detection and follow-up of bladder cancer,” Health Technol. Assess. 14(4), 1–331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nabi, G.

S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, E. U. Rafailov, and G. Nabi, “Detection of urinary bladder cancer cells using redox ratio and double excitation wavelengths autofluorescence,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 977–986 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rafailov, S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, V. Dremin, A. Dunaev, and G. Nabi, “A novel excitation-emission wavelength model to facilitate the diagnosis of urinary bladder diseases,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93030W (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Mowatt, J. N’Dow, L. Vale, G. Nabi, C. Boachie, J. A. Cook, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, and Aberdeen Technology Assessment Review (TAR) Group, “Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with white light cystoscopy: Systematic review and meta-analysis,” Int. J. Technol. Assess. Health Care 27(1), 3–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Mowatt, S. Zhu, M. Kilonzo, C. Boachie, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, J. N’Dow, G. Nabi, J. Cook, and L. Vale, “Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic diagnosis and urine biomarkers (FISH, ImmunoCyt, NMP22) and cytology for the detection and follow-up of bladder cancer,” Health Technol. Assess. 14(4), 1–331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagele, U.

K. D. Sievert, B. Amend, U. Nagele, D. Schilling, J. Bedke, M. Horstmann, J. Hennenlotter, S. Kruck, and A. Stenzl, “Economic aspects of bladder cancer: what are the benefits and costs?” World J. Urol. 27(3), 295–300 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, C. Fujiyama, Y. Tokuda, H. Sugihara, and Z. Masaki, “Bladder cancer cell implantation in reconstructed bladder in vitro: a model of tumour recurrence,” BJU Int. 89(1), 119–125 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Odenthal, J.

D. A. Janssen, P. J. Geutjes, J. Odenthal, T. H. van Kuppevelt, J. A. Schalken, W. F. Feitz, and J. F. Heesakkers, “A new, straightforward ex vivo organoid bladder mucosal model for preclinical research,” J. Urol. 190(1), 341–349 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ostrander, J. H.

J. H. Ostrander, C. M. McMahon, S. Lem, S. R. Millon, J. Q. Brown, V. L. Seewaldt, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical redox ratio differentiates breast cancer cell lines based on estrogen receptor status,” Cancer Res. 70(11), 4759–4766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, S.

I. Rafailov, S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, V. Dremin, A. Dunaev, and G. Nabi, “A novel excitation-emission wavelength model to facilitate the diagnosis of urinary bladder diseases,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93030W (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, E. U. Rafailov, and G. Nabi, “Detection of urinary bladder cancer cells using redox ratio and double excitation wavelengths autofluorescence,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 977–986 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, S. G.

A. V. Dunaev, V. V. Dremin, E. A. Zherebtsov, I. E. Rafailov, K. S. Litvinova, S. G. Palmer, N. A. Stewart, S. G. Sokolovski, and E. U. Rafailov, “Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow,” Med. Eng. Phys. 37(6), 574–583 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pouli, D.

A. Varone, J. Xylas, K. P. Quinn, D. Pouli, G. Sridharan, M. E. McLaughlin-Drubin, C. Alonzo, K. Lee, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon fluorescence imaging elucidates metabolic changes related to enhanced glycolysis and glutamine consumption in precancerous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 74(11), 3067–3075 (2014).
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Quinn, K. P.

A. Varone, J. Xylas, K. P. Quinn, D. Pouli, G. Sridharan, M. E. McLaughlin-Drubin, C. Alonzo, K. Lee, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon fluorescence imaging elucidates metabolic changes related to enhanced glycolysis and glutamine consumption in precancerous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 74(11), 3067–3075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rafailov, E.

N. Akbar, S. Sokolovski, A. Dunaev, J. J. Belch, E. Rafailov, and F. Khan, “In vivo noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence biomarkers relate to cardiovascular disease in mice,” J. Microsc. 255(1), 42–48 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rafailov, E. U.

A. V. Dunaev, V. V. Dremin, E. A. Zherebtsov, I. E. Rafailov, K. S. Litvinova, S. G. Palmer, N. A. Stewart, S. G. Sokolovski, and E. U. Rafailov, “Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow,” Med. Eng. Phys. 37(6), 574–583 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, E. U. Rafailov, and G. Nabi, “Detection of urinary bladder cancer cells using redox ratio and double excitation wavelengths autofluorescence,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 977–986 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rafailov, I.

I. Rafailov, S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, V. Dremin, A. Dunaev, and G. Nabi, “A novel excitation-emission wavelength model to facilitate the diagnosis of urinary bladder diseases,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93030W (2015).
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Rafailov, I. E.

A. V. Dunaev, V. V. Dremin, E. A. Zherebtsov, I. E. Rafailov, K. S. Litvinova, S. G. Palmer, N. A. Stewart, S. G. Sokolovski, and E. U. Rafailov, “Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow,” Med. Eng. Phys. 37(6), 574–583 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

J. H. Ostrander, C. M. McMahon, S. Lem, S. R. Millon, J. Q. Brown, V. L. Seewaldt, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical redox ratio differentiates breast cancer cell lines based on estrogen receptor status,” Cancer Res. 70(11), 4759–4766 (2010).
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M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
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N. Ramanujam, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 89–117 (2000).
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Ramazanoglu, S.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ran, L.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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Rathkopf, D. E.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
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O. D. Smirnova, D. A. Rogatkin, and K. S. Litvinova, “Collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of abnormal tissue changes,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 5(2), 1250010 (2012).
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D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
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A. Huygens, A. R. Kamuhabwa, T. Roskams, B. VAN Cleynenbreugel, H. VAN Poppel, and P. A. de Witte, “Permeation of hypericin in spheroids composed of different grade transitional cell carcinoma cell lines and normal human urothelial cells,” J. Urol. 174(1), 69–72 (2005).
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D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
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D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
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D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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O. D. Smirnova, D. A. Rogatkin, and K. S. Litvinova, “Collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of abnormal tissue changes,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 5(2), 1250010 (2012).
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D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
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M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
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A. Huygens, A. R. Kamuhabwa, T. Roskams, B. VAN Cleynenbreugel, H. VAN Poppel, and P. A. de Witte, “Permeation of hypericin in spheroids composed of different grade transitional cell carcinoma cell lines and normal human urothelial cells,” J. Urol. 174(1), 69–72 (2005).
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Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
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A. Huygens, A. R. Kamuhabwa, T. Roskams, B. VAN Cleynenbreugel, H. VAN Poppel, and P. A. de Witte, “Permeation of hypericin in spheroids composed of different grade transitional cell carcinoma cell lines and normal human urothelial cells,” J. Urol. 174(1), 69–72 (2005).
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C. L. Varley and J. Southgate, “Organotypic and 3D reconstructed cultures of the human bladder and urinary tract,” Methods Mol. Biol. 695, 197–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
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A. J. Walsh, R. S. Cook, M. E. Sanders, L. Aurisicchio, G. Ciliberto, C. L. Arteaga, and M. C. Skala, “Quantitative optical imaging of primary tumor organoid metabolism predicts drug response in breast cancer,” Cancer Res. 74(18), 5184–5194 (2014).
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D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, J. G.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witjes, J. A.

A. G. van der Heijden and J. A. Witjes, “Recurrence, progression, and follow-up in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer,” Eur. Urol. Suppl. 8(7), 556–562 (2009).
[Crossref]

Witjes, M. J.

D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wongvipat, J.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wysock, J.

M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xylas, J.

A. Varone, J. Xylas, K. P. Quinn, D. Pouli, G. Sridharan, M. E. McLaughlin-Drubin, C. Alonzo, K. Lee, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon fluorescence imaging elucidates metabolic changes related to enhanced glycolysis and glutamine consumption in precancerous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 74(11), 3067–3075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q. F.

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zherebtsov, E. A.

A. V. Dunaev, V. V. Dremin, E. A. Zherebtsov, I. E. Rafailov, K. S. Litvinova, S. G. Palmer, N. A. Stewart, S. G. Sokolovski, and E. U. Rafailov, “Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow,” Med. Eng. Phys. 37(6), 574–583 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

G. Mowatt, S. Zhu, M. Kilonzo, C. Boachie, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, J. N’Dow, G. Nabi, J. Cook, and L. Vale, “Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic diagnosis and urine biomarkers (FISH, ImmunoCyt, NMP22) and cytology for the detection and follow-up of bladder cancer,” Health Technol. Assess. 14(4), 1–331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. (1)

M. Jain, B. D. Robinson, D. S. Scherr, J. Sterling, M. M. Lee, J. Wysock, M. A. Rubin, F. R. Maxfield, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 136(5), 517–526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

BJU Int. (1)

K. Nakamura, C. Fujiyama, Y. Tokuda, H. Sugihara, and Z. Masaki, “Bladder cancer cell implantation in reconstructed bladder in vitro: a model of tumour recurrence,” BJU Int. 89(1), 119–125 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer (1)

C. Fujiyama, A. Jones, S. Fuggle, R. Bicknell, D. Cranston, and A. L. Harris, “Human bladder cancer invasion model using rat bladder in vitro and its use to test mechanisms and therapeutic inhibitors of invasion,” Br. J. Cancer 84(4), 558–564 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

M. L. Hemani and C. L. Bennett, “The excessive cost of early stage bladder cancer care: are providers really to blame?” Cancer 116(15), 3530–3532 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (4)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res. 62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Varone, J. Xylas, K. P. Quinn, D. Pouli, G. Sridharan, M. E. McLaughlin-Drubin, C. Alonzo, K. Lee, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon fluorescence imaging elucidates metabolic changes related to enhanced glycolysis and glutamine consumption in precancerous epithelial tissues,” Cancer Res. 74(11), 3067–3075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Ostrander, C. M. McMahon, S. Lem, S. R. Millon, J. Q. Brown, V. L. Seewaldt, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical redox ratio differentiates breast cancer cell lines based on estrogen receptor status,” Cancer Res. 70(11), 4759–4766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Walsh, R. S. Cook, M. E. Sanders, L. Aurisicchio, G. Ciliberto, C. L. Arteaga, and M. C. Skala, “Quantitative optical imaging of primary tumor organoid metabolism predicts drug response in breast cancer,” Cancer Res. 74(18), 5184–5194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell (1)

D. Gao, I. Vela, A. Sboner, P. J. Iaquinta, W. R. Karthaus, A. Gopalan, C. Dowling, J. N. Wanjala, E. A. Undvall, V. K. Arora, J. Wongvipat, M. Kossai, S. Ramazanoglu, L. P. Barboza, W. Di, Z. Cao, Q. F. Zhang, I. Sirota, L. Ran, T. Y. MacDonald, H. Beltran, J. M. Mosquera, K. A. Touijer, P. T. Scardino, V. P. Laudone, K. R. Curtis, D. E. Rathkopf, M. J. Morris, D. C. Danila, S. F. Slovin, S. B. Solomon, J. A. Eastham, P. Chi, B. Carver, M. A. Rubin, H. I. Scher, H. Clevers, C. L. Sawyers, and Y. Chen, “Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer,” Cell 159(1), 176–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. Urol. Suppl. (1)

A. G. van der Heijden and J. A. Witjes, “Recurrence, progression, and follow-up in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer,” Eur. Urol. Suppl. 8(7), 556–562 (2009).
[Crossref]

Health Technol. Assess. (1)

G. Mowatt, S. Zhu, M. Kilonzo, C. Boachie, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, J. N’Dow, G. Nabi, J. Cook, and L. Vale, “Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic diagnosis and urine biomarkers (FISH, ImmunoCyt, NMP22) and cytology for the detection and follow-up of bladder cancer,” Health Technol. Assess. 14(4), 1–331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

In Vitro (1)

J. Leighton, R. Tchao, and K. L. Tencer, “Organoid structure of normal rat bladder in unilaminar and bilaminar histophysiologic gradient culture : methods and observations,” In Vitro 20(3), 183–197 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Technol. Assess. Health Care (1)

G. Mowatt, J. N’Dow, L. Vale, G. Nabi, C. Boachie, J. A. Cook, C. Fraser, T. R. Griffiths, and Aberdeen Technology Assessment Review (TAR) Group, “Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with white light cystoscopy: Systematic review and meta-analysis,” Int. J. Technol. Assess. Health Care 27(1), 3–10 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. (1)

O. D. Smirnova, D. A. Rogatkin, and K. S. Litvinova, “Collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of abnormal tissue changes,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 5(2), 1250010 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (1)

N. Akbar, S. Sokolovski, A. Dunaev, J. J. Belch, E. Rafailov, and F. Khan, “In vivo noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence biomarkers relate to cardiovascular disease in mice,” J. Microsc. 255(1), 42–48 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Urol. (3)

D. A. Janssen, P. J. Geutjes, J. Odenthal, T. H. van Kuppevelt, J. A. Schalken, W. F. Feitz, and J. F. Heesakkers, “A new, straightforward ex vivo organoid bladder mucosal model for preclinical research,” J. Urol. 190(1), 341–349 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Koenig, F. J. McGovern, A. F. Althausen, T. F. Deutsch, and K. T. Schomacker, “Laser induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder cancer,” J. Urol. 156(5), 1597–1601 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Huygens, A. R. Kamuhabwa, T. Roskams, B. VAN Cleynenbreugel, H. VAN Poppel, and P. A. de Witte, “Permeation of hypericin in spheroids composed of different grade transitional cell carcinoma cell lines and normal human urothelial cells,” J. Urol. 174(1), 69–72 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

A. V. Dunaev, V. V. Dremin, E. A. Zherebtsov, I. E. Rafailov, K. S. Litvinova, S. G. Palmer, N. A. Stewart, S. G. Sokolovski, and E. U. Rafailov, “Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow,” Med. Eng. Phys. 37(6), 574–583 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Methods Mol. Biol. (1)

C. L. Varley and J. Southgate, “Organotypic and 3D reconstructed cultures of the human bladder and urinary tract,” Methods Mol. Biol. 695, 197–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

A. A. Salahudeen and C. J. Kuo, “Toward recreating colon cancer in human organoids,” Nat. Med. 21(3), 215–216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neoplasia (1)

N. Ramanujam, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 89–117 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oral Oncol. (1)

D. C. De Veld, M. J. Witjes, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. Rafailov, S. Palmer, K. Litvinova, V. Dremin, A. Dunaev, and G. Nabi, “A novel excitation-emission wavelength model to facilitate the diagnosis of urinary bladder diseases,” Proc. SPIE 9303, 93030W (2015).
[Crossref]

Rev. Urol. (1)

J. P. Stein, “Choosing Earlier Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer,” Rev. Urol. 7(3), 190–192 (2005).
[PubMed]

World J. Urol. (1)

K. D. Sievert, B. Amend, U. Nagele, D. Schilling, J. Bedke, M. Horstmann, J. Hennenlotter, S. Kruck, and A. Stenzl, “Economic aspects of bladder cancer: what are the benefits and costs?” World J. Urol. 27(3), 295–300 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Setup of optical probe in relation to tissue scaffold showing (a) a schematic cross-section of tissue and optical probe (1 = optical probe, 2 = mucosal layer, 3 = connective tissue and 4 = muscle layer), and (b) an image of the optical probe in contact with the mucosal surface of tissue (1 = optical probe, 2 = mucosal surface of tissue scaffold).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of the fluorescence channel of the “LAKK-M” multi-functional system (top left). The system is controlled through the attached laptop (top left) to activate laser sources (UV; blue; green and red). Excitation light from the chosen source is directed in a source fibre through an optical probe to the biological object (in this case, organoid). Emitted fluorescence is transmitted through the detection fibre of the optical fibre, through optical filters to the CCD matrix, then finally displayed as a complex fluorescence spectrum on the custom software (top right). Spectroscopy interface displays a peak of back-scattered laser light (first peak) and a complex fluorescence spectrum (second peak) alongside recorded fluorescence intensity values for each fluorophore.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 H & E stained slides showing control (a), cancer cell attachment (b) and cancer cell invasion (c).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Average ORR values across experimental period for control (solid line) and organoid (dotted line). Error bars represent standard error of the mean.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Average ratios of Elastin/NADH (a) and Elastin/Flavins (b) across experimental period in control (solid line) and organoid samples (dotted line). Error bars represent standard error of the mean.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The most common endogenous fluorophores

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