Abstract

In modern minimally invasive surgeries (MIS), standard laparoscopes suffer from the tradeoff between the spatial resolution and field of view (FOV). The inability of simultaneously acquiring high-resolution images for accurate operation and wide-angle overviews for situational awareness limits the efficiency and outcome of the MIS. A dual view multi-resolution foveated laparoscope (MRFL) which can simultaneously provide the surgeon with a high-resolution view as well as a wide-angle overview was proposed and demonstrated to have great potential for improving the MIS. Although experiment results demonstrated the high-magnification probe has an adequate magnification for viewing surgical details, the dual-view MRFL is limited to two fixed levels of magnifications. A fine adjustment of the magnification is highly desired for obtaining high resolution images with desired field coverage. In this paper, a high magnification probe with continuous zooming capability without any mechanical moving parts is demonstrated. By taking the advantages of two electrically tunable lenses, one for optical zoom and the other for image focus compensation, the optical magnification of the high-magnification probe varies from 2 × to 3 × compared with that of the wide-angle probe, while the focused object position stays the same as the wide-angle probe. The optical design and the tunable lens analysis are presented, followed by prototype demonstration.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

2010 (1)

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc. 20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg. 179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arianpour, A.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouvy, N. D.

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc. 20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, J. H.

Chen, S. L.

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg. 179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, D.

Cho, S. H.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

Francis, C. S.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frede, T.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greve, J. W. M.

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc. 20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hatzinger, M.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heemskerk, J.

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc. 20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horgan, S.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, H.

Johnson, D.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, K. D.

Kim, W.

Lee, E.

Lee, S.

Liu, X.

Lo, Y. H.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maessen, J. G.

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc. 20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mintz, Y.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, M.

Ou, C. S.

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg. 179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, W.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, Y.

Rassweiler, J.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rowbotham, R.

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg. 179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulze, M.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seemann, O.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talamini, M.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teber, D.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, F. S.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Wu, M. P.

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg. 179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yen, E. Y.

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg. 179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

Zandbergen, R.

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc. 20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Surg. (1)

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg. 179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Urol. (1)

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Surg. Endosc. (1)

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc. 20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

B. Tamadazte, G. Fiard, J. Long, P. Cinguin, and S. Voros, “Enhanced vision system for laparoscopic surgery,” in proceeding of IEEE conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Osaka, Japan, 2013), pp. 5702–5705.

Y. Yamauchi, J. Yamashita, Y. Fukui, K. Yokoyama, T. Sekiya, E. Ito, M. Kanai, T. Fukuyo, D. Hashimoto, and H. Iseki, “A dual-view endoscope with image shift,” in proceedings of Computer assisted radiology and surgery (Paris, France, 2002), pp. 183–187.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the zoom probe design in MRFL system

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Field coverage of zoomable foveated probe at two different zoom ratios in comparison to the field coverage of the wide-angle probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The focal range of the tunable lens groups as a function of the focal length of the offset lens: (a) focal length of the offset lens 10mm-100mm; (b) focal length of the offset lens 100mm-500mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical design layout of the high-magnification foveated imaging probe of the MRFL system with the newly designed zoom probe.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MTF performance of the high-magnification zoom probe: (a) the polychromatic MTF of the central 26° FOV with 3 × zoom; (b) The average polychromatic MTF of central and peripheral FOVs for the zoom ratio of 2 × , 2.33 × , 2.67 × and 3 × .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3D model of the zoom MRFL.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

USAF 1951 resolution target images at different zoom ratios: (a) 2 × zoom; (b) 2.33 × zoom; (c) 2.67 × zoom (d) 3 × zoom.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Images of a bladder model of at different zoom ratios: (a) (a) 2 × zoom; (b) 2.33 × zoom; (c) 2.67 × zoom (d) 3 × zoom.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Image Contrast of the Zoom Probe at 3 × Zoom Ratio

Tables Icon

Table 2 Image Contrast of the Zoom Probe at 2.67 × Zoom Ratio

Tables Icon

Table 3 Image Contrast of the Zoom Probe at 2.33 × Zoom Ratio

Tables Icon

Table 4 Image Contrast of the Zoom Probe at 2 × Zoom Ratio

Equations (1)

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f zoom = f TL1 f TL2 × f img

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