Abstract

Shadowgraphic projection artifacts from superficial vasculature interfere with the visualization of deeper vascular networks in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). We developed a novel algorithm to remove this artifact by resolving the ambiguity between in situ and projected flow signals. The algorithm identifies voxels with in situ flow as those where intensity-normalized decorrelation values are higher than all shallower voxels in the same axial scan line. This “projection-resolved” (PR) algorithm effectively suppressed the projection artifact on both en face and cross-sectional angiograms and enhanced depth resolution of vascular networks. In the human macula, the enhanced angiograms show three distinct vascular plexuses in the inner retina and no vessels in the outer retina. We demonstrate that PR OCT-A cleanly removes flow projection from the normally avascular outer retinal slab while preserving the density and continuity of the intermediate and deep retinal capillary plexuses.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Reflectance-based projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography [Invited]

Jie Wang, Miao Zhang, Thomas S. Hwang, Steven T. Bailey, David Huang, David J. Wilson, and Yali Jia
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3) 1536-1548 (2017)

Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography

Li Liu, Simon S. Gao, Steven T. Bailey, David Huang, Dengwang Li, and Yali Jia
Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9) 3564-3576 (2015)

Minimizing projection artifacts for accurate presentation of choroidal neovascularization in OCT micro-angiography

Anqi Zhang, Qinqin Zhang, and Ruikang K. Wang
Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10) 4130-4143 (2015)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. K. K. Dansingani, J. Naysan, and K. B. Freund, “En face OCT angiography demonstrates flow in early type 3 neovascularization (retinal angiomatous proliferation),” Eye (Lond.) 29(5), 703–706 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol.In press.
  11. D. Huang, Y. Jia, and S. S. Gao, “Principles of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography ” in OCT Angiography Atlas, H. D. Lumbros B, Rosenfield P, Chen C, Rispoli M, Romano A, ed. (Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, 2015).
  12. B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(1), 51–65 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Ret. Vit. 1(1), 5 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers in macular telangiectasia type 2 imaged by optical coherence tomographic angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 66–73 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. C. Hendargo, R. Estrada, S. J. Chiu, C. Tomasi, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated non-rigid registration and mosaicing for robust imaging of distinct retinal capillary beds using speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 803–821 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Huang, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Efficient method to suppress artifacts caused by tissue hyper-reflections in optical microangiography of retina in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1195–1208 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Pascolini, S. P. Mariotti, G. P. Pokharel, R. Pararajasegaram, D. Etya’ale, A. D. Négrel, and S. Resnikoff, “2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies,” Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 11(2), 67–115 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. F. L. Ferris, S. L. Fine, and L. Hyman, “Age-related macular degeneration and blindness due to neovascular maculopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(11), 1640–1642 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Minimizing projection artifacts for accurate presentation of choroidal neovascularization in OCT micro-angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 4130–4143 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. D. Huang, Y. Jia, and S. S. Gao, “Interpretation of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” in OCT Angiography Atlas, H. D. Lumbros B, Rosenfield P, Chen C, Rispoli M, Romano A, ed. (Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, 2015).
  23. G. Chan, C. Balaratnasingam, P. K. Yu, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Morphometry of Perifoveal Capillary Networks in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5502–5514 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. K. Kurokawa, K. Sasaki, S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional retinal and choroidal capillary imaging by power Doppler optical coherence angiography with adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22796–22812 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, J. Schottenhamml, C.-L. Chen, A. Budai, L. Branchini, T. Ko, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. Hornegger, “Quantitative 3D-OCT motion correction with tilt and illumination correction, robust similarity measure and regularization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2591–2613 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. J. W. Wallis, T. R. Miller, C. A. Lerner, and E. C. Kleerup, “Three-dimensional display in nuclear medicine,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 8(4), 297–330 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. D. M. Snodderly and R. S. Weinhaus, “Retinal vasculature of the fovea of the squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus: Three-dimensional architecture, visual screening, and relationships to the neuronal layers,” J. Comp. Neurol. 297(1), 145–163 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. D. M. Snodderly, R. S. Weinhaus, and J. C. Choi, “Neural-vascular relationships in central retina of macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis),” J. Neurosci. 12(4), 1169–1193 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  33. R. F. Gariano, M. L. Iruela-Arispe, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Vascular development in primate retina: comparison of laminar plexus formation in monkey and human,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(9), 3442–3455 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  34. P. E. Z. Tan, P. K. Yu, C. Balaratnasingam, S. J. Cringle, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Confocal Imaging of the Retinal Microvasculature in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5728–5736 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. K. Pearson, “Note on regression and inheritance in the case of two parents,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 58(-1), 240–242 (1895).
    [Crossref]
  36. S. M. McClintic, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Optical coherence tomographic angiography of choroidal neovascularization associated with central serous chorioretinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(10), 1212–1214 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. D. Huang, Y. Jia, M. Rispoli, O. Tan, and B. Lumbroso, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of time course of choroidal neovascularization in response to anti-angiogenic treatment,” Retina 35(11), 2260–2264 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (15)

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Dansingani, J. Naysan, and K. B. Freund, “En face OCT angiography demonstrates flow in early type 3 neovascularization (retinal angiomatous proliferation),” Eye (Lond.) 29(5), 703–706 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Efficient method to suppress artifacts caused by tissue hyper-reflections in optical microangiography of retina in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1195–1208 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Minimizing projection artifacts for accurate presentation of choroidal neovascularization in OCT micro-angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 4130–4143 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Ret. Vit. 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers in macular telangiectasia type 2 imaged by optical coherence tomographic angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 66–73 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. McClintic, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Optical coherence tomographic angiography of choroidal neovascularization associated with central serous chorioretinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(10), 1212–1214 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, Y. Jia, M. Rispoli, O. Tan, and B. Lumbroso, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of time course of choroidal neovascularization in response to anti-angiogenic treatment,” Retina 35(11), 2260–2264 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, J. Schottenhamml, C.-L. Chen, A. Budai, L. Branchini, T. Ko, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. Hornegger, “Quantitative 3D-OCT motion correction with tilt and illumination correction, robust similarity measure and regularization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2591–2613 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (5)

2011 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (2)

D. Pascolini, S. P. Mariotti, G. P. Pokharel, R. Pararajasegaram, D. Etya’ale, A. D. Négrel, and S. Resnikoff, “2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies,” Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 11(2), 67–115 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. F. Gariano, M. L. Iruela-Arispe, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Vascular development in primate retina: comparison of laminar plexus formation in monkey and human,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(9), 3442–3455 (1994).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

D. M. Snodderly, R. S. Weinhaus, and J. C. Choi, “Neural-vascular relationships in central retina of macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis),” J. Neurosci. 12(4), 1169–1193 (1992).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. M. Snodderly and R. S. Weinhaus, “Retinal vasculature of the fovea of the squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus: Three-dimensional architecture, visual screening, and relationships to the neuronal layers,” J. Comp. Neurol. 297(1), 145–163 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. W. Wallis, T. R. Miller, C. A. Lerner, and E. C. Kleerup, “Three-dimensional display in nuclear medicine,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 8(4), 297–330 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

F. L. Ferris, S. L. Fine, and L. Hyman, “Age-related macular degeneration and blindness due to neovascular maculopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(11), 1640–1642 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1895 (1)

K. Pearson, “Note on regression and inheritance in the case of two parents,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 58(-1), 240–242 (1895).
[Crossref]

Arathorn, D. W.

Baeza, A.

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baeza, M. L.

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. McClintic, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Optical coherence tomographic angiography of choroidal neovascularization associated with central serous chorioretinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(10), 1212–1214 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol.In press.

Balaratnasingam, C.

G. Chan, C. Balaratnasingam, P. K. Yu, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Morphometry of Perifoveal Capillary Networks in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5502–5514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Z. Tan, P. K. Yu, C. Balaratnasingam, S. J. Cringle, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Confocal Imaging of the Retinal Microvasculature in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5728–5736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Bock, R.

Braaf, B.

Branchini, L.

Budai, A.

Chan, G.

G. Chan, C. Balaratnasingam, P. K. Yu, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Morphometry of Perifoveal Capillary Networks in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5502–5514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-L.

Chiu, S. J.

Choi, J. C.

D. M. Snodderly, R. S. Weinhaus, and J. C. Choi, “Neural-vascular relationships in central retina of macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis),” J. Neurosci. 12(4), 1169–1193 (1992).
[PubMed]

Congdon, N.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooney, M. J.

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers in macular telangiectasia type 2 imaged by optical coherence tomographic angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 66–73 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cringle, S. J.

G. Chan, C. Balaratnasingam, P. K. Yu, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Morphometry of Perifoveal Capillary Networks in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5502–5514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Z. Tan, P. K. Yu, C. Balaratnasingam, S. J. Cringle, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Confocal Imaging of the Retinal Microvasculature in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5728–5736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dansingani, K. K.

K. K. Dansingani, J. Naysan, and K. B. Freund, “En face OCT angiography demonstrates flow in early type 3 neovascularization (retinal angiomatous proliferation),” Eye (Lond.) 29(5), 703–706 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, E.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

de Carlo, T. E.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Ret. Vit. 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duker, J. S.

Edmunds, B.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Estrada, R.

Etya’ale, D.

D. Pascolini, S. P. Mariotti, G. P. Pokharel, R. Pararajasegaram, D. Etya’ale, A. D. Négrel, and S. Resnikoff, “2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies,” Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 11(2), 67–115 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

Ferris, F. L.

F. L. Ferris, S. L. Fine, and L. Hyman, “Age-related macular degeneration and blindness due to neovascular maculopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(11), 1640–1642 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fine, S. L.

F. L. Ferris, S. L. Fine, and L. Hyman, “Age-related macular degeneration and blindness due to neovascular maculopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(11), 1640–1642 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flaxel, C. J.

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol.In press.

Freund, K. B.

K. K. Dansingani, J. Naysan, and K. B. Freund, “En face OCT angiography demonstrates flow in early type 3 neovascularization (retinal angiomatous proliferation),” Eye (Lond.) 29(5), 703–706 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, D. S.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, J. Schottenhamml, C.-L. Chen, A. Budai, L. Branchini, T. Ko, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. Hornegger, “Quantitative 3D-OCT motion correction with tilt and illumination correction, robust similarity measure and regularization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2591–2613 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, S. S.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol.In press.

Gariano, R. F.

R. F. Gariano, M. L. Iruela-Arispe, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Vascular development in primate retina: comparison of laminar plexus formation in monkey and human,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(9), 3442–3455 (1994).
[PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Hanson, S. R.

Hendargo, H. C.

Hendrickson, A. E.

R. F. Gariano, M. L. Iruela-Arispe, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Vascular development in primate retina: comparison of laminar plexus formation in monkey and human,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(9), 3442–3455 (1994).
[PubMed]

Hong, Y.-J.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. McClintic, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Optical coherence tomographic angiography of choroidal neovascularization associated with central serous chorioretinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(10), 1212–1214 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, Y. Jia, M. Rispoli, O. Tan, and B. Lumbroso, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of time course of choroidal neovascularization in response to anti-angiogenic treatment,” Retina 35(11), 2260–2264 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol.In press.

Huang, Y.

Hurst, S.

Hwang, T. S.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol.In press.

Hyman, L.

F. L. Ferris, S. L. Fine, and L. Hyman, “Age-related macular degeneration and blindness due to neovascular maculopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(11), 1640–1642 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iruela-Arispe, M. L.

R. F. Gariano, M. L. Iruela-Arispe, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Vascular development in primate retina: comparison of laminar plexus formation in monkey and human,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(9), 3442–3455 (1994).
[PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

Izatt, J. A.

Jacques, S. L.

Jaillon, F.

Jia, Y.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. McClintic, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Optical coherence tomographic angiography of choroidal neovascularization associated with central serous chorioretinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(10), 1212–1214 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, Y. Jia, M. Rispoli, O. Tan, and B. Lumbroso, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of time course of choroidal neovascularization in response to anti-angiogenic treatment,” Retina 35(11), 2260–2264 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol.In press.

Kempen, J.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klancnik, J. M.

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers in macular telangiectasia type 2 imaged by optical coherence tomographic angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 66–73 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klaver, C. C.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleerup, E. C.

J. W. Wallis, T. R. Miller, C. A. Lerner, and E. C. Kleerup, “Three-dimensional display in nuclear medicine,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 8(4), 297–330 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, M. L.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, R.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Kraus, M. F.

Kurokawa, K.

Lauer, A. K.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol.In press.

Lerner, C. A.

J. W. Wallis, T. R. Miller, C. A. Lerner, and E. C. Kleerup, “Three-dimensional display in nuclear medicine,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 8(4), 297–330 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

Liu, G.

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol.In press.

Lombardi, L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López-Sáez, M. P.

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. D.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lumbroso, B.

D. Huang, Y. Jia, M. Rispoli, O. Tan, and B. Lumbroso, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of time course of choroidal neovascularization in response to anti-angiogenic treatment,” Retina 35(11), 2260–2264 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Makita, S.

Mariotti, S. P.

D. Pascolini, S. P. Mariotti, G. P. Pokharel, R. Pararajasegaram, D. Etya’ale, A. D. Négrel, and S. Resnikoff, “2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies,” Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 11(2), 67–115 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayer, M. A.

McAllister, I. L.

P. E. Z. Tan, P. K. Yu, C. Balaratnasingam, S. J. Cringle, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Confocal Imaging of the Retinal Microvasculature in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5728–5736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chan, C. Balaratnasingam, P. K. Yu, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Morphometry of Perifoveal Capillary Networks in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5502–5514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McClintic, S. M.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. McClintic, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Optical coherence tomographic angiography of choroidal neovascularization associated with central serous chorioretinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(10), 1212–1214 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, T. R.

J. W. Wallis, T. R. Miller, C. A. Lerner, and E. C. Kleerup, “Three-dimensional display in nuclear medicine,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 8(4), 297–330 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, P.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

Morgan, W. H.

G. Chan, C. Balaratnasingam, P. K. Yu, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Morphometry of Perifoveal Capillary Networks in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5502–5514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Z. Tan, P. K. Yu, C. Balaratnasingam, S. J. Cringle, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Confocal Imaging of the Retinal Microvasculature in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5728–5736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morrison, J. C.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muñoz, B.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naysan, J.

K. K. Dansingani, J. Naysan, and K. B. Freund, “En face OCT angiography demonstrates flow in early type 3 neovascularization (retinal angiomatous proliferation),” Eye (Lond.) 29(5), 703–706 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Négrel, A. D.

D. Pascolini, S. P. Mariotti, G. P. Pokharel, R. Pararajasegaram, D. Etya’ale, A. D. Négrel, and S. Resnikoff, “2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies,” Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 11(2), 67–115 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Colmain, B.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ordoqui, E.

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palejwala, N. V.

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pararajasegaram, R.

D. Pascolini, S. P. Mariotti, G. P. Pokharel, R. Pararajasegaram, D. Etya’ale, A. D. Négrel, and S. Resnikoff, “2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies,” Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 11(2), 67–115 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pascolini, D.

D. Pascolini, S. P. Mariotti, G. P. Pokharel, R. Pararajasegaram, D. Etya’ale, A. D. Négrel, and S. Resnikoff, “2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies,” Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 11(2), 67–115 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearson, K.

K. Pearson, “Note on regression and inheritance in the case of two parents,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 58(-1), 240–242 (1895).
[Crossref]

Pechauer, A. D.

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pennesi, M. E.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pokharel, G. P.

D. Pascolini, S. P. Mariotti, G. P. Pokharel, R. Pararajasegaram, D. Etya’ale, A. D. Négrel, and S. Resnikoff, “2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies,” Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 11(2), 67–115 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Resnikoff, S.

D. Pascolini, S. P. Mariotti, G. P. Pokharel, R. Pararajasegaram, D. Etya’ale, A. D. Négrel, and S. Resnikoff, “2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies,” Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 11(2), 67–115 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rispoli, M.

D. Huang, Y. Jia, M. Rispoli, O. Tan, and B. Lumbroso, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of time course of choroidal neovascularization in response to anti-angiogenic treatment,” Retina 35(11), 2260–2264 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romano, A.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Ret. Vit. 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Roorda, A.

Sainza, T.

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasaki, K.

Schottenhamml, J.

Schuman, J.

Sheehy, C. K.

Snodderly, D. M.

D. M. Snodderly, R. S. Weinhaus, and J. C. Choi, “Neural-vascular relationships in central retina of macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis),” J. Neurosci. 12(4), 1169–1193 (1992).
[PubMed]

D. M. Snodderly and R. S. Weinhaus, “Retinal vasculature of the fovea of the squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus: Three-dimensional architecture, visual screening, and relationships to the neuronal layers,” J. Comp. Neurol. 297(1), 145–163 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaide, R. F.

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers in macular telangiectasia type 2 imaged by optical coherence tomographic angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 66–73 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subhash, H.

Takusagawa, H. L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

D. Huang, Y. Jia, M. Rispoli, O. Tan, and B. Lumbroso, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of time course of choroidal neovascularization in response to anti-angiogenic treatment,” Retina 35(11), 2260–2264 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, P. E. Z.

P. E. Z. Tan, P. K. Yu, C. Balaratnasingam, S. J. Cringle, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Confocal Imaging of the Retinal Microvasculature in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5728–5736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, H. R.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiruveedhula, P.

Tokayer, J.

Tomasi, C.

Tornero, P.

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vermeer, K. A.

Vienola, K. V.

Waheed, N. K.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Ret. Vit. 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallis, J. W.

J. W. Wallis, T. R. Miller, C. A. Lerner, and E. C. Kleerup, “Three-dimensional display in nuclear medicine,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 8(4), 297–330 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, Y.

Weinhaus, R. S.

D. M. Snodderly, R. S. Weinhaus, and J. C. Choi, “Neural-vascular relationships in central retina of macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis),” J. Neurosci. 12(4), 1169–1193 (1992).
[PubMed]

D. M. Snodderly and R. S. Weinhaus, “Retinal vasculature of the fovea of the squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus: Three-dimensional architecture, visual screening, and relationships to the neuronal layers,” J. Comp. Neurol. 297(1), 145–163 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol.In press.

Wollstein, G.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, Q.

Yasuno, Y.

Yu, D. Y.

G. Chan, C. Balaratnasingam, P. K. Yu, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Morphometry of Perifoveal Capillary Networks in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5502–5514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Z. Tan, P. K. Yu, C. Balaratnasingam, S. J. Cringle, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Confocal Imaging of the Retinal Microvasculature in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5728–5736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, P. K.

P. E. Z. Tan, P. K. Yu, C. Balaratnasingam, S. J. Cringle, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Confocal Imaging of the Retinal Microvasculature in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5728–5736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chan, C. Balaratnasingam, P. K. Yu, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Morphometry of Perifoveal Capillary Networks in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5502–5514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, A.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, Q.

Zubeldia, J. M.

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (1)

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. L. Ferris, S. L. Fine, and L. Hyman, “Age-related macular degeneration and blindness due to neovascular maculopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(11), 1640–1642 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (8)

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Minimizing projection artifacts for accurate presentation of choroidal neovascularization in OCT micro-angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 4130–4143 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, J. Schottenhamml, C.-L. Chen, A. Budai, L. Branchini, T. Ko, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. Hornegger, “Quantitative 3D-OCT motion correction with tilt and illumination correction, robust similarity measure and regularization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2591–2613 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(1), 51–65 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Hendargo, R. Estrada, S. J. Chiu, C. Tomasi, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated non-rigid registration and mosaicing for robust imaging of distinct retinal capillary beds using speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 803–821 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Efficient method to suppress artifacts caused by tissue hyper-reflections in optical microangiography of retina in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1195–1208 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

K. K. Dansingani, J. Naysan, and K. B. Freund, “En face OCT angiography demonstrates flow in early type 3 neovascularization (retinal angiomatous proliferation),” Eye (Lond.) 29(5), 703–706 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

J. W. Wallis, T. R. Miller, C. A. Lerner, and E. C. Kleerup, “Three-dimensional display in nuclear medicine,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 8(4), 297–330 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Ret. Vit. (1)

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Ret. Vit. 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

G. Chan, C. Balaratnasingam, P. K. Yu, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Morphometry of Perifoveal Capillary Networks in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5502–5514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Gariano, M. L. Iruela-Arispe, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Vascular development in primate retina: comparison of laminar plexus formation in monkey and human,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(9), 3442–3455 (1994).
[PubMed]

P. E. Z. Tan, P. K. Yu, C. Balaratnasingam, S. J. Cringle, W. H. Morgan, I. L. McAllister, and D. Y. Yu, “Quantitative Confocal Imaging of the Retinal Microvasculature in the Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(9), 5728–5736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

D. M. Snodderly and R. S. Weinhaus, “Retinal vasculature of the fovea of the squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus: Three-dimensional architecture, visual screening, and relationships to the neuronal layers,” J. Comp. Neurol. 297(1), 145–163 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

D. M. Snodderly, R. S. Weinhaus, and J. C. Choi, “Neural-vascular relationships in central retina of macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis),” J. Neurosci. 12(4), 1169–1193 (1992).
[PubMed]

JAMA Ophthalmol. (3)

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers in macular telangiectasia type 2 imaged by optical coherence tomographic angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 66–73 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. McClintic, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Optical coherence tomographic angiography of choroidal neovascularization associated with central serous chorioretinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(10), 1212–1214 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Epidemiol. (1)

D. Pascolini, S. P. Mariotti, G. P. Pokharel, R. Pararajasegaram, D. Etya’ale, A. D. Négrel, and S. Resnikoff, “2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies,” Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 11(2), 67–115 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (1)

K. Pearson, “Note on regression and inheritance in the case of two parents,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 58(-1), 240–242 (1895).
[Crossref]

Retina (4)

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, Y. Jia, M. Rispoli, O. Tan, and B. Lumbroso, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of time course of choroidal neovascularization in response to anti-angiogenic treatment,” Retina 35(11), 2260–2264 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol.In press.

D. Huang, Y. Jia, and S. S. Gao, “Principles of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography ” in OCT Angiography Atlas, H. D. Lumbros B, Rosenfield P, Chen C, Rispoli M, Romano A, ed. (Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, 2015).

D. Huang, Y. Jia, and S. S. Gao, “Interpretation of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” in OCT Angiography Atlas, H. D. Lumbros B, Rosenfield P, Chen C, Rispoli M, Romano A, ed. (Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, 2015).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (7906 KB)      An en face fly-through (superficial to deep) video showing 3D OCT-A without projection suppression

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of projection artifacts in optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCT-A). (A) Composite cross-sectional OCT-A before projection suppression. The decorrelation signal (red) is overlaid on the structural OCT. The projection artifacts are notable as tails (vertical red streaks) trailing below the real vessels and projected onto deeper high-reflectance layers. (B) Decorrelation values of projected flow are plotted v.s. log amplitude OCT signal. These four sets of projection artifact data chosen are from A-lines that had only one dominant in situ flow in the deep retinal plexus (arrows in Panel A. Their tails (rectangles in Panel A) are clearly projection artifacts because we know the outer retina is normally avascular. (C) Plots of the decorrelation adjusted by log amplitude. After the adjustment, the projected flow values are always smaller than the in situ flow.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Illustration of projection-resolved (PR) OCT-A algorithm. (A) Composite cross-sectional OCT-A before projection suppression. This 0.23 mm wide example is taken from the parafoveal region. (B) Original decorrelation and log amplitude values of the A-line pointed to by the green arrow in A. (C) Decorrelation normalized by log amplitude according to Eq. (1). Four successively higher peaks (green arrows) on this plot represent in situ flow in real vessels. (D) Decorrelations plot after clean up by the PR algorithm – decorrelation values outside the successive peaks represented projection artifacts and were set to zero (Eq. (3). (E) Composite cross-sectional OCT-A after clean-up of projection artifacts using the PR algorithm. The green arrows in pointed at the same voxels identified as real vessels in C and D. Note that 4 vessels co-existing along the same A-line could be identified on the PR OCT-A, and their axial positions could be pinpointed. The PR OCT-A of the macula shows 3 distinct vascular plexuses in the inner retina - superficial, intermediate, and deep – as has been described in previous histological studies [23].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A comparison of Retinal OCT-A processed without projection suppression (Original, Column 1), with projection suppressed by the standard slab-subtraction method (SS, Column 2), and with the novel projection-resolved algorithm (PR, Column 3). Row A: En face OCT-A of the superficial vascular plexus. Row B: En face OCT-A of the intermediate capillary plexus. Row C: En face OCT-A of the deep capillary plexus. Row D: En face OCT-A of the outer retinal slab. In B1, the yellow rectangular is the ROI of the analysis in Fig. 5. The circles mark the parafoveal ROI of the vessel density calculation in Fig. 7.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 An en face fly-through (superficial to deep) video (Visualization 1) showing 3D OCT-A without projection suppression (A) and with projection artifacts removed using the PR algorithm (B).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Plots of retinal vessel density as a function of depth computed from OCT-A with and without projection removal using the PR algorithm. The ROI in a 3 × 0.1 mm temporal perifoveal location was defined in Fig. (3A1) (yellow rectangle). (A) Individual plots from 13 healthy human study participants. (B) Plot of population mean and standard deviation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Correlation of the en face angiogram of the deeper slabs – intermediate plexus, deep plexus, and outer retina relative to the all layers above them. The differences between the original, SS, and PR OCT-A were statistically significant for all 3 slabs (p < 0.001 by paired t tests).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of parafoveal vessel density of the intermediate and deep capillary plexuses obtained using SS and PR algorithms. The differences between the 2 algorithms were statistical significant for both plexuses (p < 0.001, paired t-test. The ROI location was defined in Fig. 3(A1) (between two blue and green circles).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison of projection artifact suppression algorithms in the visualization of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a case of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (A) En face OCT-A of the outer retinal slab without projection artifact suppression. (B1) Projection suppression with the SS algorithm alone. (B2) projection suppression with the PR algorithm. (C1) A Saliency-based algorithm is used to clean up background clutter after SS. (C2) A Saliency-based algorithm is used to clean up background clutter after PR.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F= D S
R=6.88× 10 7 × 10 S 800
C n ={ D n , if F n >(1+α) max( F i ), 1in1 0 , otherwise
C slab2 ={ D slab2 D slab1 , if D slab2 > D slab1 0 , otherwise
r= i=1 n ( x i x ¯ )( y i y ¯ ) i=1 n ( x i x ¯ ) 2 i=1 n ( y i y ¯ ) 2
x ¯ = 1 n i=1 n x i

Metrics