Abstract

We introduce, validate and demonstrate a new software correlator for high-speed measurement of blood flow in deep tissues based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). The software correlator scheme employs standard PC-based data acquisition boards to measure temporal intensity autocorrelation functions continuously at 50 – 100 Hz, the fastest blood flow measurements reported with DCS to date. The data streams, obtained in vivo for typical source-detector separations of 2.5 cm, easily resolve pulsatile heart-beat fluctuations in blood flow which were previously considered to be noise. We employ the device to separate tissue blood flow from tissue absorption/scattering dynamics and thereby show that the origin of the pulsatile DCS signal is primarily flow, and we monitor cerebral autoregulation dynamics in healthy volunteers more accurately than with traditional instrumentation as a result of increased data acquisition rates. Finally, we characterize measurement signal-to-noise ratio and identify count rate and averaging parameters needed for optimal performance.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (6)

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2, 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Binzoni and F. Martelli, “Assessing the reliability of diffuse correlation spectroscopy models on noise-free analytical Monte Carlo data,” Appl. Opt. 54, 5320–5326 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. SriramChandran, G. Devaraj, R. Kanhirodan, D. Roy, and R. M. Vasu, “Detection and estimation of liquid flow through a pipe in a tissue-like object with ultrasound-assisted diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 1888–1897 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Tsalach, Z. Schiffer, E. Ratner, I. Breskin, R. Zeitak, R. Shechter, and M. Balberg, “Depth selective acousto-optic flow measurement,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 4871–4886 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. Wang, S. S. Schenkel, T. Durduran, G. Li, and A. G. Yodh, “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow index with venous-occlusion diffuse optical spectroscopy in skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20125005 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Tivnan, R. Gurjar, D. Wolf, and K. Vishwanath, “High Frequency Sampling of TTL Pulses on a Raspberry Pi for Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Applications,” Sensors 15, 19709–19722 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (12)

S. Fantini, “Dynamic model for the tissue concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in relation to blood volume, flow velocity, and oxygen consumption: Implications for functional neuroimaging and coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS),” NeuroImage 85Pt 1, 202–221 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Kainerstorfer, A. Sassaroli, and S. Fantini, “Coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy in a single step,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3403 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, H. Radhakrishnan, M. Kocienski-Filip, S. A. Carp, J. Dubb, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Somatosensory evoked changes in cerebral oxygen consumption measured non-invasively in premature neonates,” NeuroImage 85, 279–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1, 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang and G. Yu, “A Nth-order linear algorithm for extracting diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow indices in heterogeneous tissues,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 105, 133702 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 4053–4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for non-invasive, micro-vascular cerebral blood flow measurement,” NeuroImage 85Pt 1, 51–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1, 011009 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. G. Favilla, R. C. Mesquita, M. Mullen, T. Durduran, X. Lu, M. N. Kim, D. L. Minkoff, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke patients during head-of-bed manipulation,” Stroke 45, 1269–1274 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20, 443–445 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

R. C. Mesquita, M. Putt, M. Chandra, G. Yu, X. Xing, S. W. Han, G. Lech, Y. Shang, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, and E. R. Mohler, “Diffuse optical characterization of an exercising patient group with peripheral artery disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 057007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, and G. Yu, “Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) for Assessment of Tissue Blood Flow in Skeletal Muscle: Recent Progress,” Anat. Physiol. 03, 128 (2013).

V. Jain, E. M. Buckley, D. J. Licht, J. M. Lynch, P. J. Schwab, M. Y. Naim, N. A. Lavin, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, A. G. Yodh, and F. W. Wehrli, “Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart disease quantified by MRI and optics,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 380–388 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, O. K. Faseyitan, P. E. Turkeltaub, E. M. Buckley, A. Thomas, M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and R. H. Hamilton, “Blood flow and oxygenation changes due to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebral cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 067006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A Systematic Comparison of Motion Artifact Correction Techniques for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Fron. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).

M. Jaeger, M. Soehle, M. U. Schuhmann, and J. Meixensberger, “Clinical Significance of Impaired Cerebrovas-cular Autoregulation After Severe Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage,” Stroke 43, 2097–2101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0970041 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Cheng, Y. Shang, D. Hayes, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical evaluation of spontaneous low frequency oscillations in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 62, 1445–1454 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. M. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, “Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS): A Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Tissue Blood Flow in Vascular-Related Diseases and Therapies,” Curr. Med. Im. Rev. 8, 194–210 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Yu, “Near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 010901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Gurley, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0750101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, G. Yu, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, U. Sunar, and A. G. Yodh, “Direct measurement of tissue blood flow and metabolism with diffuse optics,” Philos. Trans. Ser. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 369, 4390–4406 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Diop, K. Verdecchia, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a time-resolved near-infrared technique to yield absolute cerebral blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2068–2081 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

Y. Shang, T. B. Symons, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, and G. Yu, “Effects of muscle fiber motion on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements during exercise,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 500–511 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phy. 73, 076701 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Carp, G. P. Dai, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and Y. R. Kim, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements of rodent cerebral blood flow with simultaneous arterial spin labeling MRI; towards MRI-optical continuous cerebral metabolic monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 553 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

F. Jaillon, J. Li, G. Dietsche, T. Elbert, and T. Gisler, “Activity of the human visual cortex measured non-invasively by diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 6643–6650 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jaeger, M. U. Schuhmann, M. Soehle, C. Nagel, and J. Meixensberger, “Continuous Monitoring of Cere-brovascular Autoregulation After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage by Brain Tissue Oxygen Pressure Reactivity and Its Relation to Delayed Cerebral Infarction,” Stroke 38, 981–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dietsche, M. Ninck, C. Ortolf, J. Li, F. Jaillon, and T. Gisler, “Fiber-based multispeckle detection for time-resolved diffusing-wave spectroscopy: characterization and application to blood flow detection in deep tissue,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8506–8514 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Schatzel, M. Drewel, and S. Stimac, “Photon Correlation Measurements at Large Lag Times: Improving Statistical Accuracy,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 711–718 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

J. Li, F. Jaillon, G. Dietsche, G. Maret, and T. Gisler, “Pulsation-resolved deep tissue dynamics measured with diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 7841 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Reinhard, E. Wehrle-Wieland, D. Grabiak, M. Roth, B. Guschlbauer, J. Timmer, C. Weiller, and A. Hetzel, “Oscillatory cerebral hemodynamics—the macro- vs. microvascular level,” J. Neurolog. Sciences 250, 103–109 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain,” Opt. Express 14, 1125–1144 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

S. L. Dawson, R. B. Panerai, and J. F. Potter, “Serial Changes in Static and Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation after Acute Ischaemic Stroke,” Cerebrovasc. Diseases 16, 69–75 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Magatti and F. Ferri, “25 ns software correlator for photon and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 74, 1135–1144 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855–1858 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. P. Tiecks, A. M. Lam, R. Aaslid, and D. W. Newell, “Comparison of static and dynamic cerebral autoregulation measurements,” Stroke 26, 1014–1019 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. Middleton and D. Fisher, “Discrete scatterers and autocorrelations of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 5934–5938 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

K. Schatzel, “Noise on photon correlation data. I. Autocorrelation functions,” Quant. Opt. 2, 287–305 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

R. Aaslid, K.-F. Lindegaard, W. Sorteberg, and H. Nornes, “Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in humans,” Stroke 20, 45–52 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

K. Schatzel, “Correlation techniques in dynamic light scattering,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 193–213 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

S. Strandgaard and O. B. Paulson, “Cerebral autoregulation,” Stroke 15, 413–416 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aaslid, R.

F. P. Tiecks, A. M. Lam, R. Aaslid, and D. W. Newell, “Comparison of static and dynamic cerebral autoregulation measurements,” Stroke 26, 1014–1019 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Aaslid, K.-F. Lindegaard, W. Sorteberg, and H. Nornes, “Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in humans,” Stroke 20, 45–52 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramson, K.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2, 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arger, P. H.

Ashina, M.

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A Systematic Comparison of Motion Artifact Correction Techniques for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Fron. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).

Baker, W. B.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2, 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. Wang, S. S. Schenkel, T. Durduran, G. Li, and A. G. Yodh, “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow index with venous-occlusion diffuse optical spectroscopy in skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20125005 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 4053–4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phy. 73, 076701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balberg, M.

Bherer, L.

Bi, R.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0970041 (2012).
[Crossref]

Binzoni, T.

Boas, D. A.

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1, 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, H. Radhakrishnan, M. Kocienski-Filip, S. A. Carp, J. Dubb, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Somatosensory evoked changes in cerebral oxygen consumption measured non-invasively in premature neonates,” NeuroImage 85, 279–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A Systematic Comparison of Motion Artifact Correction Techniques for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Fron. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).

S. A. Carp, G. P. Dai, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and Y. R. Kim, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements of rodent cerebral blood flow with simultaneous arterial spin labeling MRI; towards MRI-optical continuous cerebral metabolic monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 553 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “HomER: a review of time-series analysis methods for near-infrared spectroscopy of the brain,” Appl. Opt. 48, D280–D298 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192–215 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855–1858 (1995).
[Crossref]

Breskin, I.

Buckley, E. M.

J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1, 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1, 011009 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Jain, E. M. Buckley, D. J. Licht, J. M. Lynch, P. J. Schwab, M. Y. Naim, N. A. Lavin, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, A. G. Yodh, and F. W. Wehrli, “Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart disease quantified by MRI and optics,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 380–388 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. C. Mesquita, O. K. Faseyitan, P. E. Turkeltaub, E. M. Buckley, A. Thomas, M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and R. H. Hamilton, “Blood flow and oxygenation changes due to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebral cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 067006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. M. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, G. Yu, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, U. Sunar, and A. G. Yodh, “Direct measurement of tissue blood flow and metabolism with diffuse optics,” Philos. Trans. Ser. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 369, 4390–4406 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, M. G.

Busch, D. R.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2, 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 4053–4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campbell, L. E.

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855–1858 (1995).
[Crossref]

Carlile, P. M.

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carp, S. A.

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, H. Radhakrishnan, M. Kocienski-Filip, S. A. Carp, J. Dubb, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Somatosensory evoked changes in cerebral oxygen consumption measured non-invasively in premature neonates,” NeuroImage 85, 279–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1, 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Carp, G. P. Dai, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and Y. R. Kim, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements of rodent cerebral blood flow with simultaneous arterial spin labeling MRI; towards MRI-optical continuous cerebral metabolic monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 553 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chan, S.-T.

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1, 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chandra, M.

R. C. Mesquita, M. Putt, M. Chandra, G. Yu, X. Xing, S. W. Han, G. Lech, Y. Shang, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, and E. R. Mohler, “Diffuse optical characterization of an exercising patient group with peripheral artery disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 057007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, R.

R. Cheng, Y. Shang, D. Hayes, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical evaluation of spontaneous low frequency oscillations in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 62, 1445–1454 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, G. Yu, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, U. Sunar, and A. G. Yodh, “Direct measurement of tissue blood flow and metabolism with diffuse optics,” Philos. Trans. Ser. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 369, 4390–4406 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phy. 73, 076701 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17, 3884–3902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, N. M.

Cooper, R. J.

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A Systematic Comparison of Motion Artifact Correction Techniques for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Fron. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).

Cucchiara, B. L.

Czerniecki, B. J.

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, G. P.

Dawson, S. L.

S. L. Dawson, R. B. Panerai, and J. F. Potter, “Serial Changes in Static and Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation after Acute Ischaemic Stroke,” Cerebrovasc. Diseases 16, 69–75 (2003).
[Crossref]

DeMichele, A.

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desjardins, M.

Detre, J. A.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20, 443–445 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. G. Favilla, R. C. Mesquita, M. Mullen, T. Durduran, X. Lu, M. N. Kim, D. L. Minkoff, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke patients during head-of-bed manipulation,” Stroke 45, 1269–1274 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, O. K. Faseyitan, P. E. Turkeltaub, E. M. Buckley, A. Thomas, M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and R. H. Hamilton, “Blood flow and oxygenation changes due to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebral cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 067006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17, 3884–3902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1766–1768 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devaraj, G.

Diamond, S. G.

Diaz, L. K.

E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. M. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dietsche, G.

Diop, M.

Dong, J.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0970041 (2012).
[Crossref]

Drewel, M.

K. Schatzel, M. Drewel, and S. Stimac, “Photon Correlation Measurements at Large Lag Times: Improving Statistical Accuracy,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 711–718 (2007).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dubb, J.

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, H. Radhakrishnan, M. Kocienski-Filip, S. A. Carp, J. Dubb, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Somatosensory evoked changes in cerebral oxygen consumption measured non-invasively in premature neonates,” NeuroImage 85, 279–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

Durduran, T.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2, 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. Wang, S. S. Schenkel, T. Durduran, G. Li, and A. G. Yodh, “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow index with venous-occlusion diffuse optical spectroscopy in skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20125005 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20, 443–445 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for non-invasive, micro-vascular cerebral blood flow measurement,” NeuroImage 85Pt 1, 51–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. G. Favilla, R. C. Mesquita, M. Mullen, T. Durduran, X. Lu, M. N. Kim, D. L. Minkoff, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke patients during head-of-bed manipulation,” Stroke 45, 1269–1274 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, M. Putt, M. Chandra, G. Yu, X. Xing, S. W. Han, G. Lech, Y. Shang, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, and E. R. Mohler, “Diffuse optical characterization of an exercising patient group with peripheral artery disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 057007 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. C. Mesquita, O. K. Faseyitan, P. E. Turkeltaub, E. M. Buckley, A. Thomas, M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and R. H. Hamilton, “Blood flow and oxygenation changes due to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebral cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 067006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. M. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, G. Yu, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, U. Sunar, and A. G. Yodh, “Direct measurement of tissue blood flow and metabolism with diffuse optics,” Philos. Trans. Ser. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 369, 4390–4406 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phy. 73, 076701 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Shang, T. B. Symons, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, and G. Yu, “Effects of muscle fiber motion on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements during exercise,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 500–511 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17, 3884–3902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain,” Opt. Express 14, 1125–1144 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1766–1768 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durian, D. J.

Durning, S. M.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edlow, B. L.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20, 443–445 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17, 3884–3902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elbert, T.

Evans, K. C.

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1, 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

S. Fantini, “Dynamic model for the tissue concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in relation to blood volume, flow velocity, and oxygen consumption: Implications for functional neuroimaging and coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS),” NeuroImage 85Pt 1, 202–221 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Kainerstorfer, A. Sassaroli, and S. Fantini, “Coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy in a single step,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3403 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faseyitan, O. K.

R. C. Mesquita, O. K. Faseyitan, P. E. Turkeltaub, E. M. Buckley, A. Thomas, M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and R. H. Hamilton, “Blood flow and oxygenation changes due to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebral cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 067006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favilla, C. G.

C. G. Favilla, R. C. Mesquita, M. Mullen, T. Durduran, X. Lu, M. N. Kim, D. L. Minkoff, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke patients during head-of-bed manipulation,” Stroke 45, 1269–1274 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, M. D.

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fenoglio, A.

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, H. Radhakrishnan, M. Kocienski-Filip, S. A. Carp, J. Dubb, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Somatosensory evoked changes in cerebral oxygen consumption measured non-invasively in premature neonates,” NeuroImage 85, 279–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ferri, F.

D. Magatti and F. Ferri, “25 ns software correlator for photon and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 74, 1135–1144 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Magatti and F. Ferri, “Fast Multi-Tau Real-Time Software Correlator for Dynamic Light Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4011–4021 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fisher, D.

A. Middleton and D. Fisher, “Discrete scatterers and autocorrelations of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 5934–5938 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fogel, M. A.

E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. M. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1, 011009 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, H. Radhakrishnan, M. Kocienski-Filip, S. A. Carp, J. Dubb, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Somatosensory evoked changes in cerebral oxygen consumption measured non-invasively in premature neonates,” NeuroImage 85, 279–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Carp, G. P. Dai, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and Y. R. Kim, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements of rodent cerebral blood flow with simultaneous arterial spin labeling MRI; towards MRI-optical continuous cerebral metabolic monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 553 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “HomER: a review of time-series analysis methods for near-infrared spectroscopy of the brain,” Appl. Opt. 48, D280–D298 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frangos, S.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20, 443–445 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fuller, S.

J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furuya, D.

Gagnon, L.

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A Systematic Comparison of Motion Artifact Correction Techniques for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Fron. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).

L. Gagnon, M. Desjardins, J. Jehanne-Lacasse, L. Bherer, and F. Lesage, “Investigation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy in multi-layered media including the human head,” Opt. Express 16, 15514–15530 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaynor, J. W.

J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giammarco, J. M.

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gisler, T.

Goff, D. A.

J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grabiak, D.

M. Reinhard, E. Wehrle-Wieland, D. Grabiak, M. Roth, B. Guschlbauer, J. Timmer, C. Weiller, and A. Hetzel, “Oscillatory cerebral hemodynamics—the macro- vs. microvascular level,” J. Neurolog. Sciences 250, 103–109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Grady, M. S.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grant, P. E.

E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1, 011009 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, H. Radhakrishnan, M. Kocienski-Filip, S. A. Carp, J. Dubb, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Somatosensory evoked changes in cerebral oxygen consumption measured non-invasively in premature neonates,” NeuroImage 85, 279–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

Greenberg, J. H.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2, 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Favilla, R. C. Mesquita, M. Mullen, T. Durduran, X. Lu, M. N. Kim, D. L. Minkoff, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke patients during head-of-bed manipulation,” Stroke 45, 1269–1274 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20, 443–445 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 4053–4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, O. K. Faseyitan, P. E. Turkeltaub, E. M. Buckley, A. Thomas, M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and R. H. Hamilton, “Blood flow and oxygenation changes due to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebral cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 067006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17, 3884–3902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain,” Opt. Express 14, 1125–1144 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1766–1768 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

M. Tivnan, R. Gurjar, D. Wolf, and K. Vishwanath, “High Frequency Sampling of TTL Pulses on a Raspberry Pi for Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Applications,” Sensors 15, 19709–19722 (2015).
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Gurley, K.

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, and G. Yu, “Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) for Assessment of Tissue Blood Flow in Skeletal Muscle: Recent Progress,” Anat. Physiol. 03, 128 (2013).

K. Gurley, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0750101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guschlbauer, B.

M. Reinhard, E. Wehrle-Wieland, D. Grabiak, M. Roth, B. Guschlbauer, J. Timmer, C. Weiller, and A. Hetzel, “Oscillatory cerebral hemodynamics—the macro- vs. microvascular level,” J. Neurolog. Sciences 250, 103–109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hamilton, R. H.

R. C. Mesquita, O. K. Faseyitan, P. E. Turkeltaub, E. M. Buckley, A. Thomas, M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and R. H. Hamilton, “Blood flow and oxygenation changes due to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebral cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 067006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S. W.

R. C. Mesquita, M. Putt, M. Chandra, G. Yu, X. Xing, S. W. Han, G. Lech, Y. Shang, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, and E. R. Mohler, “Diffuse optical characterization of an exercising patient group with peripheral artery disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 057007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hance, D.

E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. M. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayes, D.

R. Cheng, Y. Shang, D. Hayes, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical evaluation of spontaneous low frequency oscillations in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 62, 1445–1454 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hetzel, A.

M. Reinhard, E. Wehrle-Wieland, D. Grabiak, M. Roth, B. Guschlbauer, J. Timmer, C. Weiller, and A. Hetzel, “Oscillatory cerebral hemodynamics—the macro- vs. microvascular level,” J. Neurolog. Sciences 250, 103–109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ho, J. H.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0970041 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huppert, T. J.

Hurt, H. H.

Iversen, H. K.

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A Systematic Comparison of Motion Artifact Correction Techniques for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Fron. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).

Jaeger, M.

M. Jaeger, M. Soehle, M. U. Schuhmann, and J. Meixensberger, “Clinical Significance of Impaired Cerebrovas-cular Autoregulation After Severe Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage,” Stroke 43, 2097–2101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jaeger, M. U. Schuhmann, M. Soehle, C. Nagel, and J. Meixensberger, “Continuous Monitoring of Cere-brovascular Autoregulation After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage by Brain Tissue Oxygen Pressure Reactivity and Its Relation to Delayed Cerebral Infarction,” Stroke 38, 981–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaillon, F.

Jain, V.

V. Jain, E. M. Buckley, D. J. Licht, J. M. Lynch, P. J. Schwab, M. Y. Naim, N. A. Lavin, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, A. G. Yodh, and F. W. Wehrli, “Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart disease quantified by MRI and optics,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 380–388 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jehanne-Lacasse, J.

Jung, K. W.

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kainerstorfer, J. M.

Kanhirodan, R.

Kasner, S. E.

C. G. Favilla, R. C. Mesquita, M. Mullen, T. Durduran, X. Lu, M. N. Kim, D. L. Minkoff, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke patients during head-of-bed manipulation,” Stroke 45, 1269–1274 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17, 3884–3902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kilger, A.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. N.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20, 443–445 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. G. Favilla, R. C. Mesquita, M. Mullen, T. Durduran, X. Lu, M. N. Kim, D. L. Minkoff, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke patients during head-of-bed manipulation,” Stroke 45, 1269–1274 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, O. K. Faseyitan, P. E. Turkeltaub, E. M. Buckley, A. Thomas, M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and R. H. Hamilton, “Blood flow and oxygenation changes due to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebral cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 067006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, G. Yu, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, U. Sunar, and A. G. Yodh, “Direct measurement of tissue blood flow and metabolism with diffuse optics,” Philos. Trans. Ser. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 369, 4390–4406 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17, 3884–3902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. R.

Kissler, J.

Ko, T. S.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2, 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. Wang, S. S. Schenkel, T. Durduran, G. Li, and A. G. Yodh, “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow index with venous-occlusion diffuse optical spectroscopy in skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20125005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koban, L.

Kocienski-Filip, M.

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, H. Radhakrishnan, M. Kocienski-Filip, S. A. Carp, J. Dubb, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Somatosensory evoked changes in cerebral oxygen consumption measured non-invasively in premature neonates,” NeuroImage 85, 279–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kofke, W. A.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kung, D. K.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2, 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, A. M.

F. P. Tiecks, A. M. Lam, R. Aaslid, and D. W. Newell, “Comparison of static and dynamic cerebral autoregulation measurements,” Stroke 26, 1014–1019 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavin, N. A.

V. Jain, E. M. Buckley, D. J. Licht, J. M. Lynch, P. J. Schwab, M. Y. Naim, N. A. Lavin, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, A. G. Yodh, and F. W. Wehrli, “Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart disease quantified by MRI and optics,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 380–388 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lech, G.

R. C. Mesquita, M. Putt, M. Chandra, G. Yu, X. Xing, S. W. Han, G. Lech, Y. Shang, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, and E. R. Mohler, “Diffuse optical characterization of an exercising patient group with peripheral artery disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 057007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0970041 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.-Y.

Lemieux, P. A.

Lesage, F.

Levine, J. M.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20, 443–445 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Z. Li, W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. Wang, S. S. Schenkel, T. Durduran, G. Li, and A. G. Yodh, “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow index with venous-occlusion diffuse optical spectroscopy in skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20125005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, Z.

Z. Li, W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. Wang, S. S. Schenkel, T. Durduran, G. Li, and A. G. Yodh, “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow index with venous-occlusion diffuse optical spectroscopy in skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20125005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Licht, D. J.

J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Jain, E. M. Buckley, D. J. Licht, J. M. Lynch, P. J. Schwab, M. Y. Naim, N. A. Lavin, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, A. G. Yodh, and F. W. Wehrli, “Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart disease quantified by MRI and optics,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 380–388 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. M. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
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Lindegaard, K.-F.

R. Aaslid, K.-F. Lindegaard, W. Sorteberg, and H. Nornes, “Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in humans,” Stroke 20, 45–52 (1989).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
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C. G. Favilla, R. C. Mesquita, M. Mullen, T. Durduran, X. Lu, M. N. Kim, D. L. Minkoff, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke patients during head-of-bed manipulation,” Stroke 45, 1269–1274 (2014).
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Lustig, R.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
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J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
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E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
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V. Jain, E. M. Buckley, D. J. Licht, J. M. Lynch, P. J. Schwab, M. Y. Naim, N. A. Lavin, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, A. G. Yodh, and F. W. Wehrli, “Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart disease quantified by MRI and optics,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 380–388 (2013).
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E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. M. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
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M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
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Martelli, F.

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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
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J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
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W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2, 035004 (2015).
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C. G. Favilla, R. C. Mesquita, M. Mullen, T. Durduran, X. Lu, M. N. Kim, D. L. Minkoff, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke patients during head-of-bed manipulation,” Stroke 45, 1269–1274 (2014).
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W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 4053–4075 (2014).
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C. G. Favilla, R. C. Mesquita, M. Mullen, T. Durduran, X. Lu, M. N. Kim, D. L. Minkoff, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke patients during head-of-bed manipulation,” Stroke 45, 1269–1274 (2014).
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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
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C. G. Favilla, R. C. Mesquita, M. Mullen, T. Durduran, X. Lu, M. N. Kim, D. L. Minkoff, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke patients during head-of-bed manipulation,” Stroke 45, 1269–1274 (2014).
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M. Jaeger, M. U. Schuhmann, M. Soehle, C. Nagel, and J. Meixensberger, “Continuous Monitoring of Cere-brovascular Autoregulation After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage by Brain Tissue Oxygen Pressure Reactivity and Its Relation to Delayed Cerebral Infarction,” Stroke 38, 981–986 (2007).
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J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
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E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
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V. Jain, E. M. Buckley, D. J. Licht, J. M. Lynch, P. J. Schwab, M. Y. Naim, N. A. Lavin, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, A. G. Yodh, and F. W. Wehrli, “Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart disease quantified by MRI and optics,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 380–388 (2013).
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V. Jain, E. M. Buckley, D. J. Licht, J. M. Lynch, P. J. Schwab, M. Y. Naim, N. A. Lavin, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, A. G. Yodh, and F. W. Wehrli, “Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart disease quantified by MRI and optics,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 380–388 (2013).
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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
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Nioka, S.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
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R. Aaslid, K.-F. Lindegaard, W. Sorteberg, and H. Nornes, “Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in humans,” Stroke 20, 45–52 (1989).
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W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2, 035004 (2015).
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E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1, 011009 (2014).
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W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 4053–4075 (2014).
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E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. M. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
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R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A Systematic Comparison of Motion Artifact Correction Techniques for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Fron. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).

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S. L. Dawson, R. B. Panerai, and J. F. Potter, “Serial Changes in Static and Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation after Acute Ischaemic Stroke,” Cerebrovasc. Diseases 16, 69–75 (2003).
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R. C. Mesquita, M. Putt, M. Chandra, G. Yu, X. Xing, S. W. Han, G. Lech, Y. Shang, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, and E. R. Mohler, “Diffuse optical characterization of an exercising patient group with peripheral artery disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 057007 (2013).
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Putt, M. E.

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
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E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. M. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17, 3884–3902 (2009).
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E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
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N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, H. Radhakrishnan, M. Kocienski-Filip, S. A. Carp, J. Dubb, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Somatosensory evoked changes in cerebral oxygen consumption measured non-invasively in premature neonates,” NeuroImage 85, 279–286 (2014).
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Rosen, M. A.

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
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M. Reinhard, E. Wehrle-Wieland, D. Grabiak, M. Roth, B. Guschlbauer, J. Timmer, C. Weiller, and A. Hetzel, “Oscillatory cerebral hemodynamics—the macro- vs. microvascular level,” J. Neurolog. Sciences 250, 103–109 (2006).
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J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0970041 (2012).
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V. Jain, E. M. Buckley, D. J. Licht, J. M. Lynch, P. J. Schwab, M. Y. Naim, N. A. Lavin, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, A. G. Yodh, and F. W. Wehrli, “Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart disease quantified by MRI and optics,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 380–388 (2013).
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M. Tivnan, R. Gurjar, D. Wolf, and K. Vishwanath, “High Frequency Sampling of TTL Pulses on a Raspberry Pi for Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Applications,” Sensors 15, 19709–19722 (2015).
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Yodh, A. G.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2, 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. Wang, S. S. Schenkel, T. Durduran, G. Li, and A. G. Yodh, “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow index with venous-occlusion diffuse optical spectroscopy in skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20125005 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
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M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20, 443–445 (2014).
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R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
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T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for non-invasive, micro-vascular cerebral blood flow measurement,” NeuroImage 85Pt 1, 51–63 (2014).
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E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1, 011009 (2014).
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C. G. Favilla, R. C. Mesquita, M. Mullen, T. Durduran, X. Lu, M. N. Kim, D. L. Minkoff, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke patients during head-of-bed manipulation,” Stroke 45, 1269–1274 (2014).
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W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 4053–4075 (2014).
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V. Jain, E. M. Buckley, D. J. Licht, J. M. Lynch, P. J. Schwab, M. Y. Naim, N. A. Lavin, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, A. G. Yodh, and F. W. Wehrli, “Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart disease quantified by MRI and optics,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 380–388 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, M. Putt, M. Chandra, G. Yu, X. Xing, S. W. Han, G. Lech, Y. Shang, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, and E. R. Mohler, “Diffuse optical characterization of an exercising patient group with peripheral artery disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 057007 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. C. Mesquita, O. K. Faseyitan, P. E. Turkeltaub, E. M. Buckley, A. Thomas, M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and R. H. Hamilton, “Blood flow and oxygenation changes due to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebral cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 067006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. M. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, G. Yu, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, U. Sunar, and A. G. Yodh, “Direct measurement of tissue blood flow and metabolism with diffuse optics,” Philos. Trans. Ser. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 369, 4390–4406 (2011).
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T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phy. 73, 076701 (2010).
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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Shang, T. B. Symons, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, and G. Yu, “Effects of muscle fiber motion on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements during exercise,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 500–511 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17, 3884–3902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain,” Opt. Express 14, 1125–1144 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1766–1768 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192–215 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855–1858 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yu, G.

Y. Shang and G. Yu, “A Nth-order linear algorithm for extracting diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow indices in heterogeneous tissues,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 105, 133702 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. C. Mesquita, M. Putt, M. Chandra, G. Yu, X. Xing, S. W. Han, G. Lech, Y. Shang, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, and E. R. Mohler, “Diffuse optical characterization of an exercising patient group with peripheral artery disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 057007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, and G. Yu, “Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) for Assessment of Tissue Blood Flow in Skeletal Muscle: Recent Progress,” Anat. Physiol. 03, 128 (2013).

G. Yu, “Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS): A Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Tissue Blood Flow in Vascular-Related Diseases and Therapies,” Curr. Med. Im. Rev. 8, 194–210 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Gurley, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0750101 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Cheng, Y. Shang, D. Hayes, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical evaluation of spontaneous low frequency oscillations in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 62, 1445–1454 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, “Near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 010901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, G. Yu, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, U. Sunar, and A. G. Yodh, “Direct measurement of tissue blood flow and metabolism with diffuse optics,” Philos. Trans. Ser. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 369, 4390–4406 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Shang, T. B. Symons, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, and G. Yu, “Effects of muscle fiber motion on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements during exercise,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 500–511 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17, 3884–3902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain,” Opt. Express 14, 1125–1144 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1766–1768 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeitak, R.

Zhang, J.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

R. C. Mesquita, M. Putt, M. Chandra, G. Yu, X. Xing, S. W. Han, G. Lech, Y. Shang, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, and E. R. Mohler, “Diffuse optical characterization of an exercising patient group with peripheral artery disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 057007 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, G. Yu, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, U. Sunar, and A. G. Yodh, “Direct measurement of tissue blood flow and metabolism with diffuse optics,” Philos. Trans. Ser. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 369, 4390–4406 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17, 3884–3902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain,” Opt. Express 14, 1125–1144 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1766–1768 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmerman, R. A.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anat. Physiol. (1)

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, and G. Yu, “Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) for Assessment of Tissue Blood Flow in Skeletal Muscle: Recent Progress,” Anat. Physiol. 03, 128 (2013).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phy. Lett. (1)

Y. Shang and G. Yu, “A Nth-order linear algorithm for extracting diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow indices in heterogeneous tissues,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 105, 133702 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. Schatzel, “Correlation techniques in dynamic light scattering,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 193–213 (1987).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (6)

Cerebrovasc. Diseases (1)

S. L. Dawson, R. B. Panerai, and J. F. Potter, “Serial Changes in Static and Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation after Acute Ischaemic Stroke,” Cerebrovasc. Diseases 16, 69–75 (2003).
[Crossref]

Curr. Med. Im. Rev. (1)

G. Yu, “Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS): A Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Tissue Blood Flow in Vascular-Related Diseases and Therapies,” Curr. Med. Im. Rev. 8, 194–210 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fron. Neurosci. (1)

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A Systematic Comparison of Motion Artifact Correction Techniques for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Fron. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).

J. Biomed. Opt. (9)

E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. M. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Yu, “Near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 010901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, M. Putt, M. Chandra, G. Yu, X. Xing, S. W. Han, G. Lech, Y. Shang, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, A. G. Yodh, and E. R. Mohler, “Diffuse optical characterization of an exercising patient group with peripheral artery disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 057007 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0970041 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Gurley, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0750101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. Wang, S. S. Schenkel, T. Durduran, G. Li, and A. G. Yodh, “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow index with venous-occlusion diffuse optical spectroscopy in skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20125005 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. C. Mesquita, O. K. Faseyitan, P. E. Turkeltaub, E. M. Buckley, A. Thomas, M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and R. H. Hamilton, “Blood flow and oxygenation changes due to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebral cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 067006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

V. Jain, E. M. Buckley, D. J. Licht, J. M. Lynch, P. J. Schwab, M. Y. Naim, N. A. Lavin, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, A. G. Yodh, and F. W. Wehrli, “Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart disease quantified by MRI and optics,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 380–388 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

K. Schatzel, M. Drewel, and S. Stimac, “Photon Correlation Measurements at Large Lag Times: Improving Statistical Accuracy,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 711–718 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Neurolog. Sciences (1)

M. Reinhard, E. Wehrle-Wieland, D. Grabiak, M. Roth, B. Guschlbauer, J. Timmer, C. Weiller, and A. Hetzel, “Oscillatory cerebral hemodynamics—the macro- vs. microvascular level,” J. Neurolog. Sciences 250, 103–109 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (2)

E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurocrit. Care (2)

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20, 443–445 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12, 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

NeuroImage (4)

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, H. Radhakrishnan, M. Kocienski-Filip, S. A. Carp, J. Dubb, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Somatosensory evoked changes in cerebral oxygen consumption measured non-invasively in premature neonates,” NeuroImage 85, 279–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for non-invasive, micro-vascular cerebral blood flow measurement,” NeuroImage 85Pt 1, 51–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fantini, “Dynamic model for the tissue concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in relation to blood volume, flow velocity, and oxygen consumption: Implications for functional neuroimaging and coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS),” NeuroImage 85Pt 1, 202–221 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Cheng, Y. Shang, D. Hayes, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical evaluation of spontaneous low frequency oscillations in cerebral hemodynamics,” NeuroImage 62, 1445–1454 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurophotonics (3)

J. Selb, D. A. Boas, S.-T. Chan, K. C. Evans, E. M. Buckley, and S. A. Carp, “Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia,” Neurophotonics 1, 015005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, A. B. Parthasarathy, P. E. Grant, A. G. Yodh, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects,” Neurophotonics 1, 011009 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, T. S. Ko, D. R. Busch, K. Abramson, S.-Y. Tzeng, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, J. H. Greenberg, D. K. Kung, and A. G. Yodh, “Pressure modulation algorithm to separate cerebral hemodynamic signals from extracerebral artifacts,” Neurophotonics 2, 035004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17, 3884–3902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17, 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gagnon, M. Desjardins, J. Jehanne-Lacasse, L. Bherer, and F. Lesage, “Investigation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy in multi-layered media including the human head,” Opt. Express 16, 15514–15530 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain,” Opt. Express 14, 1125–1144 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, F. Jaillon, G. Dietsche, G. Maret, and T. Gisler, “Pulsation-resolved deep tissue dynamics measured with diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 7841 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jaillon, J. Li, G. Dietsche, T. Elbert, and T. Gisler, “Activity of the human visual cortex measured non-invasively by diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 6643–6650 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Philos. Trans. Ser. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. (1)

R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, G. Yu, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, U. Sunar, and A. G. Yodh, “Direct measurement of tissue blood flow and metabolism with diffuse optics,” Philos. Trans. Ser. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 369, 4390–4406 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phy. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855–1858 (1995).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Middleton and D. Fisher, “Discrete scatterers and autocorrelations of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 5934–5938 (1991).
[Crossref]

PLoS ONE (1)

R. Choe, M. E. Putt, P. M. Carlile, T. Durduran, J. M. Giammarco, D. R. Busch, K. W. Jung, B. J. Czerniecki, J. C. Tchou, M. D. Feldman, C. Mies, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, A. DeMichele, and A. G. Yodh, “Optically Measured Microvascular Blood Flow Contrast of Malignant Breast Tumors,” PLoS ONE 9, e99683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quant. Opt. (1)

K. Schatzel, “Noise on photon correlation data. I. Autocorrelation functions,” Quant. Opt. 2, 287–305 (1990).
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Rep. Prog. Phy. (1)

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phy. 73, 076701 (2010).
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Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

D. Magatti and F. Ferri, “25 ns software correlator for photon and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 74, 1135–1144 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sensors (1)

M. Tivnan, R. Gurjar, D. Wolf, and K. Vishwanath, “High Frequency Sampling of TTL Pulses on a Raspberry Pi for Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Applications,” Sensors 15, 19709–19722 (2015).
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Stroke (6)

S. Strandgaard and O. B. Paulson, “Cerebral autoregulation,” Stroke 15, 413–416 (1984).
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M. Jaeger, M. Soehle, M. U. Schuhmann, and J. Meixensberger, “Clinical Significance of Impaired Cerebrovas-cular Autoregulation After Severe Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage,” Stroke 43, 2097–2101 (2012).
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M. Jaeger, M. U. Schuhmann, M. Soehle, C. Nagel, and J. Meixensberger, “Continuous Monitoring of Cere-brovascular Autoregulation After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage by Brain Tissue Oxygen Pressure Reactivity and Its Relation to Delayed Cerebral Infarction,” Stroke 38, 981–986 (2007).
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Other (1)

National Instruments white paper, “Application Design Patterns: Producer/Consumer,” (National Instruments, 2012) http://www.ni.com/white-paper/3023/en/ .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Schematic of DCS instrumentation in the semi-infinite geometry. Highly coherent single mode laser light is used to illuminate the sample via optical fibers. Red blood cell motion (e.g., red disks to light red disks in time τ; blood flow F) causes fluctuations in the intensity of backscattered light that is collected a distance ρ away from the source, and is directed to single photon counting avalanche photo diodes (APDs). A correlator counts the arrival of digital TTL pulses generated by the APDs to compute the DCS autocorrelation functions, (B) Sample intensity autocorrelation functions (g2(τ)) highlighting different flow rates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Block diagram of experiment setup for in vivo studies. Long coherence length near-infrared light illuminates the tissue. Diffuse light is collected via a 4 × 1 bundle of single mode fibers 2.5 cms away on the surface for detection. Two detection channels are directed to a commercial hardware and two more to the custom software correlator. (B) Schematic operation of software correlator. TTL pulses generated by the APDs are counted using an 80 MHz internal counter time base. Accumulated photon counts are transferred to a counter buffer (N(i)) at a user defined sampling frequency (fs = 1/Δt). N(i) denotes the ith sample in the counter buffer, i.e., the number of counts that have been accumulated through the ith sample interval.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Accurate estimates of blood flow with real-time software correlator. (A) Protocol for validating accuracy of blood flow measured with software correlator. For these validation experiments, the probe was placed on subject forearms, and an arm cuff was placed on the subject’s bicep on the same side of the probe. (B) Representative intensity temporal auto-correlation functions estimated by the software correlator (40 delay times, solid blue line with solid blue markers) and a commercial hardware correlator (256 delay times, dashed red line) using an integration time of 1 s, under baseline conditions. (C) Dynamics of the tissue blood flow index, estimated by fitting the hardware (dashed red lines) and software (solid blue lines) correlator data to a diffusion model (Eq. (2), Appendix 1). Vertical dashed black lines bound the period of arm-cuff occlusion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pulsatile blood flow measured with the real-time software correlator. (A) Data at discrete time points from 10 intensity temporal autocorrelation functions obtained with the software correlator (blue circles, 0.1 s integration time), and one intensity temporal autocorrelation function measured by the hardware correlator over the same duration (solid red line, 1 s integration time). (B) Natural fluctuations in the tissue blood flow index under baseline conditions as measured with the high speed software correlator (blue) and the lower speed hardware correlator (red). Blood flow indices were derived by fitting the measured intensity autocorrelation functions to a semi-infinite solution of the correlation diffusion equation (Eq. (2), Appendix 1) (C) 15 s extract of baseline blood flow fluctuations, clearly demonstrating that the fluctuations in the blood flow index are a result of the pulsatile nature of blood flow. Notice, the entire cardiac cycle is clearly resolved, including the ‘dicrotic notch’, i.e., the second flow peak of smaller magnitude within the cycle, corresponding to aortic valve closure. (D) The frequency spectrum of the baseline blood flow indices measured with the software correlator, highlighting the heart rate as 0.9 Hz, with corresponding harmonics at 1.8, 2.7 and 3.6 Hz

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fractional contributions of flow, scattering and absorption to changes in the DCS signal measured from the arm (Panel A) and the brain (Panel B) of three healthy subjects.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dynamic cerebral autoregulation estimated using the high-speed software correlator. (A) Protocol for monitoring cerebral autoregulation dynamics with the real-time software correlator. Here, the probe is placed on the subject’s forehead over the frontal cortex. Two blood pressure cuffs were placed on the subject’s thighs, about 10 cms above the knees. (B) Unfiltered measurements of relative cerebral blood flow (solid red lines) and blood pressure (solid blue lines) from a single bilateral thigh cuff deflation. Vertical dashed black lines indicate the time of cuff deflation. All measurements were normalized to a 10 s pre-deflation baseline. (Inset) 5s extract of the baseline period shows a phase difference between CBF and blood pressure. (C) Filtered relative cerebral blood flow (solid red lines) and blood pressure (solid blue lines) changes due to a bilateral cuff-deflation (dashed vertical black line at t = 0 s). The change in relative cerebrovascular resistance is also shown (solid magenta line). The two dashed vertical green lines denote the period of recovery of cerebrovascular resistance; a linear fit to this data is shown in the inset.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of measurement of cerebral autoregulation dynamics at different CBF measurement rates. (A) Reduced data rates were achieved by averaging/integrating high-frequency software correlator intensity temporal autocorrelation functions (20 Hz, gray) to 0.5 Hz (blue, a common hardware correlator data rate), 1 Hz (red) and 2 Hz (green). Measurements at 0.5 and 1 Hz are highly averaged and capture the 20% baseline fluctuation in CBF. The 1 Hz data rate identifies, but only poorly resolves the heart rate fluctuations. None of lower frequency data can accurately capture the instantaneous decrease in CBF due to cuff deflation. Note that this form of averaging is an accurate representation of data integration in the hardware correlators. (B) Reduced data rates achieved by down-sampling the high-frequency software correlator intensity autocorrelation functions. Down-sampled CBF data is quite noisy.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Estimation of signal-to-noise ratios due to data from a liquid phantom. (A) Sample intensity autocorrelation values measured at a delay time of 20 µs for different integration times. Lower integration times are more noisy, since averaging is reduced. Panels (B) and (D) plot the standard deviation of measured intensity autocorrelation functions versus integration time and photon count rates, at delay times of 20 µs and 80 µs respectively. Panels (C) and (E) plot the corresponding signal-to-noise ratios. All measurements are fit to a DCS correlation noise model [62](solid lines).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optimization of experimental parameters to isolate heart rate with fast blood flow measurements. (A) Natural fluctuations in blood flow index acquired on the arm are plotted as a function of time for 19 kHz (solid blue lines) and 182 kHz (solid red lines) photon count rates and 5 ms integration times. (B) Corresponding frequency spectra of blood flow index dynamics show a clear peak at the heart rate frequency for the higher photon count rate data. (C) Scatter plot showing which photon count rates and integration times permit the identification of the heart rate in in vivo data. Red crosses indicate parameters where heart rate could not be identified, while solid blue circles indicate parameters where heart rate was successfully identified.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparisons of blood flow indices measured using software and hardware correlators under baseline conditions from 8 subjects. (A) Scatter plot of blood flow indices estimated using the software correlator (BFIs, x-axis) and hardware correlator (BFIh, y-axis). Solid blue circles represent each measurement, the dashed green line is a 1: 1 line, and the solid red line is a line of linear regression line. The slope of the regression line is 0.967 denoting good agreement between the two techniques. (B) Bland-Altman plot that represents the average (x-axis) and difference (y-axis) of the estimated blood flow indices. All measurements are within the 95% confidence lines (dashed horizontal black lines) indicating good agreement between the techniques.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of heart rates estimated using the software correlator (e.g. from frequency spectrum in Fig. 4(C)) and a commercial pulse oximeter, under baseline conditions from 8 subjects. (A) Scatter plot of heart rate estimate estimated using the software cor-relator (HRDCS, x-axis) and commercial pulse oximeter (HROximeter, y-axis). Solid blue circles represent each measurement, the dashed green line is a 1: 1 line, and the solid red line is a line of linear regression line. The slope of the regression line is 1 denoting excellent agreement between the two techniques. (B) Bland-Altman plot that represents the average (x-axis) and difference (y-axis) of the estimated heart rates. All measurements are within the 95% confidence lines (dashed horizontal black lines) indicating good agreement between the techniques.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Baseline fluctuations in tissue optical properties over 10 minutes measured on forearm and brain of 3 healthy volunteers

Equations (3)

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g 2 ( Δ n = τ f s ) = n ( i ) n ( i + Δ n ) n ( i ) n ( i )
g 1 ( τ , ρ ) = r b exp ( κ D ( τ ) r 1 ) r 1 exp ( κ D ( τ ) r b ) r b exp ( κ D ( 0 ) r 1 ) r 1 exp ( κ D ( 0 ) r b )
Δ O D D C S ( τ , ρ ) = log ( g 2 ( τ , ρ ) 1 g 2 0 ( τ , ρ ) 1 ) d F ( τ , ρ ) Δ F + d a ( τ , ρ ) Δ μ a + d s ( τ , ρ ) Δ μ s .

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