Abstract

A novel tri-modal microscope combining optical coherence tomography (OCT), spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) and fluorescence imaging is presented. This system aims at providing a tool for rapid identification of head and neck tissues during thyroid surgery. The development of a dual-wavelength polygon-based swept laser allows for synchronized, co-registered and simultaneous imaging with all three modalities. Further ameliorations towards miniaturization include a custom lens for optimal compromise between orthogonal imaging geometries as well as a double-clad fiber coupler for increased throughput. Image quality and co-registration is demonstrated on freshly excised swine head and neck tissue samples to illustrate the complementarity of the techniques for identifying signature cellular and structural features.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (1)

L. C. Conti de Freitas, E. Phelan, L. Liu, J. Gardecki, E. Namati, W. C. Warger, G. J. Tearney, and G. W. Randolph, “Optical coherence tomography imaging during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: A novel system of tissue identification and differentiation to obviate tissue resection and frozen section,” Head Neck 36(9), 1329–1334 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (5)

2012 (1)

C. Glazowski and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 085001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Y. Mao, S. Chang, E. Murdock, and C. Flueraru, “Simultaneous dual-wavelength-band common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography with single polygon mirror scanner,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 1990–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Strupler, N. Goulamhoussen, E. De Montigny, and C. Boudoux, “Rapidly Wavelength-Swept Laser at 780 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(4), 197–199 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Paras, M. Keller, L. White, J. Phay, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067012 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

S. Vergnole, D. Lévesque, and G. Lamouche, “Experimental validation of an optimized signal processing method to handle non-linearity in swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10446–10461 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Soshin, H. Takai, C. Kato, E. Fujii, S. Matsuo, T. Ito, and M. Suzuki, “A method for sampling and tissue preparation of the parathyroid glands in miniature pigs for toxicity studies,” J. Toxicol. Sci. 35(2), 235–238 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kim, M. Roy, F. Dadani, and B. C. Wilson, “A fiberoptic reflectance probe with multiple source-collector separations to increase the dynamic range of derived tissue optical absorption and scattering coefficients,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5580–5594 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc. 239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

E. A. te Velde, T. Veerman, V. Subramaniam, and T. Ruers, “The use of fluorescent dyes and probes in surgical oncology,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(1), 6–15 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. D. Aguirre, T.-H. Tsai, D. W. Cohen, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C.-W. Chen, B. Xu, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

E. I. Efremidou, M. S. Papageorgiou, N. Liratzopoulos, and K. J. Manolas, “The efficacy and safety of total thyroidectomy in the management of benign thyroid disease: a review of 932 cases,” Can. J. Surg. 52(1), 39–44 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. Manouras, H. Markogiannakis, E. Lagoudianakis, P. Antonakis, M. Genetzakis, A. Papadima, E. Konstantoulaki, D. Papanikolaou, and P. Kekis, “Unintentional parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy,” Head Neck 30(4), 497–502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

R. S. Sippel, O. Ozgül, G. K. Hartig, E. A. Mack, and H. Chen, “Risks and consequences of incidental parathyroidectomy during thyroid resection,” ANZ J. Surg. 77(1-2), 33–36 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 054103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. E. Rix and P. Sinha, “Inadvertent parathyroid excision during thyroid surgery,” Surgeon 4(6), 339–342 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

L. Pantanowitz, P.-L. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, K. Schneider, P. R. Herz, J. G. Fujimoto, S. Raza, and J. L. Connolly, “High-resolution imaging of the thyroid gland using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 26(5), 425–434 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4822–4828 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. White, M. Baldassano, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, G. J. Tearney, R. R. Anderson, and R. L. Fabian, “Confocal reflectance imaging of head and neck surgical specimens. A comparison with histologic analysis,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 130(8), 923–928 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2000 (2)

L. J. DiNardo, J. Lin, L. S. Karageorge, and C. N. Powers, “Accuracy, utility, and cost of frozen section margins in head and neck cancer surgery,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1773–1776 (2000).

W. M. White, G. J. Tearney, B. Z. Pilch, R. L. Fabian, R. R. Anderson, and R. D. Gaz, “A novel, noninvasive imaging technique for intraoperative assessment of parathyroid glands: confocal reflectance microscopy,” Surgery 128(6), 1088–1101 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Aguirre, A. D.

C. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. D. Aguirre, T.-H. Tsai, D. W. Cohen, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

W. M. White, M. Baldassano, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, G. J. Tearney, R. R. Anderson, and R. L. Fabian, “Confocal reflectance imaging of head and neck surgical specimens. A comparison with histologic analysis,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 130(8), 923–928 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. White, G. J. Tearney, B. Z. Pilch, R. L. Fabian, R. R. Anderson, and R. D. Gaz, “A novel, noninvasive imaging technique for intraoperative assessment of parathyroid glands: confocal reflectance microscopy,” Surgery 128(6), 1088–1101 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antonakis, P.

A. Manouras, H. Markogiannakis, E. Lagoudianakis, P. Antonakis, M. Genetzakis, A. Papadima, E. Konstantoulaki, D. Papanikolaou, and P. Kekis, “Unintentional parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy,” Head Neck 30(4), 497–502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arkadopoulos, N.

I. Vassiliou, A. Tympa, N. Arkadopoulos, F. Nikolakopoulos, T. Petropoulou, and V. Smyrniotis, “Total thyroidectomy as the single surgical option for benign and malignant thyroid disease: a surgical challenge,” Arch. Med. Sci. 1(1), 74–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldassano, M.

W. M. White, M. Baldassano, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, G. J. Tearney, R. R. Anderson, and R. L. Fabian, “Confocal reflectance imaging of head and neck surgical specimens. A comparison with histologic analysis,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 130(8), 923–928 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernard, G.

Boudoux, C.

E. De Montigny, W. J. Madore, O. Ouellette, G. Bernard, M. Leduc, M. Strupler, C. Boudoux, and N. Godbout, “Double-clad fiber coupler for partially coherent detection,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9040–9051 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Strupler, N. Goulamhoussen, E. De Montigny, and C. Boudoux, “Rapidly Wavelength-Swept Laser at 780 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(4), 197–199 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc. 239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. Yun, W. Oh, W. White, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8214–8221 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Brender, E.

E. Brender, A. Burke, and R. M. Glass, “Frozen section biopsy,” JAMA 294(24), 3200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broome, J. T.

M. A. McWade, C. Paras, L. M. White, J. E. Phay, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and J. T. Broome, “A novel optical approach to intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands,” Surgery 154(6), 1371–1377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burke, A.

E. Brender, A. Burke, and R. M. Glass, “Frozen section biopsy,” JAMA 294(24), 3200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C.-W. Chen, B. Xu, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carruth, R. W.

Chang, S.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-W.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C.-W. Chen, B. Xu, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

R. S. Sippel, O. Ozgül, G. K. Hartig, E. A. Mack, and H. Chen, “Risks and consequences of incidental parathyroidectomy during thyroid resection,” ANZ J. Surg. 77(1-2), 33–36 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C.-W. Chen, B. Xu, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Cohen, D. W.

C. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. D. Aguirre, T.-H. Tsai, D. W. Cohen, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connolly, J. L.

C. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. D. Aguirre, T.-H. Tsai, D. W. Cohen, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pantanowitz, P.-L. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, K. Schneider, P. R. Herz, J. G. Fujimoto, S. Raza, and J. L. Connolly, “High-resolution imaging of the thyroid gland using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 26(5), 425–434 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conti de Freitas, L. C.

L. C. Conti de Freitas, E. Phelan, L. Liu, J. Gardecki, E. Namati, W. C. Warger, G. J. Tearney, and G. W. Randolph, “Optical coherence tomography imaging during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: A novel system of tissue identification and differentiation to obviate tissue resection and frozen section,” Head Neck 36(9), 1329–1334 (2014).
[PubMed]

Dadani, F.

de Boer, J.

De Montigny, E.

E. De Montigny, W. J. Madore, O. Ouellette, G. Bernard, M. Leduc, M. Strupler, C. Boudoux, and N. Godbout, “Double-clad fiber coupler for partially coherent detection,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9040–9051 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Strupler, N. Goulamhoussen, E. De Montigny, and C. Boudoux, “Rapidly Wavelength-Swept Laser at 780 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(4), 197–199 (2011).
[Crossref]

DiNardo, L. J.

L. J. DiNardo, J. Lin, L. S. Karageorge, and C. N. Powers, “Accuracy, utility, and cost of frozen section margins in head and neck cancer surgery,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1773–1776 (2000).

Efremidou, E. I.

E. I. Efremidou, M. S. Papageorgiou, N. Liratzopoulos, and K. J. Manolas, “The efficacy and safety of total thyroidectomy in the management of benign thyroid disease: a review of 932 cases,” Can. J. Surg. 52(1), 39–44 (2009).
[PubMed]

Fabian, R. L.

W. M. White, M. Baldassano, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, G. J. Tearney, R. R. Anderson, and R. L. Fabian, “Confocal reflectance imaging of head and neck surgical specimens. A comparison with histologic analysis,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 130(8), 923–928 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. White, G. J. Tearney, B. Z. Pilch, R. L. Fabian, R. R. Anderson, and R. D. Gaz, “A novel, noninvasive imaging technique for intraoperative assessment of parathyroid glands: confocal reflectance microscopy,” Surgery 128(6), 1088–1101 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Flueraru, C.

Fox, W.

Frangioni, J. V.

J. V. Frangioni, “In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7(5), 626–634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujii, E.

T. Soshin, H. Takai, C. Kato, E. Fujii, S. Matsuo, T. Ito, and M. Suzuki, “A method for sampling and tissue preparation of the parathyroid glands in miniature pigs for toxicity studies,” J. Toxicol. Sci. 35(2), 235–238 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. D. Aguirre, T.-H. Tsai, D. W. Cohen, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pantanowitz, P.-L. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, K. Schneider, P. R. Herz, J. G. Fujimoto, S. Raza, and J. L. Connolly, “High-resolution imaging of the thyroid gland using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 26(5), 425–434 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardecki, J.

L. C. Conti de Freitas, E. Phelan, L. Liu, J. Gardecki, E. Namati, W. C. Warger, G. J. Tearney, and G. W. Randolph, “Optical coherence tomography imaging during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: A novel system of tissue identification and differentiation to obviate tissue resection and frozen section,” Head Neck 36(9), 1329–1334 (2014).
[PubMed]

Gaz, R. D.

W. M. White, G. J. Tearney, B. Z. Pilch, R. L. Fabian, R. R. Anderson, and R. D. Gaz, “A novel, noninvasive imaging technique for intraoperative assessment of parathyroid glands: confocal reflectance microscopy,” Surgery 128(6), 1088–1101 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genetzakis, M.

A. Manouras, H. Markogiannakis, E. Lagoudianakis, P. Antonakis, M. Genetzakis, A. Papadima, E. Konstantoulaki, D. Papanikolaou, and P. Kekis, “Unintentional parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy,” Head Neck 30(4), 497–502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glass, R. M.

E. Brender, A. Burke, and R. M. Glass, “Frozen section biopsy,” JAMA 294(24), 3200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glazowski, C.

C. Glazowski and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 085001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Godbout, N.

Gonzalez, S.

W. M. White, M. Baldassano, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, G. J. Tearney, R. R. Anderson, and R. L. Fabian, “Confocal reflectance imaging of head and neck surgical specimens. A comparison with histologic analysis,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 130(8), 923–928 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

González, S.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gora, M. J.

Goulamhoussen, N.

M. Strupler, N. Goulamhoussen, E. De Montigny, and C. Boudoux, “Rapidly Wavelength-Swept Laser at 780 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(4), 197–199 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hartig, G. K.

R. S. Sippel, O. Ozgül, G. K. Hartig, E. A. Mack, and H. Chen, “Risks and consequences of incidental parathyroidectomy during thyroid resection,” ANZ J. Surg. 77(1-2), 33–36 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Herz, P. R.

L. Pantanowitz, P.-L. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, K. Schneider, P. R. Herz, J. G. Fujimoto, S. Raza, and J. L. Connolly, “High-resolution imaging of the thyroid gland using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 26(5), 425–434 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P.-L.

L. Pantanowitz, P.-L. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, K. Schneider, P. R. Herz, J. G. Fujimoto, S. Raza, and J. L. Connolly, “High-resolution imaging of the thyroid gland using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 26(5), 425–434 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Iftimia, N.

Ito, T.

T. Soshin, H. Takai, C. Kato, E. Fujii, S. Matsuo, T. Ito, and M. Suzuki, “A method for sampling and tissue preparation of the parathyroid glands in miniature pigs for toxicity studies,” J. Toxicol. Sci. 35(2), 235–238 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jiang, J.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C.-W. Chen, B. Xu, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, D.

Kang, D. K.

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc. 239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Karageorge, L. S.

L. J. DiNardo, J. Lin, L. S. Karageorge, and C. N. Powers, “Accuracy, utility, and cost of frozen section margins in head and neck cancer surgery,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1773–1776 (2000).

Kato, C.

T. Soshin, H. Takai, C. Kato, E. Fujii, S. Matsuo, T. Ito, and M. Suzuki, “A method for sampling and tissue preparation of the parathyroid glands in miniature pigs for toxicity studies,” J. Toxicol. Sci. 35(2), 235–238 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kekis, P.

A. Manouras, H. Markogiannakis, E. Lagoudianakis, P. Antonakis, M. Genetzakis, A. Papadima, E. Konstantoulaki, D. Papanikolaou, and P. Kekis, “Unintentional parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy,” Head Neck 30(4), 497–502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, M.

C. Paras, M. Keller, L. White, J. Phay, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067012 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, A.

Kim, M.

Ko, T. H.

L. Pantanowitz, P.-L. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, K. Schneider, P. R. Herz, J. G. Fujimoto, S. Raza, and J. L. Connolly, “High-resolution imaging of the thyroid gland using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 26(5), 425–434 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Konstantoulaki, E.

A. Manouras, H. Markogiannakis, E. Lagoudianakis, P. Antonakis, M. Genetzakis, A. Papadima, E. Konstantoulaki, D. Papanikolaou, and P. Kekis, “Unintentional parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy,” Head Neck 30(4), 497–502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lagoudianakis, E.

A. Manouras, H. Markogiannakis, E. Lagoudianakis, P. Antonakis, M. Genetzakis, A. Papadima, E. Konstantoulaki, D. Papanikolaou, and P. Kekis, “Unintentional parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy,” Head Neck 30(4), 497–502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamouche, G.

Lauwers, G. Y.

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc. 239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Leduc, M.

Lévesque, D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

L. J. DiNardo, J. Lin, L. S. Karageorge, and C. N. Powers, “Accuracy, utility, and cost of frozen section margins in head and neck cancer surgery,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1773–1776 (2000).

Liratzopoulos, N.

E. I. Efremidou, M. S. Papageorgiou, N. Liratzopoulos, and K. J. Manolas, “The efficacy and safety of total thyroidectomy in the management of benign thyroid disease: a review of 932 cases,” Can. J. Surg. 52(1), 39–44 (2009).
[PubMed]

Liu, L.

L. C. Conti de Freitas, E. Phelan, L. Liu, J. Gardecki, E. Namati, W. C. Warger, G. J. Tearney, and G. W. Randolph, “Optical coherence tomography imaging during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: A novel system of tissue identification and differentiation to obviate tissue resection and frozen section,” Head Neck 36(9), 1329–1334 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ma, H.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C.-W. Chen, B. Xu, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mack, E. A.

R. S. Sippel, O. Ozgül, G. K. Hartig, E. A. Mack, and H. Chen, “Risks and consequences of incidental parathyroidectomy during thyroid resection,” ANZ J. Surg. 77(1-2), 33–36 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madore, W. J.

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

M. A. McWade, C. Paras, L. M. White, J. E. Phay, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and J. T. Broome, “A novel optical approach to intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands,” Surgery 154(6), 1371–1377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Paras, M. Keller, L. White, J. Phay, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067012 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manolas, K. J.

E. I. Efremidou, M. S. Papageorgiou, N. Liratzopoulos, and K. J. Manolas, “The efficacy and safety of total thyroidectomy in the management of benign thyroid disease: a review of 932 cases,” Can. J. Surg. 52(1), 39–44 (2009).
[PubMed]

Manouras, A.

A. Manouras, H. Markogiannakis, E. Lagoudianakis, P. Antonakis, M. Genetzakis, A. Papadima, E. Konstantoulaki, D. Papanikolaou, and P. Kekis, “Unintentional parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy,” Head Neck 30(4), 497–502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, Y.

Markogiannakis, H.

A. Manouras, H. Markogiannakis, E. Lagoudianakis, P. Antonakis, M. Genetzakis, A. Papadima, E. Konstantoulaki, D. Papanikolaou, and P. Kekis, “Unintentional parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy,” Head Neck 30(4), 497–502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsuo, S.

T. Soshin, H. Takai, C. Kato, E. Fujii, S. Matsuo, T. Ito, and M. Suzuki, “A method for sampling and tissue preparation of the parathyroid glands in miniature pigs for toxicity studies,” J. Toxicol. Sci. 35(2), 235–238 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McWade, M. A.

M. A. McWade, C. Paras, L. M. White, J. E. Phay, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and J. T. Broome, “A novel optical approach to intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands,” Surgery 154(6), 1371–1377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mino-Kenudson, M.

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc. 239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Murdock, E.

Namati, E.

L. C. Conti de Freitas, E. Phelan, L. Liu, J. Gardecki, E. Namati, W. C. Warger, G. J. Tearney, and G. W. Randolph, “Optical coherence tomography imaging during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: A novel system of tissue identification and differentiation to obviate tissue resection and frozen section,” Head Neck 36(9), 1329–1334 (2014).
[PubMed]

Nikolakopoulos, F.

I. Vassiliou, A. Tympa, N. Arkadopoulos, F. Nikolakopoulos, T. Petropoulou, and V. Smyrniotis, “Total thyroidectomy as the single surgical option for benign and malignant thyroid disease: a surgical challenge,” Arch. Med. Sci. 1(1), 74–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc. 239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Oh, W.

Ouellette, O.

Ozgül, O.

R. S. Sippel, O. Ozgül, G. K. Hartig, E. A. Mack, and H. Chen, “Risks and consequences of incidental parathyroidectomy during thyroid resection,” ANZ J. Surg. 77(1-2), 33–36 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pantanowitz, L.

L. Pantanowitz, P.-L. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, K. Schneider, P. R. Herz, J. G. Fujimoto, S. Raza, and J. L. Connolly, “High-resolution imaging of the thyroid gland using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 26(5), 425–434 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papadima, A.

A. Manouras, H. Markogiannakis, E. Lagoudianakis, P. Antonakis, M. Genetzakis, A. Papadima, E. Konstantoulaki, D. Papanikolaou, and P. Kekis, “Unintentional parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy,” Head Neck 30(4), 497–502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papageorgiou, M. S.

E. I. Efremidou, M. S. Papageorgiou, N. Liratzopoulos, and K. J. Manolas, “The efficacy and safety of total thyroidectomy in the management of benign thyroid disease: a review of 932 cases,” Can. J. Surg. 52(1), 39–44 (2009).
[PubMed]

Papanikolaou, D.

A. Manouras, H. Markogiannakis, E. Lagoudianakis, P. Antonakis, M. Genetzakis, A. Papadima, E. Konstantoulaki, D. Papanikolaou, and P. Kekis, “Unintentional parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy,” Head Neck 30(4), 497–502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paras, C.

M. A. McWade, C. Paras, L. M. White, J. E. Phay, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and J. T. Broome, “A novel optical approach to intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands,” Surgery 154(6), 1371–1377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Paras, M. Keller, L. White, J. Phay, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067012 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, A. H.

Petropoulou, T.

I. Vassiliou, A. Tympa, N. Arkadopoulos, F. Nikolakopoulos, T. Petropoulou, and V. Smyrniotis, “Total thyroidectomy as the single surgical option for benign and malignant thyroid disease: a surgical challenge,” Arch. Med. Sci. 1(1), 74–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phay, J.

C. Paras, M. Keller, L. White, J. Phay, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067012 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phay, J. E.

M. A. McWade, C. Paras, L. M. White, J. E. Phay, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and J. T. Broome, “A novel optical approach to intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands,” Surgery 154(6), 1371–1377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phelan, E.

L. C. Conti de Freitas, E. Phelan, L. Liu, J. Gardecki, E. Namati, W. C. Warger, G. J. Tearney, and G. W. Randolph, “Optical coherence tomography imaging during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: A novel system of tissue identification and differentiation to obviate tissue resection and frozen section,” Head Neck 36(9), 1329–1334 (2014).
[PubMed]

Pilch, B. Z.

W. M. White, G. J. Tearney, B. Z. Pilch, R. L. Fabian, R. R. Anderson, and R. D. Gaz, “A novel, noninvasive imaging technique for intraoperative assessment of parathyroid glands: confocal reflectance microscopy,” Surgery 128(6), 1088–1101 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Powers, C. N.

L. J. DiNardo, J. Lin, L. S. Karageorge, and C. N. Powers, “Accuracy, utility, and cost of frozen section margins in head and neck cancer surgery,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1773–1776 (2000).

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Puricelli, W. P.

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc. 239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

N. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, E. Z. Zhang, W. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Combined reflectance confocal microscopy/optical coherence tomography imaging for skin burn assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(5), 680–695 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Glazowski and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 085001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. White, M. Baldassano, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, G. J. Tearney, R. R. Anderson, and R. L. Fabian, “Confocal reflectance imaging of head and neck surgical specimens. A comparison with histologic analysis,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 130(8), 923–928 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Randolph, G. W.

L. C. Conti de Freitas, E. Phelan, L. Liu, J. Gardecki, E. Namati, W. C. Warger, G. J. Tearney, and G. W. Randolph, “Optical coherence tomography imaging during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: A novel system of tissue identification and differentiation to obviate tissue resection and frozen section,” Head Neck 36(9), 1329–1334 (2014).
[PubMed]

Raza, S.

L. Pantanowitz, P.-L. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, K. Schneider, P. R. Herz, J. G. Fujimoto, S. Raza, and J. L. Connolly, “High-resolution imaging of the thyroid gland using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 26(5), 425–434 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rix, T. E.

T. E. Rix and P. Sinha, “Inadvertent parathyroid excision during thyroid surgery,” Surgeon 4(6), 339–342 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roney, C. A.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C.-W. Chen, B. Xu, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, M.

Ruers, T.

E. A. te Velde, T. Veerman, V. Subramaniam, and T. Ruers, “The use of fluorescent dyes and probes in surgical oncology,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(1), 6–15 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.

Schlachter, S. C.

Schneider, K.

L. Pantanowitz, P.-L. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, K. Schneider, P. R. Herz, J. G. Fujimoto, S. Raza, and J. L. Connolly, “High-resolution imaging of the thyroid gland using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 26(5), 425–434 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Shishkov, M.

Sinha, P.

T. E. Rix and P. Sinha, “Inadvertent parathyroid excision during thyroid surgery,” Surgeon 4(6), 339–342 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sippel, R. S.

R. S. Sippel, O. Ozgül, G. K. Hartig, E. A. Mack, and H. Chen, “Risks and consequences of incidental parathyroidectomy during thyroid resection,” ANZ J. Surg. 77(1-2), 33–36 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smyrniotis, V.

I. Vassiliou, A. Tympa, N. Arkadopoulos, F. Nikolakopoulos, T. Petropoulou, and V. Smyrniotis, “Total thyroidectomy as the single surgical option for benign and malignant thyroid disease: a surgical challenge,” Arch. Med. Sci. 1(1), 74–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soshin, T.

T. Soshin, H. Takai, C. Kato, E. Fujii, S. Matsuo, T. Ito, and M. Suzuki, “A method for sampling and tissue preparation of the parathyroid glands in miniature pigs for toxicity studies,” J. Toxicol. Sci. 35(2), 235–238 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Strupler, M.

E. De Montigny, W. J. Madore, O. Ouellette, G. Bernard, M. Leduc, M. Strupler, C. Boudoux, and N. Godbout, “Double-clad fiber coupler for partially coherent detection,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9040–9051 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Strupler, N. Goulamhoussen, E. De Montigny, and C. Boudoux, “Rapidly Wavelength-Swept Laser at 780 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(4), 197–199 (2011).
[Crossref]

Subramaniam, V.

E. A. te Velde, T. Veerman, V. Subramaniam, and T. Ruers, “The use of fluorescent dyes and probes in surgical oncology,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(1), 6–15 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Summers, R. M.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C.-W. Chen, B. Xu, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc. 239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Suzuki, M.

T. Soshin, H. Takai, C. Kato, E. Fujii, S. Matsuo, T. Ito, and M. Suzuki, “A method for sampling and tissue preparation of the parathyroid glands in miniature pigs for toxicity studies,” J. Toxicol. Sci. 35(2), 235–238 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tabatabaei, N.

Takai, H.

T. Soshin, H. Takai, C. Kato, E. Fujii, S. Matsuo, T. Ito, and M. Suzuki, “A method for sampling and tissue preparation of the parathyroid glands in miniature pigs for toxicity studies,” J. Toxicol. Sci. 35(2), 235–238 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

te Velde, E. A.

E. A. te Velde, T. Veerman, V. Subramaniam, and T. Ruers, “The use of fluorescent dyes and probes in surgical oncology,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(1), 6–15 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

L. C. Conti de Freitas, E. Phelan, L. Liu, J. Gardecki, E. Namati, W. C. Warger, G. J. Tearney, and G. W. Randolph, “Optical coherence tomography imaging during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: A novel system of tissue identification and differentiation to obviate tissue resection and frozen section,” Head Neck 36(9), 1329–1334 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. C. Schlachter, D. Kang, M. J. Gora, P. Vacas-Jacques, T. Wu, R. W. Carruth, E. J. Wilsterman, B. E. Bouma, K. Woods, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy of esophageal tissues at 100 kHz line rate,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(9), 1636–1645 (2013).
[PubMed]

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc. 239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. White, M. Baldassano, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, G. J. Tearney, R. R. Anderson, and R. L. Fabian, “Confocal reflectance imaging of head and neck surgical specimens. A comparison with histologic analysis,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 130(8), 923–928 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. White, G. J. Tearney, B. Z. Pilch, R. L. Fabian, R. R. Anderson, and R. D. Gaz, “A novel, noninvasive imaging technique for intraoperative assessment of parathyroid glands: confocal reflectance microscopy,” Surgery 128(6), 1088–1101 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, T.-H.

C. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. D. Aguirre, T.-H. Tsai, D. W. Cohen, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tympa, A.

I. Vassiliou, A. Tympa, N. Arkadopoulos, F. Nikolakopoulos, T. Petropoulou, and V. Smyrniotis, “Total thyroidectomy as the single surgical option for benign and malignant thyroid disease: a surgical challenge,” Arch. Med. Sci. 1(1), 74–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vacas-Jacques, P.

Vassiliou, I.

I. Vassiliou, A. Tympa, N. Arkadopoulos, F. Nikolakopoulos, T. Petropoulou, and V. Smyrniotis, “Total thyroidectomy as the single surgical option for benign and malignant thyroid disease: a surgical challenge,” Arch. Med. Sci. 1(1), 74–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veerman, T.

E. A. te Velde, T. Veerman, V. Subramaniam, and T. Ruers, “The use of fluorescent dyes and probes in surgical oncology,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(1), 6–15 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vergnole, S.

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 054103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

C. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. D. Aguirre, T.-H. Tsai, D. W. Cohen, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warger, W. C.

L. C. Conti de Freitas, E. Phelan, L. Liu, J. Gardecki, E. Namati, W. C. Warger, G. J. Tearney, and G. W. Randolph, “Optical coherence tomography imaging during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: A novel system of tissue identification and differentiation to obviate tissue resection and frozen section,” Head Neck 36(9), 1329–1334 (2014).
[PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, L.

C. Paras, M. Keller, L. White, J. Phay, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067012 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, L. M.

M. A. McWade, C. Paras, L. M. White, J. E. Phay, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and J. T. Broome, “A novel optical approach to intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands,” Surgery 154(6), 1371–1377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, W.

White, W. M.

W. M. White, M. Baldassano, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, G. J. Tearney, R. R. Anderson, and R. L. Fabian, “Confocal reflectance imaging of head and neck surgical specimens. A comparison with histologic analysis,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 130(8), 923–928 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. White, G. J. Tearney, B. Z. Pilch, R. L. Fabian, R. R. Anderson, and R. D. Gaz, “A novel, noninvasive imaging technique for intraoperative assessment of parathyroid glands: confocal reflectance microscopy,” Surgery 128(6), 1088–1101 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wierwille, J.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C.-W. Chen, B. Xu, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Wilsterman, E. J.

Woods, K.

Wu, T.

Xu, B.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C.-W. Chen, B. Xu, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yachimski, P. S.

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc. 239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yelin, D.

Yuan, S.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C.-W. Chen, B. Xu, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S.

Zavislan, J. M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, E. Z.

Zhou, C.

C. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. D. Aguirre, T.-H. Tsai, D. W. Cohen, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ANZ J. Surg. (1)

R. S. Sippel, O. Ozgül, G. K. Hartig, E. A. Mack, and H. Chen, “Risks and consequences of incidental parathyroidectomy during thyroid resection,” ANZ J. Surg. 77(1-2), 33–36 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 054103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Med. Sci. (1)

I. Vassiliou, A. Tympa, N. Arkadopoulos, F. Nikolakopoulos, T. Petropoulou, and V. Smyrniotis, “Total thyroidectomy as the single surgical option for benign and malignant thyroid disease: a surgical challenge,” Arch. Med. Sci. 1(1), 74–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1)

W. M. White, M. Baldassano, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, G. J. Tearney, R. R. Anderson, and R. L. Fabian, “Confocal reflectance imaging of head and neck surgical specimens. A comparison with histologic analysis,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 130(8), 923–928 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Can. J. Surg. (1)

E. I. Efremidou, M. S. Papageorgiou, N. Liratzopoulos, and K. J. Manolas, “The efficacy and safety of total thyroidectomy in the management of benign thyroid disease: a review of 932 cases,” Can. J. Surg. 52(1), 39–44 (2009).
[PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. (1)

J. V. Frangioni, “In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7(5), 626–634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (1)

E. A. te Velde, T. Veerman, V. Subramaniam, and T. Ruers, “The use of fluorescent dyes and probes in surgical oncology,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(1), 6–15 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Head Neck (3)

L. C. Conti de Freitas, E. Phelan, L. Liu, J. Gardecki, E. Namati, W. C. Warger, G. J. Tearney, and G. W. Randolph, “Optical coherence tomography imaging during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: A novel system of tissue identification and differentiation to obviate tissue resection and frozen section,” Head Neck 36(9), 1329–1334 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Pantanowitz, P.-L. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, K. Schneider, P. R. Herz, J. G. Fujimoto, S. Raza, and J. L. Connolly, “High-resolution imaging of the thyroid gland using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 26(5), 425–434 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Manouras, H. Markogiannakis, E. Lagoudianakis, P. Antonakis, M. Genetzakis, A. Papadima, E. Konstantoulaki, D. Papanikolaou, and P. Kekis, “Unintentional parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy,” Head Neck 30(4), 497–502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Strupler, N. Goulamhoussen, E. De Montigny, and C. Boudoux, “Rapidly Wavelength-Swept Laser at 780 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(4), 197–199 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

C. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. D. Aguirre, T.-H. Tsai, D. W. Cohen, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Paras, M. Keller, L. White, J. Phay, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067012 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Glazowski and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 085001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc. 239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Toxicol. Sci. (1)

T. Soshin, H. Takai, C. Kato, E. Fujii, S. Matsuo, T. Ito, and M. Suzuki, “A method for sampling and tissue preparation of the parathyroid glands in miniature pigs for toxicity studies,” J. Toxicol. Sci. 35(2), 235–238 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA (1)

E. Brender, A. Burke, and R. M. Glass, “Frozen section biopsy,” JAMA 294(24), 3200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laryngoscope (1)

L. J. DiNardo, J. Lin, L. S. Karageorge, and C. N. Powers, “Accuracy, utility, and cost of frozen section margins in head and neck cancer surgery,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1773–1776 (2000).

Opt. Express (7)

A. Kim, M. Roy, F. Dadani, and B. C. Wilson, “A fiberoptic reflectance probe with multiple source-collector separations to increase the dynamic range of derived tissue optical absorption and scattering coefficients,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5580–5594 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4822–4828 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sarunic, M. A. Choma, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Instantaneous complex conjugate resolved spectral domain and swept-source OCT using 3x3 fiber couplers,” Opt. Express 13(3), 957–967 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. De Montigny, W. J. Madore, O. Ouellette, G. Bernard, M. Leduc, M. Strupler, C. Boudoux, and N. Godbout, “Double-clad fiber coupler for partially coherent detection,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9040–9051 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Vergnole, D. Lévesque, and G. Lamouche, “Experimental validation of an optimized signal processing method to handle non-linearity in swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10446–10461 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. Yun, W. Oh, W. White, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8214–8221 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C.-W. Chen, B. Xu, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Surgeon (1)

T. E. Rix and P. Sinha, “Inadvertent parathyroid excision during thyroid surgery,” Surgeon 4(6), 339–342 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surgery (2)

M. A. McWade, C. Paras, L. M. White, J. E. Phay, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and J. T. Broome, “A novel optical approach to intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands,” Surgery 154(6), 1371–1377 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. White, G. J. Tearney, B. Z. Pilch, R. L. Fabian, R. R. Anderson, and R. D. Gaz, “A novel, noninvasive imaging technique for intraoperative assessment of parathyroid glands: confocal reflectance microscopy,” Surgery 128(6), 1088–1101 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

C. Boudoux, “Wavelength swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for biological and clinical applications,” Ph.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (2007).

D. Linos and W. Y. Chung, Minimally Invasive Thyroidectomy (Springer, 2012).

J. B. Pawley, and B. R. Masters, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer, 1996).

T. Antonakakis, F. Baïda, A. Belkhir, K. Cherednichenko, S. Cooper, R. Craster, G. Demesy, J. DeSanto, G. Granet, B. Gralak, S. Guenneau, D. Maystre, A. Nicolet, B. Stout, F. Zolla, and B. Vial, Gratings : Theory and Numeric Applications (Marseille, 2014).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the dual band wavelength-swept laser. A detailed diagram of the dual band laser (a) shows the 1310 nm OCT laser in red and the 780nm laser for SECM in blue. Output spectra are shown at 1300nm (b) and 800nm (c). (d) 780 nm (blue), 1310 nm (red) laser and trigger (green) signals as a function of time.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the tri-modal imaging microscope. The OCT path (1300nm) is shown in red, the SECM path (800nm) is shown in blue and the fluorescence detection path is shown in green. C: Circulator, G: Galvanometer-mounted mirror, DB: Dual-balanced detector, Obj.: Objective lens, PD: Photodiode, BD: Beam dump, sDCFC: small inner cladding double-clad fiber coupler, APD: Avalanche photodiode, SMF: single mode fiber, MMF: multimode fiber
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SECM (a) and OCT (b) images of a USAF 1951 resolution target. Co-registered images (c) of SECM (grey) and fluorescence (green) of three sewing threads dipped in AlexaFluor 790 at different concentrations: (from left to right) 0 µMol, 6.5 µMol and 65 µMol fluorophore concentration. Scale bar is 50 µm. Co-registered in vivo SECM (d) and OCT (e) images of a human finger. Features such as a sweat duct (arrow) can be observed in both images. The red line in (d) represents the projection of the OCT image plane in the confocal image. The blue line in (e) represents the projection of the confocal image in the OCT plane. Arrows show a sweat duct. Scale bar is 100 µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Images of different ex vivo neck tissue samples. The left and right columns show the SECM image and the center column shows the co-registered OCT image. The position of the SECM image in the OCT image is shown with the curly bracket ({) and black arrows. (a) and (b) show thyroid tissue, (c) and (d) show thyroid tissue, (e) lymph node (f) lymph node and adipose lobules, (g) parathyroid gland, cellular area, (h) parathyroid gland with heterogeneous aspect. OCT scale bars are 200 µm, SECM scale bars are 100 µm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Still frame from the video recording of an ex vivo thyroid tissue sample covered by a fibrous capsule. On the left is presented the SECM image and on the right the co-registered OCT image.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Imaging modalities applied to neck tissue

Tables Icon

Table 2 Theoretical and experimental resolution values for the tri-modal imaging system

Metrics