Abstract

We developed an automatic system to identify and differentiate color fundus images containing no lesions, drusen or exudates. Drusen and exudates are lesions with a bright appearance, associated with age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, respectively. The system consists of three lesion detectors operating at pixel-level, combining their outputs using spatial pooling and classification with a random forest classifier. System performance was compared with ratings of two independent human observers using human-expert annotations as reference. Kappa agreements of 0.89, 0.97 and 0.92 and accuracies of 0.93, 0.98 and 0.95 were obtained for the system and observers, respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

D. Sidibé, I. Sadek, and F. Mériaudeau, “Discrimination of retinal images containing bright lesions using sparse coded features and svm,” Comput. Biol. Med. 62, 175–184 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

R. Pires, H. F. Jelinek, J. Wainer, E. Valle, and A. Rocha, “Advancing bag-of-visual-words representations for lesion classification in retinal images,” PLoS One 9(6), e96814 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Srinivasan, L. A. Kim, P. S. Mettu, S. W. Cousins, GR. M. Comer, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Fully automated detection of diabetic macular edema and dry age-related macular degeneration from optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3568–3577 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C.-Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Health 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, Y. T. E. Lechanteur, J. P. H. van de Ven, B. van Ginneken, C. B. Hoyng, T. Theelen, and C. I. Sánchez, “Automatic drusen quantification and risk assessment of age-related macular degeneration on color fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 3019–3027 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wu, P. Fernandez-Loaiza, J. Sauma, E. Hernandez-Bogantes, and M. Masis, “Classification of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema,” World J. Diabetes 4(6), 290–294 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

C. I. Sánchez, M. Niemeijer, I. Isgum, A. V. Dumitrescu, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Contextual computer-aided detection: Improving bright lesion detection in retinal images and coronary calcification identification in CT scans,” Med. Image. Anal. 16(1), 50–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Rocha, T. Carvalho, H. F. Jelinek, S. Goldenstein, and J. Wainer, “Points of interest and visual dictionaries for automatic retinal lesion detection,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(8), 2244–2253 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sivaprasad, B. Gupta, R. Crosby-Nwaobi, and J. Evans, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: a worldwide perspective,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 57(4), 347–370 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. M. Akram and S. A. Khan, “Automated detection of dark and bright lesions in retinal images for early detection of diabetic retinopathy,” J. Med. Syst. 36(5), 3151–3162 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

A. D. Mora, P. M. Vieira, A. Manivannan, and J. M. Fonseca, “Automated drusen detection in retinal images using analytical modelling algorithms,” Biomed. Eng. Online. 10(1), 59 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Agurto, E. S. Barriga, V. Murray, S. Nemeth, R. Crammer, W. Bauman, G. Zamora, M. S. Pattichis, and P. Soliz, “Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration in digital fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5862–5871 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Liu, H. Ishikawa, M. Chen, G. Wollstein, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. M. Rehg, “Computerized macular pathology diagnosis in spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans based on multiscale texture and shape features,” IOVS 52(11), 8316–8322 (2011).

2010 (3)

X. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C.-F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005–2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. T. Smith, M. A. Sohrab, N. Pumariega, Y. Chen, J. Chen, N. Lee, and A. Laine, “Dynamic soft drusen remodelling in age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(12), 1618–1623 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Cheung, P. Mitchell, and T. Y. Wong, “Diabetic retinopathy,” Lancet 376(9735), 124–136 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Information fusion for diabetic retinopathy CAD in digital color fundus photographs,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(5), 775–785 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. K. Nagi, C. Gosden, C. Walton, P. H. Winocour, B. Turner, R. Williams, J. James, and R. I. G. Holt, “A national survey of the current state of screening services for diabetic retinopathy: ABCD-Diabetes UK survey of specialist diabetes services 2006,” Diabet. Med. 26(12), 1301–1305 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Fast detection of the optic disc and fovea in color fundus photographs,” Med. Image. Anal. 13(6), 859–870 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

C. I. Sánchez, M. García, A. Mayo, M. I. López, and R. Hornero, “Retinal image analysis based on mixture models to detect hard exudates,” Med. Imgage. Anal. 13(4), 650–658 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, S. R. Russel, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automated detection and differentiation of drusen, exudates, and cotton-wool spots in digital color fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2260–2267 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, J. Staal, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automatic detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(5), 584–592 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. V. M. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. Kempen, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. P. Wilkinson, F. L. Ferris, R. E. Klein, P. P. Lee, C. D. Agardh, M. Davis, D. Dills, A. Kampik, R. Pararajasegaram, J. T. Verdaguer, and Global Diabetic Retinopathy Project Group, “Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales,” Ophthalmology 110(9), 1677–1682 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Hoover, V. Kouznetsova, and M. Goldbaum, “Locating blood vessels in retinal images by piecewise threshold probing of a matched filter response,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(3), 203–210 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

R. Klein, M. D. Davis, Y. L. Magli, P. Segal, B. E. K. Klein, and L. Hubbard, “The Wisconsin age-related maculopathy grading system,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1128–1134 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aa, R.

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, R. Aa, V. Ra, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB1 diabetic retinopathy database and evaluation protocol,” Tech. rep. (2007).

Abramoff, M. D.

M. D. Abramoff and M. Niemeijer, “Automatic detection of the optic disc location in retinal images using optic disc location regression,” EMBS4432–4435 (2006).

Abràmoff, M. D.

C. I. Sánchez, M. Niemeijer, I. Isgum, A. V. Dumitrescu, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Contextual computer-aided detection: Improving bright lesion detection in retinal images and coronary calcification identification in CT scans,” Med. Image. Anal. 16(1), 50–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Fast detection of the optic disc and fovea in color fundus photographs,” Med. Image. Anal. 13(6), 859–870 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Information fusion for diabetic retinopathy CAD in digital color fundus photographs,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(5), 775–785 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, S. R. Russel, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automated detection and differentiation of drusen, exudates, and cotton-wool spots in digital color fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2260–2267 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, J. Staal, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automatic detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(5), 584–592 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agardh, C. D.

C. P. Wilkinson, F. L. Ferris, R. E. Klein, P. P. Lee, C. D. Agardh, M. Davis, D. Dills, A. Kampik, R. Pararajasegaram, J. T. Verdaguer, and Global Diabetic Retinopathy Project Group, “Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales,” Ophthalmology 110(9), 1677–1682 (2003).
[Crossref]

Agurto, C.

C. Agurto, E. S. Barriga, V. Murray, S. Nemeth, R. Crammer, W. Bauman, G. Zamora, M. S. Pattichis, and P. Soliz, “Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration in digital fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5862–5871 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Agurto, H. Yu, V. Murray, M. S. Pattichis, S. Barriga, and P. Soliz, “Detection of hard exudates and red lesions in the macula using a multiscale approach,” IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation (SSIAI), 13–16 (2012).

Akram, U. M.

U. M. Akram and S. A. Khan, “Automated detection of dark and bright lesions in retinal images for early detection of diabetic retinopathy,” J. Med. Syst. 36(5), 3151–3162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Albright, A. L.

X. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C.-F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005–2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bansback, N.

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barriga, E. S.

C. Agurto, E. S. Barriga, V. Murray, S. Nemeth, R. Crammer, W. Bauman, G. Zamora, M. S. Pattichis, and P. Soliz, “Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration in digital fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5862–5871 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barriga, S.

C. Agurto, H. Yu, V. Murray, M. S. Pattichis, S. Barriga, and P. Soliz, “Detection of hard exudates and red lesions in the macula using a multiscale approach,” IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation (SSIAI), 13–16 (2012).

Bauman, W.

C. Agurto, E. S. Barriga, V. Murray, S. Nemeth, R. Crammer, W. Bauman, G. Zamora, M. S. Pattichis, and P. Soliz, “Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration in digital fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5862–5871 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bek, T.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
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Beverley, C.

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bird, A.

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brand, C.

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carvalho, T.

A. Rocha, T. Carvalho, H. F. Jelinek, S. Goldenstein, and J. Wainer, “Points of interest and visual dictionaries for automatic retinal lesion detection,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(8), 2244–2253 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakravarthy, U.

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
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Chakravarty, A.

M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, A. Chakravarty, J. Sivaswamy, T. Theelen, B. van Ginneken, and C. I. Sánchez, “A bag of words approach for discriminating between retinal images containing exudates or drusen,” ISBI1444–1447 (2013).

Chen, J.

R. T. Smith, M. A. Sohrab, N. Pumariega, Y. Chen, J. Chen, N. Lee, and A. Laine, “Dynamic soft drusen remodelling in age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(12), 1618–1623 (2010).
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Chen, M.

Y.-Y. Liu, H. Ishikawa, M. Chen, G. Wollstein, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. M. Rehg, “Computerized macular pathology diagnosis in spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans based on multiscale texture and shape features,” IOVS 52(11), 8316–8322 (2011).

Chen, S.-J.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

R. T. Smith, M. A. Sohrab, N. Pumariega, Y. Chen, J. Chen, N. Lee, and A. Laine, “Dynamic soft drusen remodelling in age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(12), 1618–1623 (2010).
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Cheng, C.-Y.

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C.-Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Health 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
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Cheng, Y. J.

X. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C.-F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005–2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
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Cheung, C. M. G.

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C.-Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Health 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
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Cheung, N.

N. Cheung, P. Mitchell, and T. Y. Wong, “Diabetic retinopathy,” Lancet 376(9735), 124–136 (2010).
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Chisholm, I.

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
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Chou, C.-F.

X. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C.-F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005–2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
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Comer, GR. M.

Cotch, M. F.

X. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C.-F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005–2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
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Cousins, S. W.

Crammer, R.

C. Agurto, E. S. Barriga, V. Murray, S. Nemeth, R. Crammer, W. Bauman, G. Zamora, M. S. Pattichis, and P. Soliz, “Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration in digital fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5862–5871 (2011).
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Crosby-Nwaobi, R.

S. Sivaprasad, B. Gupta, R. Crosby-Nwaobi, and J. Evans, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: a worldwide perspective,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 57(4), 347–370 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czoski-Murray, C.

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, M.

C. P. Wilkinson, F. L. Ferris, R. E. Klein, P. P. Lee, C. D. Agardh, M. Davis, D. Dills, A. Kampik, R. Pararajasegaram, J. T. Verdaguer, and Global Diabetic Retinopathy Project Group, “Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales,” Ophthalmology 110(9), 1677–1682 (2003).
[Crossref]

Davis, M. D.

R. Klein, M. D. Davis, Y. L. Magli, P. Segal, B. E. K. Klein, and L. Hubbard, “The Wisconsin age-related maculopathy grading system,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1128–1134 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, S.

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Jong, P. T. V. M.

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. V. M. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. Kempen, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
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Dekker, J. M.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
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Dills, D.

C. P. Wilkinson, F. L. Ferris, R. E. Klein, P. P. Lee, C. D. Agardh, M. Davis, D. Dills, A. Kampik, R. Pararajasegaram, J. T. Verdaguer, and Global Diabetic Retinopathy Project Group, “Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales,” Ophthalmology 110(9), 1677–1682 (2003).
[Crossref]

Duker, J. S.

Y.-Y. Liu, H. Ishikawa, M. Chen, G. Wollstein, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. M. Rehg, “Computerized macular pathology diagnosis in spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans based on multiscale texture and shape features,” IOVS 52(11), 8316–8322 (2011).

Dumitrescu, A. V.

C. I. Sánchez, M. Niemeijer, I. Isgum, A. V. Dumitrescu, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Contextual computer-aided detection: Improving bright lesion detection in retinal images and coronary calcification identification in CT scans,” Med. Image. Anal. 16(1), 50–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

Evans, J.

S. Sivaprasad, B. Gupta, R. Crosby-Nwaobi, and J. Evans, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: a worldwide perspective,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 57(4), 347–370 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

Fernandez-Loaiza, P.

L. Wu, P. Fernandez-Loaiza, J. Sauma, E. Hernandez-Bogantes, and M. Masis, “Classification of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema,” World J. Diabetes 4(6), 290–294 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferris, F. L.

C. P. Wilkinson, F. L. Ferris, R. E. Klein, P. P. Lee, C. D. Agardh, M. Davis, D. Dills, A. Kampik, R. Pararajasegaram, J. T. Verdaguer, and Global Diabetic Retinopathy Project Group, “Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales,” Ophthalmology 110(9), 1677–1682 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, A.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fonseca, J. M.

A. D. Mora, P. M. Vieira, A. Manivannan, and J. M. Fonseca, “Automated drusen detection in retinal images using analytical modelling algorithms,” Biomed. Eng. Online. 10(1), 59 (2011).
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Friedman, D. S.

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. V. M. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. Kempen, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y.-Y. Liu, H. Ishikawa, M. Chen, G. Wollstein, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. M. Rehg, “Computerized macular pathology diagnosis in spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans based on multiscale texture and shape features,” IOVS 52(11), 8316–8322 (2011).

García, M.

C. I. Sánchez, M. García, A. Mayo, M. I. López, and R. Hornero, “Retinal image analysis based on mixture models to detect hard exudates,” Med. Imgage. Anal. 13(4), 650–658 (2008).
[Crossref]

Geiss, L. S.

X. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C.-F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005–2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldbaum, M.

A. Hoover, V. Kouznetsova, and M. Goldbaum, “Locating blood vessels in retinal images by piecewise threshold probing of a matched filter response,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(3), 203–210 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldenstein, S.

A. Rocha, T. Carvalho, H. F. Jelinek, S. Goldenstein, and J. Wainer, “Points of interest and visual dictionaries for automatic retinal lesion detection,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(8), 2244–2253 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gosden, C.

D. K. Nagi, C. Gosden, C. Walton, P. H. Winocour, B. Turner, R. Williams, J. James, and R. I. G. Holt, “A national survey of the current state of screening services for diabetic retinopathy: ABCD-Diabetes UK survey of specialist diabetes services 2006,” Diabet. Med. 26(12), 1301–1305 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grauslund, J.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregg, E. W.

X. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C.-F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005–2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, B.

S. Sivaprasad, B. Gupta, R. Crosby-Nwaobi, and J. Evans, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: a worldwide perspective,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 57(4), 347–370 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haffner, S.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
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Hamman, R. F.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harding, S.

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernandez-Bogantes, E.

L. Wu, P. Fernandez-Loaiza, J. Sauma, E. Hernandez-Bogantes, and M. Masis, “Classification of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema,” World J. Diabetes 4(6), 290–294 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holt, R. I. G.

D. K. Nagi, C. Gosden, C. Walton, P. H. Winocour, B. Turner, R. Williams, J. James, and R. I. G. Holt, “A national survey of the current state of screening services for diabetic retinopathy: ABCD-Diabetes UK survey of specialist diabetes services 2006,” Diabet. Med. 26(12), 1301–1305 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoover, A.

A. Hoover, V. Kouznetsova, and M. Goldbaum, “Locating blood vessels in retinal images by piecewise threshold probing of a matched filter response,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(3), 203–210 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornero, R.

C. I. Sánchez, M. García, A. Mayo, M. I. López, and R. Hornero, “Retinal image analysis based on mixture models to detect hard exudates,” Med. Imgage. Anal. 13(4), 650–658 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hoyng, C. B.

M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, Y. T. E. Lechanteur, J. P. H. van de Ven, B. van Ginneken, C. B. Hoyng, T. Theelen, and C. I. Sánchez, “Automatic drusen quantification and risk assessment of age-related macular degeneration on color fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 3019–3027 (2013).
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Hubbard, L.

R. Klein, M. D. Davis, Y. L. Magli, P. Segal, B. E. K. Klein, and L. Hubbard, “The Wisconsin age-related maculopathy grading system,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1128–1134 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikram, M. K.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isgum, I.

C. I. Sánchez, M. Niemeijer, I. Isgum, A. V. Dumitrescu, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Contextual computer-aided detection: Improving bright lesion detection in retinal images and coronary calcification identification in CT scans,” Med. Image. Anal. 16(1), 50–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, H.

Y.-Y. Liu, H. Ishikawa, M. Chen, G. Wollstein, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. M. Rehg, “Computerized macular pathology diagnosis in spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans based on multiscale texture and shape features,” IOVS 52(11), 8316–8322 (2011).

Izatt, J. A.

James, J.

D. K. Nagi, C. Gosden, C. Walton, P. H. Winocour, B. Turner, R. Williams, J. James, and R. I. G. Holt, “A national survey of the current state of screening services for diabetic retinopathy: ABCD-Diabetes UK survey of specialist diabetes services 2006,” Diabet. Med. 26(12), 1301–1305 (2009).
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Jelinek, H. F.

R. Pires, H. F. Jelinek, J. Wainer, E. Valle, and A. Rocha, “Advancing bag-of-visual-words representations for lesion classification in retinal images,” PLoS One 9(6), e96814 (2014).
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A. Rocha, T. Carvalho, H. F. Jelinek, S. Goldenstein, and J. Wainer, “Points of interest and visual dictionaries for automatic retinal lesion detection,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(8), 2244–2253 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joshi, N.

V. Sundaresan, K. Ram, K. Selvaraj, N. Joshi, and M. Sivaprakasam, “Adaptive super-candidate based approach for detection and classification of drusen on retinal fundus images,” Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Workshop (OMIAW), MICCAI, (2015).

Kalesnykiene, V.

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, R. Aa, V. Ra, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB1 diabetic retinopathy database and evaluation protocol,” Tech. rep. (2007).

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB0 evaluation database and methodology for diabetic retinopathy algorithms,” Tech. rep. (2006).

Kälviäinen, H.

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB0 evaluation database and methodology for diabetic retinopathy algorithms,” Tech. rep. (2006).

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, R. Aa, V. Ra, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB1 diabetic retinopathy database and evaluation protocol,” Tech. rep. (2007).

Kamarainen, J. K.

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB0 evaluation database and methodology for diabetic retinopathy algorithms,” Tech. rep. (2006).

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, R. Aa, V. Ra, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB1 diabetic retinopathy database and evaluation protocol,” Tech. rep. (2007).

Kampik, A.

C. P. Wilkinson, F. L. Ferris, R. E. Klein, P. P. Lee, C. D. Agardh, M. Davis, D. Dills, A. Kampik, R. Pararajasegaram, J. T. Verdaguer, and Global Diabetic Retinopathy Project Group, “Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales,” Ophthalmology 110(9), 1677–1682 (2003).
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T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB0 evaluation database and methodology for diabetic retinopathy algorithms,” Tech. rep. (2006).

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T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB0 evaluation database and methodology for diabetic retinopathy algorithms,” Tech. rep. (2006).

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, R. Aa, V. Ra, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB1 diabetic retinopathy database and evaluation protocol,” Tech. rep. (2007).

Li, X.

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C.-Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Health 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
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S. Lazebnik, C. Schmid, and J. Ponce, “Beyond bags of features: Spatial pyramid matching for recognizing natural scene categories,” IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2, 2169–2178 (2006).

Porta, M.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
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Pumariega, N.

R. T. Smith, M. A. Sohrab, N. Pumariega, Y. Chen, J. Chen, N. Lee, and A. Laine, “Dynamic soft drusen remodelling in age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(12), 1618–1623 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ra, V.

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, R. Aa, V. Ra, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB1 diabetic retinopathy database and evaluation protocol,” Tech. rep. (2007).

Ram, K.

V. Sundaresan, K. Ram, K. Selvaraj, N. Joshi, and M. Sivaprakasam, “Adaptive super-candidate based approach for detection and classification of drusen on retinal fundus images,” Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Workshop (OMIAW), MICCAI, (2015).

Rehg, J. M.

Y.-Y. Liu, H. Ishikawa, M. Chen, G. Wollstein, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. M. Rehg, “Computerized macular pathology diagnosis in spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans based on multiscale texture and shape features,” IOVS 52(11), 8316–8322 (2011).

Rema, M.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
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Rocha, A.

R. Pires, H. F. Jelinek, J. Wainer, E. Valle, and A. Rocha, “Advancing bag-of-visual-words representations for lesion classification in retinal images,” PLoS One 9(6), e96814 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rocha, T. Carvalho, H. F. Jelinek, S. Goldenstein, and J. Wainer, “Points of interest and visual dictionaries for automatic retinal lesion detection,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(8), 2244–2253 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, S. L.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
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Roy, M. S.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
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Russel, S. R.

M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, S. R. Russel, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automated detection and differentiation of drusen, exudates, and cotton-wool spots in digital color fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2260–2267 (2007).
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Saaddine, J. B.

X. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C.-F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005–2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
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Sadek, I.

D. Sidibé, I. Sadek, and F. Mériaudeau, “Discrimination of retinal images containing bright lesions using sparse coded features and svm,” Comput. Biol. Med. 62, 175–184 (2015).
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F. Samuelson and N. Petrick, “Comparing image detection algorithms using resampling,” ISBI1312–1315 (2006).

Sánchez, C. I.

M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, Y. T. E. Lechanteur, J. P. H. van de Ven, B. van Ginneken, C. B. Hoyng, T. Theelen, and C. I. Sánchez, “Automatic drusen quantification and risk assessment of age-related macular degeneration on color fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 3019–3027 (2013).
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C. I. Sánchez, M. Niemeijer, I. Isgum, A. V. Dumitrescu, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Contextual computer-aided detection: Improving bright lesion detection in retinal images and coronary calcification identification in CT scans,” Med. Image. Anal. 16(1), 50–62 (2012).
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C. I. Sánchez, M. García, A. Mayo, M. I. López, and R. Hornero, “Retinal image analysis based on mixture models to detect hard exudates,” Med. Imgage. Anal. 13(4), 650–658 (2008).
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M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, A. Chakravarty, J. Sivaswamy, T. Theelen, B. van Ginneken, and C. I. Sánchez, “A bag of words approach for discriminating between retinal images containing exudates or drusen,” ISBI1444–1447 (2013).

Sauma, J.

L. Wu, P. Fernandez-Loaiza, J. Sauma, E. Hernandez-Bogantes, and M. Masis, “Classification of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema,” World J. Diabetes 4(6), 290–294 (2013).
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Schmid, C.

S. Lazebnik, C. Schmid, and J. Ponce, “Beyond bags of features: Spatial pyramid matching for recognizing natural scene categories,” IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2, 2169–2178 (2006).

Schuman, J. S.

Y.-Y. Liu, H. Ishikawa, M. Chen, G. Wollstein, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. M. Rehg, “Computerized macular pathology diagnosis in spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans based on multiscale texture and shape features,” IOVS 52(11), 8316–8322 (2011).

Segal, P.

R. Klein, M. D. Davis, Y. L. Magli, P. Segal, B. E. K. Klein, and L. Hubbard, “The Wisconsin age-related maculopathy grading system,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1128–1134 (1991).
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Selvaraj, K.

V. Sundaresan, K. Ram, K. Selvaraj, N. Joshi, and M. Sivaprakasam, “Adaptive super-candidate based approach for detection and classification of drusen on retinal fundus images,” Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Workshop (OMIAW), MICCAI, (2015).

Sharma, T.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
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Shaw, J.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
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Sidibé, D.

D. Sidibé, I. Sadek, and F. Mériaudeau, “Discrimination of retinal images containing bright lesions using sparse coded features and svm,” Comput. Biol. Med. 62, 175–184 (2015).
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Sivaprakasam, M.

V. Sundaresan, K. Ram, K. Selvaraj, N. Joshi, and M. Sivaprakasam, “Adaptive super-candidate based approach for detection and classification of drusen on retinal fundus images,” Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Workshop (OMIAW), MICCAI, (2015).

Sivaprasad, S.

S. Sivaprasad, B. Gupta, R. Crosby-Nwaobi, and J. Evans, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: a worldwide perspective,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 57(4), 347–370 (2012).
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M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, A. Chakravarty, J. Sivaswamy, T. Theelen, B. van Ginneken, and C. I. Sánchez, “A bag of words approach for discriminating between retinal images containing exudates or drusen,” ISBI1444–1447 (2013).

Smith, K.

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
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R. T. Smith, M. A. Sohrab, N. Pumariega, Y. Chen, J. Chen, N. Lee, and A. Laine, “Dynamic soft drusen remodelling in age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(12), 1618–1623 (2010).
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Sohrab, M. A.

R. T. Smith, M. A. Sohrab, N. Pumariega, Y. Chen, J. Chen, N. Lee, and A. Laine, “Dynamic soft drusen remodelling in age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(12), 1618–1623 (2010).
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Soliz, P.

C. Agurto, E. S. Barriga, V. Murray, S. Nemeth, R. Crammer, W. Bauman, G. Zamora, M. S. Pattichis, and P. Soliz, “Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration in digital fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5862–5871 (2011).
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C. Agurto, H. Yu, V. Murray, M. S. Pattichis, S. Barriga, and P. Soliz, “Detection of hard exudates and red lesions in the macula using a multiscale approach,” IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation (SSIAI), 13–16 (2012).

Sorri, I.

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, R. Aa, V. Ra, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB1 diabetic retinopathy database and evaluation protocol,” Tech. rep. (2007).

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB0 evaluation database and methodology for diabetic retinopathy algorithms,” Tech. rep. (2006).

Srinivasan, P. P.

Staal, J.

M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, J. Staal, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automatic detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(5), 584–592 (2005).
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Su, X.

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C.-Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Health 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
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Sundaresan, V.

V. Sundaresan, K. Ram, K. Selvaraj, N. Joshi, and M. Sivaprakasam, “Adaptive super-candidate based approach for detection and classification of drusen on retinal fundus images,” Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Workshop (OMIAW), MICCAI, (2015).

Suttorp-Schulten, M. S. A.

C. I. Sánchez, M. Niemeijer, I. Isgum, A. V. Dumitrescu, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Contextual computer-aided detection: Improving bright lesion detection in retinal images and coronary calcification identification in CT scans,” Med. Image. Anal. 16(1), 50–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, S. R. Russel, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automated detection and differentiation of drusen, exudates, and cotton-wool spots in digital color fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2260–2267 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, J. Staal, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automatic detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(5), 584–592 (2005).
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Taylor, H.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
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Theelen, T.

M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, Y. T. E. Lechanteur, J. P. H. van de Ven, B. van Ginneken, C. B. Hoyng, T. Theelen, and C. I. Sánchez, “Automatic drusen quantification and risk assessment of age-related macular degeneration on color fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 3019–3027 (2013).
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M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, A. Chakravarty, J. Sivaswamy, T. Theelen, B. van Ginneken, and C. I. Sánchez, “A bag of words approach for discriminating between retinal images containing exudates or drusen,” ISBI1444–1447 (2013).

Tielsch, J. M.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
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D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. V. M. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. Kempen, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
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Uusitalo, H.

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB0 evaluation database and methodology for diabetic retinopathy algorithms,” Tech. rep. (2006).

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, R. Aa, V. Ra, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB1 diabetic retinopathy database and evaluation protocol,” Tech. rep. (2007).

Valle, E.

R. Pires, H. F. Jelinek, J. Wainer, E. Valle, and A. Rocha, “Advancing bag-of-visual-words representations for lesion classification in retinal images,” PLoS One 9(6), e96814 (2014).
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van de Ven, J. P. H.

M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, Y. T. E. Lechanteur, J. P. H. van de Ven, B. van Ginneken, C. B. Hoyng, T. Theelen, and C. I. Sánchez, “Automatic drusen quantification and risk assessment of age-related macular degeneration on color fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 3019–3027 (2013).
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van Ginneken, B.

M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, Y. T. E. Lechanteur, J. P. H. van de Ven, B. van Ginneken, C. B. Hoyng, T. Theelen, and C. I. Sánchez, “Automatic drusen quantification and risk assessment of age-related macular degeneration on color fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 3019–3027 (2013).
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C. I. Sánchez, M. Niemeijer, I. Isgum, A. V. Dumitrescu, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Contextual computer-aided detection: Improving bright lesion detection in retinal images and coronary calcification identification in CT scans,” Med. Image. Anal. 16(1), 50–62 (2012).
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M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Fast detection of the optic disc and fovea in color fundus photographs,” Med. Image. Anal. 13(6), 859–870 (2009).
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M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Information fusion for diabetic retinopathy CAD in digital color fundus photographs,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(5), 775–785 (2009).
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M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, S. R. Russel, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automated detection and differentiation of drusen, exudates, and cotton-wool spots in digital color fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2260–2267 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, J. Staal, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automatic detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(5), 584–592 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, A. Chakravarty, J. Sivaswamy, T. Theelen, B. van Ginneken, and C. I. Sánchez, “A bag of words approach for discriminating between retinal images containing exudates or drusen,” ISBI1444–1447 (2013).

van Grinsven, M. J. J. P.

M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, Y. T. E. Lechanteur, J. P. H. van de Ven, B. van Ginneken, C. B. Hoyng, T. Theelen, and C. I. Sánchez, “Automatic drusen quantification and risk assessment of age-related macular degeneration on color fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 3019–3027 (2013).
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M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, A. Chakravarty, J. Sivaswamy, T. Theelen, B. van Ginneken, and C. I. Sánchez, “A bag of words approach for discriminating between retinal images containing exudates or drusen,” ISBI1444–1447 (2013).

Varma, R.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
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C. P. Wilkinson, F. L. Ferris, R. E. Klein, P. P. Lee, C. D. Agardh, M. Davis, D. Dills, A. Kampik, R. Pararajasegaram, J. T. Verdaguer, and Global Diabetic Retinopathy Project Group, “Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales,” Ophthalmology 110(9), 1677–1682 (2003).
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Vieira, P. M.

A. D. Mora, P. M. Vieira, A. Manivannan, and J. M. Fonseca, “Automated drusen detection in retinal images using analytical modelling algorithms,” Biomed. Eng. Online. 10(1), 59 (2011).
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Wainer, J.

R. Pires, H. F. Jelinek, J. Wainer, E. Valle, and A. Rocha, “Advancing bag-of-visual-words representations for lesion classification in retinal images,” PLoS One 9(6), e96814 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rocha, T. Carvalho, H. F. Jelinek, S. Goldenstein, and J. Wainer, “Points of interest and visual dictionaries for automatic retinal lesion detection,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(8), 2244–2253 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walton, C.

D. K. Nagi, C. Gosden, C. Walton, P. H. Winocour, B. Turner, R. Williams, J. James, and R. I. G. Holt, “A national survey of the current state of screening services for diabetic retinopathy: ABCD-Diabetes UK survey of specialist diabetes services 2006,” Diabet. Med. 26(12), 1301–1305 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J. J.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, S.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, C. P.

C. P. Wilkinson, F. L. Ferris, R. E. Klein, P. P. Lee, C. D. Agardh, M. Davis, D. Dills, A. Kampik, R. Pararajasegaram, J. T. Verdaguer, and Global Diabetic Retinopathy Project Group, “Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales,” Ophthalmology 110(9), 1677–1682 (2003).
[Crossref]

Williams, R.

D. K. Nagi, C. Gosden, C. Walton, P. H. Winocour, B. Turner, R. Williams, J. James, and R. I. G. Holt, “A national survey of the current state of screening services for diabetic retinopathy: ABCD-Diabetes UK survey of specialist diabetes services 2006,” Diabet. Med. 26(12), 1301–1305 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winocour, P. H.

D. K. Nagi, C. Gosden, C. Walton, P. H. Winocour, B. Turner, R. Williams, J. James, and R. I. G. Holt, “A national survey of the current state of screening services for diabetic retinopathy: ABCD-Diabetes UK survey of specialist diabetes services 2006,” Diabet. Med. 26(12), 1301–1305 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

Y.-Y. Liu, H. Ishikawa, M. Chen, G. Wollstein, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. M. Rehg, “Computerized macular pathology diagnosis in spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans based on multiscale texture and shape features,” IOVS 52(11), 8316–8322 (2011).

Wong, T. Y.

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C.-Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Health 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Cheung, P. Mitchell, and T. Y. Wong, “Diabetic retinopathy,” Lancet 376(9735), 124–136 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, W. L.

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C.-Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Health 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, L.

L. Wu, P. Fernandez-Loaiza, J. Sauma, E. Hernandez-Bogantes, and M. Masis, “Classification of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema,” World J. Diabetes 4(6), 290–294 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. C.

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuda, M.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yau, J. W. Y.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

C. Agurto, H. Yu, V. Murray, M. S. Pattichis, S. Barriga, and P. Soliz, “Detection of hard exudates and red lesions in the macula using a multiscale approach,” IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation (SSIAI), 13–16 (2012).

Zamora, G.

C. Agurto, E. S. Barriga, V. Murray, S. Nemeth, R. Crammer, W. Bauman, G. Zamora, M. S. Pattichis, and P. Soliz, “Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration in digital fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5862–5871 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C.-F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005–2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
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Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. V. M. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. Kempen, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
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A. D. Mora, P. M. Vieira, A. Manivannan, and J. M. Fonseca, “Automated drusen detection in retinal images using analytical modelling algorithms,” Biomed. Eng. Online. 10(1), 59 (2011).
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R. T. Smith, M. A. Sohrab, N. Pumariega, Y. Chen, J. Chen, N. Lee, and A. Laine, “Dynamic soft drusen remodelling in age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(12), 1618–1623 (2010).
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D. Sidibé, I. Sadek, and F. Mériaudeau, “Discrimination of retinal images containing bright lesions using sparse coded features and svm,” Comput. Biol. Med. 62, 175–184 (2015).
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D. K. Nagi, C. Gosden, C. Walton, P. H. Winocour, B. Turner, R. Williams, J. James, and R. I. G. Holt, “A national survey of the current state of screening services for diabetic retinopathy: ABCD-Diabetes UK survey of specialist diabetes services 2006,” Diabet. Med. 26(12), 1301–1305 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diabetes Care (1)

J. W. Y. Yau, S. L. Rogers, R. Kawasaki, E. L. Lamoureux, J. W. Kowalski, T. Bek, S.-J. Chen, J. M. Dekker, A. Fletcher, J. Grauslund, S. Haffner, R. F. Hamman, M. K. Ikram, T. Kayama, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, S. Krishnaiah, K. Mayurasakorn, J. P. O’Hare, T. J. Orchard, M. Porta, M. Rema, M. S. Roy, T. Sharma, J. Shaw, H. Taylor, J. M. Tielsch, R. Varma, J. J. Wang, N. Wang, S. West, L. Xu, M. Yasuda, X. Zhang, P. Mitchell, T. Y. Wong, and Meta-Analysis for Eye Disease (META-EYE) Study Group, “Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 35(3), 556–564 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Health Technol. Assess. (1)

J. Karnon, C. Czoski-Murray, K. Smith, C. Brand, U. Chakravarthy, S. Davis, N. Bansback, C. Beverley, A. Bird, S. Harding, I. Chisholm, and Y. C. Yang, “A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration,” Health Technol. Assess. 12(27), ix–124 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

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IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (3)

M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Information fusion for diabetic retinopathy CAD in digital color fundus photographs,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(5), 775–785 (2009).
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M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, J. Staal, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automatic detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(5), 584–592 (2005).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, S. R. Russel, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automated detection and differentiation of drusen, exudates, and cotton-wool spots in digital color fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2260–2267 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Agurto, E. S. Barriga, V. Murray, S. Nemeth, R. Crammer, W. Bauman, G. Zamora, M. S. Pattichis, and P. Soliz, “Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration in digital fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5862–5871 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, Y. T. E. Lechanteur, J. P. H. van de Ven, B. van Ginneken, C. B. Hoyng, T. Theelen, and C. I. Sánchez, “Automatic drusen quantification and risk assessment of age-related macular degeneration on color fundus images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 3019–3027 (2013).
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IOVS (1)

Y.-Y. Liu, H. Ishikawa, M. Chen, G. Wollstein, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. M. Rehg, “Computerized macular pathology diagnosis in spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans based on multiscale texture and shape features,” IOVS 52(11), 8316–8322 (2011).

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X. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C.-F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005–2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancet (1)

N. Cheung, P. Mitchell, and T. Y. Wong, “Diabetic retinopathy,” Lancet 376(9735), 124–136 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancet Glob. Health (1)

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. G. Cheung, R. Klein, C.-Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob. Health 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
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Med. Image. Anal. (2)

C. I. Sánchez, M. Niemeijer, I. Isgum, A. V. Dumitrescu, M. S. A. Suttorp-Schulten, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Contextual computer-aided detection: Improving bright lesion detection in retinal images and coronary calcification identification in CT scans,” Med. Image. Anal. 16(1), 50–62 (2012).
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M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, and B. van Ginneken, “Fast detection of the optic disc and fovea in color fundus photographs,” Med. Image. Anal. 13(6), 859–870 (2009).
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C. I. Sánchez, M. García, A. Mayo, M. I. López, and R. Hornero, “Retinal image analysis based on mixture models to detect hard exudates,” Med. Imgage. Anal. 13(4), 650–658 (2008).
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L. Wu, P. Fernandez-Loaiza, J. Sauma, E. Hernandez-Bogantes, and M. Masis, “Classification of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema,” World J. Diabetes 4(6), 290–294 (2013).
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Other (8)

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB0 evaluation database and methodology for diabetic retinopathy algorithms,” Tech. rep. (2006).

T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J. K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, R. Aa, V. Ra, H. Uusitalo, H. Kälviäinen, and J. Pietilä, “DIARETDB1 diabetic retinopathy database and evaluation protocol,” Tech. rep. (2007).

M. D. Abramoff and M. Niemeijer, “Automatic detection of the optic disc location in retinal images using optic disc location regression,” EMBS4432–4435 (2006).

M. J. J. P. van Grinsven, A. Chakravarty, J. Sivaswamy, T. Theelen, B. van Ginneken, and C. I. Sánchez, “A bag of words approach for discriminating between retinal images containing exudates or drusen,” ISBI1444–1447 (2013).

S. Lazebnik, C. Schmid, and J. Ponce, “Beyond bags of features: Spatial pyramid matching for recognizing natural scene categories,” IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2, 2169–2178 (2006).

F. Samuelson and N. Petrick, “Comparing image detection algorithms using resampling,” ISBI1312–1315 (2006).

V. Sundaresan, K. Ram, K. Selvaraj, N. Joshi, and M. Sivaprakasam, “Adaptive super-candidate based approach for detection and classification of drusen on retinal fundus images,” Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Workshop (OMIAW), MICCAI, (2015).

C. Agurto, H. Yu, V. Murray, M. S. Pattichis, S. Barriga, and P. Soliz, “Detection of hard exudates and red lesions in the macula using a multiscale approach,” IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation (SSIAI), 13–16 (2012).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Examples of color fundus images. (a): Control case, (b): image showing the presence of drusen and (c): image showing the presence of exudates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of images with the outputs of the individual automatic lesion detection systems. Top row: (a): Control case, (b): image showing the presence of drusen and (c): image showing the presence of exudates. Second row: output of the bright lesion detection system [14]. Third row: output of the red lesion detection system [23]. Bottom row: output of the drusen detection system [9]. In each of the lesion detection output maps, a brighter color indicates a higher likelihood of being a true lesion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Division of the image into concentric regions at different spatial pyramid levels. At each level, the number of concentric regions is doubled. Each region is centered on the fovea (depicted with the white cross) and the outer region has a radius of two times the distance between the fovea and optic disk.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Graphical representation of the image feature vector at the 0th level spatial pyramid. (a): Feature vector of the image shown in Fig. 2(a), (b): feature vector of the image shown in Fig. 2(b) and (c): feature vector of the image shown in Fig. 2(c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Receiver operating characteristics curves for each of the one-vs-all classifications. Area (Az) under the curve and 95% confidence intervals are reported in the legend. (a): Control versus all, (b): drusen versus all and (c): exudates versus all.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Receiver operating characteristics curves for each of the one-vs-all classifications using the set consisting of clear cases (N=518). Area (Az) under the curve and 95% confidence intervals are reported in the legend. (a): Control versus all, (b): drusen versus all and (c): exudates versus all.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Examples of images showing subtle bright lesions. (a): image showing the presence of drusen with (b) showing a close up view of the region as indicated by the black box in (a). (c): image showing the presence of exudates with (d) showing a close up view of the region as indicated by the black box in (b). Both images (a) and (c) were graded by the automatic system as control.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example of an image with myelinated nerve fibers.

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Distribution of images across different data sources. Only macular centered images with sufficient grading quality showing presence of only drusen or exudates were included and complemented with random control images.

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Table 2 Features for classification of lesion candidates as used the works for bright appearing lesion detection, drusen detection and red lesion detection [9, 14, 23].

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Table 3 Contingency table showing the results for the human observer gradings.

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Table 4 Classification performance of the automatic system using single- and multi-scale spatial pyramid approaches.

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Table 5 Contingency table showing the results for the multi-class automatic system differentiation between controls, drusen and exudates using features of the 0th pyramid level.

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Table 6 Performance of the observers and the automatic spatial pyramid approach using features of the 0th pyramid level.

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Table 7 Performance of the observers and the proposed spatial pyramid approach on the subset of subtle (N=582) and clear (N=518) cases.

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Table 8 Accuracy values obtained using the 0th pyramid level CAD system using different threshold settings for discarding bright appearing lesion, drusen and red lesion information. Threshold 1: threshold for discarding bright appearing lesions and drusen; Threshold 2: threshold for discarding red lesions.

Equations (1)

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h n = i L n P i

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