Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) organ-mimicking phantoms provide realistic imaging environments for testing various aspects of optical systems, including for evaluating new probe designs, characterizing the diagnostic potential of new technologies, and assessing novel image processing algorithms prior to validation in real tissue. We introduce and characterize the use of a new material, Dragon Skin (Smooth-On Inc.), and fabrication technique, air-brushing, for fabrication of a 3D phantom that mimics the appearance of a real organ under multiple imaging modalities. We demonstrate the utility of the material and technique by fabricating the first 3D, hollow bladder phantom with realistic normal and multi-stage pathology features suitable for endoscopic detection using the gold standard imaging technique, white light cystoscopy (WLC), as well as the complementary imaging modalities of optical coherence tomography and blue light cystoscopy, which are aimed at improving the sensitivity and specificity of WLC to bladder cancer detection. The flexibility of the material and technique used for phantom construction allowed for the representation of a wide range of diseased tissue states, ranging from inflammation (benign) to high-grade cancerous lesions. Such phantoms can serve as important tools for trainee education and evaluation of new endoscopic instrumentation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

G. T. Smith, N. Dwork, D. O’Connor, U. Sikora, K. L. Lurie, J. M. Pauly, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Automated, Depth-Resolved Estimation of the Attenuation Coefficient From Optical Coherence Tomography Data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(12), 2592–2602 (2015)
[Crossref]

2014 (9)

K. L. Lurie, G. T. Smith, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Three-dimensional, distendable bladder phantom for optical coherence tomography and white light cystoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 036009 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Smith, K. L. Lurie, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Multilayered disease-mimicking bladder phantom with realistic surface topology for optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 8945, 89450E (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, “Retina-simulating phantom for optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kaplan, M. S. Litwin, and K. Chamie, “The future of bladder cancer care in the usa,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 11, 59–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, P. Gontero, D. Jacqmin, A. Karl, S. Kruck, P. Mariappan, J. P. Redorta, A. Stenzl, and R. Van Velthoven, “Clinical and cost effectiveness of hexaminolevulinate-guided blue-light cystoscopy: evidence review and updated expert recommendations,” Eur. Urol. 66, 863–871 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chatelin, M. Bernal, T. Deffieux, C. Papadacci, P. Flaud, A. Nahas, C. Boccara, J.-L. Gennisson, M. Tanter, and M. Pernot, “Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gong, T. D. Soper, V. W. Hou, D. Hu, B. Hannaford, and E. J. Seibel, “Mapping surgical fields by moving a laser-scanning multimodal scope attached to a robot arm,” Proc. SPIE 9036, 90362S (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Siegel, J. Ma, Z. Zou, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2014,” CA-Cancer J. Clin. 64, 9–29 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, F. Zhang, S. Song, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Quantitative elasticity measurement of urinary bladder wall using laser-induced surface acoustic waves,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 4313–4328 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

M. Burger, H. B. Grossman, M. Droller, J. Schmidbauer, G. Hermann, O. Drăgoescu, E. Ray, Y. Fradet, A. Karl, J. P. Burgués, and et al., “Photodynamic diagnosis of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data,” Eur. Urol. 64, 846–854 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-H. Yeo, Y.-S. Kim, J. Lee, A. Ameen, L. Shi, M. Li, S. Wang, R. Ma, S. H. Jin, Z. Kang, and et al., “Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2773–2778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yang, V. Hou, L. Y. Nelson, and E. J. Seibel, “Color-matched and fluorescence-labeled esophagus phantom and its applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026020 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-É. Bisaillon and G. Lamouche, “Artery phantoms for intravascular optical coherence tomography: diseased arteries,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Structured three-dimensional optical phantom for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19, 19480–19485 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Behrens, M. Bommes, T. Stehle, S. Gross, S. Leonhardt, and T. Aach, “Real-time image composition of bladder mosaics in fluorescence endoscopy,” Comput. Sci. Res. 26, 51–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and G. Lamouche, “Poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel, multi-layer artery phantoms for optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7906, 79060 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. L. Holloway, K. L. Spiller, A. M. Lowman, and G. R. Palmese, “Analysis of the in vitro swelling behavior of poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels in osmotic pressure solution for soft tissue replacement,” Acta Mater. 7, 2477–2482 (2011).

2010 (6)

S. Aldousari and W. Kassouf, “Update on the management of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 4, 56 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. Loitsch, R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Rigby, and D. D. Sampson, “Fibrin phantom for use in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Nordstrom, “The need for validation standards in medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7567, 756702 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Karl, H. Stepp, E. Willmann, A. Buchner, Y. Hocaoglu, C. Stief, and S. Tritschler, “Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer-ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy?-results of a prospective mono-centre study,” Eur. J. Med. Res. 15, 131 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ejofodomi O’tega, V. Zderic, and J. M. Zara, “Tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantoms for evaluating acoustic radiations force optical coherence elastography systems,” Med. Phys. 37, 1440–1448 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

H. Ren, W. C. Waltzer, R. Bhalla, J. Liu, Z. Yuan, C. S. Lee, F. Darras, D. Schulsinger, H. L. Adler, and J. Kim, “Diagnosis of bladder cancer with microelectromechanical systems-based cystoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Urology 74, 1351–1357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Bellan, S. P. Singh, P. W. Henderson, T. J. Porri, H. G. Craighead, and J. A. Spector, “Fabrication of an artificial 3-dimensional vascular network using sacrificial sugar structures,” Soft Matter 5, 1354–1357 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Choonee, R. R. A. Syms, M. M. Ahmad, and H. Zou, “Post processing of microstructures by pdms spray deposition,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 155, 253–262 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Schmidbauer, M. Remzi, T. Klatte, M. Waldert, J. Mauermann, M. Susani, and M. Marberger, “Fluorescence cystoscopy with high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging as an adjunct reduces false-positive findings in the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” Eur. Urol. 56, 914–919 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

D. Jocham, H. Stepp, and R. Waidelich, “Photodynamic diagnosis in urology: state-of-the-art,” Eur. Urol. 53.6, 1138–11150 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. P. Lerner, A. C. Goh, N. J. Tresser, and S. S. Shen, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to white light cystoscopy for intravesical real-time imaging and staging of bladder cancer,” Urology 72, 133–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. C. Hall, S. S. Chang, G. Dalbagni, R. S. Pruthi, J. D. Seigne, E. C. Skinner, J. S. Wolf, and P. F. Schellhammer, “Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages ta, t1, and tis): 2007 update,” J. Urology 178, 2314–2330 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Neves-Junior, M. Ferreira, M. Alves, C. Graeff, M. Mulato, J. Coutinho-Netto, and M. Bernardes, “Influence of fabrication process on the final properties of natural-rubber latex tubes for vascular prosthesis,” Braz. J. Phys. 36, 586–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. C. Hebden, B. D. Price, A. P. Gibson, and G. Royle, “A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5581 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. Varghese, K. Gatos, A. Apostolov, and J. Karger-Kocsis, “Morphology and mechanical properties of layered silicate reinforced natural and polyurethane rubber blends produced by latex compounding,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 92, 543–551 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. S. Nahrup, Z. M. Gao, J. E. Mark, and A. Sakr, “Poly (dimethylsiloxane) coatings for controlled drug release–polymer modifications,” Int. J. Pharm. 270, 199–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Faber, F. van der Meer, M. Aalders, and T. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of weakly scattering media using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4353–4365 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

T. van Leeuwen, D. Faber, and M. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 9(2), 227–232 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

L. Cheng, R. M. Neumann, A. L. Weaver, J. C. Cheville, B. C. Leibovich, D. M. Ramnani, B. G. Scherer, A. Nehra, H. Zincke, and D. G. Bostwick, “Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens,” A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 113, 275–279 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kaetsu, T. Uchida, and N. Shinya, “Increased effectiveness of fibrin sealant with a higher fibrin concentration,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 20, 27–31 (2000).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. G. Wientjes, J. T. Dalton, R. A. Badalament, J. R. Drago, and J. L. Au, “Bladder wall penetration of intravesical mitomycin c in dogs,” Cancer Res. 51, 4347–4354 (1991).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

I. Mano, H. Goshima, M. Nambu, and M. Iio, “New polyvinyl alcohol gel material for mri phantoms,” Magn. Reson. Med. 3, 921–926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aach, T.

A. Behrens, M. Bommes, T. Stehle, S. Gross, S. Leonhardt, and T. Aach, “Real-time image composition of bladder mosaics in fluorescence endoscopy,” Comput. Sci. Res. 26, 51–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aalders, M.

D. Faber, F. van der Meer, M. Aalders, and T. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of weakly scattering media using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4353–4365 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. van Leeuwen, D. Faber, and M. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 9(2), 227–232 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adler, H. L.

H. Ren, W. C. Waltzer, R. Bhalla, J. Liu, Z. Yuan, C. S. Lee, F. Darras, D. Schulsinger, H. L. Adler, and J. Kim, “Diagnosis of bladder cancer with microelectromechanical systems-based cystoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Urology 74, 1351–1357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agrawal, A.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, “Retina-simulating phantom for optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, M. M.

K. Choonee, R. R. A. Syms, M. M. Ahmad, and H. Zou, “Post processing of microstructures by pdms spray deposition,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 155, 253–262 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aldousari, S.

S. Aldousari and W. Kassouf, “Update on the management of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 4, 56 (2010).
[PubMed]

Alves, M.

W. Neves-Junior, M. Ferreira, M. Alves, C. Graeff, M. Mulato, J. Coutinho-Netto, and M. Bernardes, “Influence of fabrication process on the final properties of natural-rubber latex tubes for vascular prosthesis,” Braz. J. Phys. 36, 586–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ameen, A.

W.-H. Yeo, Y.-S. Kim, J. Lee, A. Ameen, L. Shi, M. Li, S. Wang, R. Ma, S. H. Jin, Z. Kang, and et al., “Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2773–2778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annaheim, S.

A. Dabrowska, G.-M. Rotaru, S. Derler, F. Spano, M. Camenzind, S. Annaheim, R. Stämpfli, M. Schmid, and R. Rossi, “Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. (2015).

Apostolov, A.

S. Varghese, K. Gatos, A. Apostolov, and J. Karger-Kocsis, “Morphology and mechanical properties of layered silicate reinforced natural and polyurethane rubber blends produced by latex compounding,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 92, 543–551 (2004).
[Crossref]

Au, J. L.

M. G. Wientjes, J. T. Dalton, R. A. Badalament, J. R. Drago, and J. L. Au, “Bladder wall penetration of intravesical mitomycin c in dogs,” Cancer Res. 51, 4347–4354 (1991).
[PubMed]

Babjuk, M.

J. A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, P. Gontero, D. Jacqmin, A. Karl, S. Kruck, P. Mariappan, J. P. Redorta, A. Stenzl, and R. Van Velthoven, “Clinical and cost effectiveness of hexaminolevulinate-guided blue-light cystoscopy: evidence review and updated expert recommendations,” Eur. Urol. 66, 863–871 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badalament, R. A.

M. G. Wientjes, J. T. Dalton, R. A. Badalament, J. R. Drago, and J. L. Au, “Bladder wall penetration of intravesical mitomycin c in dogs,” Cancer Res. 51, 4347–4354 (1991).
[PubMed]

Bae, Y.

J. Park, Y. Bae, Y. Bae, H. Kang, K.-J. Lee, and B. Jung, “Fabrication of double layer optical tissue phantom by spin coating method: mimicking epidermal and dermal layer,” Proc. SPIE pp. 85830G (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Park, Y. Bae, Y. Bae, H. Kang, K.-J. Lee, and B. Jung, “Fabrication of double layer optical tissue phantom by spin coating method: mimicking epidermal and dermal layer,” Proc. SPIE pp. 85830G (2013).
[Crossref]

Baxi, J.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, “Retina-simulating phantom for optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Behrens, A.

A. Behrens, M. Bommes, T. Stehle, S. Gross, S. Leonhardt, and T. Aach, “Real-time image composition of bladder mosaics in fluorescence endoscopy,” Comput. Sci. Res. 26, 51–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bellan, L. M.

L. M. Bellan, S. P. Singh, P. W. Henderson, T. J. Porri, H. G. Craighead, and J. A. Spector, “Fabrication of an artificial 3-dimensional vascular network using sacrificial sugar structures,” Soft Matter 5, 1354–1357 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bernal, M.

S. Chatelin, M. Bernal, T. Deffieux, C. Papadacci, P. Flaud, A. Nahas, C. Boccara, J.-L. Gennisson, M. Tanter, and M. Pernot, “Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernardes, M.

W. Neves-Junior, M. Ferreira, M. Alves, C. Graeff, M. Mulato, J. Coutinho-Netto, and M. Bernardes, “Influence of fabrication process on the final properties of natural-rubber latex tubes for vascular prosthesis,” Braz. J. Phys. 36, 586–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bhalla, R.

H. Ren, W. C. Waltzer, R. Bhalla, J. Liu, Z. Yuan, C. S. Lee, F. Darras, D. Schulsinger, H. L. Adler, and J. Kim, “Diagnosis of bladder cancer with microelectromechanical systems-based cystoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Urology 74, 1351–1357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bisaillon, C.-E.

Bisaillon, C.-É.

C.-É. Bisaillon and G. Lamouche, “Artery phantoms for intravascular optical coherence tomography: diseased arteries,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boccara, C.

S. Chatelin, M. Bernal, T. Deffieux, C. Papadacci, P. Flaud, A. Nahas, C. Boccara, J.-L. Gennisson, M. Tanter, and M. Pernot, “Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bommes, M.

A. Behrens, M. Bommes, T. Stehle, S. Gross, S. Leonhardt, and T. Aach, “Real-time image composition of bladder mosaics in fluorescence endoscopy,” Comput. Sci. Res. 26, 51–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bostwick, D. G.

L. Cheng, R. M. Neumann, A. L. Weaver, J. C. Cheville, B. C. Leibovich, D. M. Ramnani, B. G. Scherer, A. Nehra, H. Zincke, and D. G. Bostwick, “Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens,” A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 113, 275–279 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bremmer, R. H.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchner, A.

A. Karl, H. Stepp, E. Willmann, A. Buchner, Y. Hocaoglu, C. Stief, and S. Tritschler, “Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer-ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy?-results of a prospective mono-centre study,” Eur. J. Med. Res. 15, 131 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burger, M.

M. Burger, H. B. Grossman, M. Droller, J. Schmidbauer, G. Hermann, O. Drăgoescu, E. Ray, Y. Fradet, A. Karl, J. P. Burgués, and et al., “Photodynamic diagnosis of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data,” Eur. Urol. 64, 846–854 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgués, J. P.

M. Burger, H. B. Grossman, M. Droller, J. Schmidbauer, G. Hermann, O. Drăgoescu, E. Ray, Y. Fradet, A. Karl, J. P. Burgués, and et al., “Photodynamic diagnosis of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data,” Eur. Urol. 64, 846–854 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calhoun, W.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, “Retina-simulating phantom for optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Camenzind, M.

A. Dabrowska, G.-M. Rotaru, S. Derler, F. Spano, M. Camenzind, S. Annaheim, R. Stämpfli, M. Schmid, and R. Rossi, “Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. (2015).

Campbell, G.

Chamie, K.

A. L. Kaplan, M. S. Litwin, and K. Chamie, “The future of bladder cancer care in the usa,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 11, 59–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. S.

M. C. Hall, S. S. Chang, G. Dalbagni, R. S. Pruthi, J. D. Seigne, E. C. Skinner, J. S. Wolf, and P. F. Schellhammer, “Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages ta, t1, and tis): 2007 update,” J. Urology 178, 2314–2330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chatelin, S.

S. Chatelin, M. Bernal, T. Deffieux, C. Papadacci, P. Flaud, A. Nahas, C. Boccara, J.-L. Gennisson, M. Tanter, and M. Pernot, “Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, L.

L. Cheng, R. M. Neumann, A. L. Weaver, J. C. Cheville, B. C. Leibovich, D. M. Ramnani, B. G. Scherer, A. Nehra, H. Zincke, and D. G. Bostwick, “Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens,” A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 113, 275–279 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheville, J. C.

L. Cheng, R. M. Neumann, A. L. Weaver, J. C. Cheville, B. C. Leibovich, D. M. Ramnani, B. G. Scherer, A. Nehra, H. Zincke, and D. G. Bostwick, “Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens,” A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 113, 275–279 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choonee, K.

K. Choonee, R. R. A. Syms, M. M. Ahmad, and H. Zou, “Post processing of microstructures by pdms spray deposition,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 155, 253–262 (2009).
[Crossref]

Coutinho-Netto, J.

W. Neves-Junior, M. Ferreira, M. Alves, C. Graeff, M. Mulato, J. Coutinho-Netto, and M. Bernardes, “Influence of fabrication process on the final properties of natural-rubber latex tubes for vascular prosthesis,” Braz. J. Phys. 36, 586–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Craighead, H. G.

L. M. Bellan, S. P. Singh, P. W. Henderson, T. J. Porri, H. G. Craighead, and J. A. Spector, “Fabrication of an artificial 3-dimensional vascular network using sacrificial sugar structures,” Soft Matter 5, 1354–1357 (2009).
[Crossref]

Curatolo, A.

Dabrowska, A.

A. Dabrowska, G.-M. Rotaru, S. Derler, F. Spano, M. Camenzind, S. Annaheim, R. Stämpfli, M. Schmid, and R. Rossi, “Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. (2015).

Dalbagni, G.

M. C. Hall, S. S. Chang, G. Dalbagni, R. S. Pruthi, J. D. Seigne, E. C. Skinner, J. S. Wolf, and P. F. Schellhammer, “Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages ta, t1, and tis): 2007 update,” J. Urology 178, 2314–2330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dalton, J. T.

M. G. Wientjes, J. T. Dalton, R. A. Badalament, J. R. Drago, and J. L. Au, “Bladder wall penetration of intravesical mitomycin c in dogs,” Cancer Res. 51, 4347–4354 (1991).
[PubMed]

Darras, F.

H. Ren, W. C. Waltzer, R. Bhalla, J. Liu, Z. Yuan, C. S. Lee, F. Darras, D. Schulsinger, H. L. Adler, and J. Kim, “Diagnosis of bladder cancer with microelectromechanical systems-based cystoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Urology 74, 1351–1357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Bruin, D. M.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Kinkelder, R.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deffieux, T.

S. Chatelin, M. Bernal, T. Deffieux, C. Papadacci, P. Flaud, A. Nahas, C. Boccara, J.-L. Gennisson, M. Tanter, and M. Pernot, “Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Derler, S.

A. Dabrowska, G.-M. Rotaru, S. Derler, F. Spano, M. Camenzind, S. Annaheim, R. Stämpfli, M. Schmid, and R. Rossi, “Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. (2015).

Drago, J. R.

M. G. Wientjes, J. T. Dalton, R. A. Badalament, J. R. Drago, and J. L. Au, “Bladder wall penetration of intravesical mitomycin c in dogs,” Cancer Res. 51, 4347–4354 (1991).
[PubMed]

Dragoescu, O.

M. Burger, H. B. Grossman, M. Droller, J. Schmidbauer, G. Hermann, O. Drăgoescu, E. Ray, Y. Fradet, A. Karl, J. P. Burgués, and et al., “Photodynamic diagnosis of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data,” Eur. Urol. 64, 846–854 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Droller, M.

M. Burger, H. B. Grossman, M. Droller, J. Schmidbauer, G. Hermann, O. Drăgoescu, E. Ray, Y. Fradet, A. Karl, J. P. Burgués, and et al., “Photodynamic diagnosis of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data,” Eur. Urol. 64, 846–854 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dwork, N.

G. T. Smith, N. Dwork, D. O’Connor, U. Sikora, K. L. Lurie, J. M. Pauly, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Automated, Depth-Resolved Estimation of the Attenuation Coefficient From Optical Coherence Tomography Data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(12), 2592–2602 (2015)
[Crossref]

Ellerbee, A. K.

G. T. Smith, N. Dwork, D. O’Connor, U. Sikora, K. L. Lurie, J. M. Pauly, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Automated, Depth-Resolved Estimation of the Attenuation Coefficient From Optical Coherence Tomography Data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(12), 2592–2602 (2015)
[Crossref]

G. T. Smith, K. L. Lurie, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Multilayered disease-mimicking bladder phantom with realistic surface topology for optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 8945, 89450E (2014).
[Crossref]

K. L. Lurie, G. T. Smith, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Three-dimensional, distendable bladder phantom for optical coherence tomography and white light cystoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 036009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faber, D.

D. Faber, F. van der Meer, M. Aalders, and T. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of weakly scattering media using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4353–4365 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. van Leeuwen, D. Faber, and M. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 9(2), 227–232 (2003).
[Crossref]

Faber, D. J.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faghihi, S.

A. Karimi, M. Navidbakhsh, and S. Faghihi, “Fabrication and mechanical characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol sponge for tissue engineering applications,” Perfusion p. 0267659113513823 (2013).
[PubMed]

Feinberg, A. W.

R. N. Palchesko, L. Zhang, Y. Sun, and A. W. Feinberg, “Development of polydimethylsiloxane substrates with tunable elastic modulus to study cell mechanobiology in muscle and nerve,” PLoS One 7, e51499 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferreira, M.

W. Neves-Junior, M. Ferreira, M. Alves, C. Graeff, M. Mulato, J. Coutinho-Netto, and M. Bernardes, “Influence of fabrication process on the final properties of natural-rubber latex tubes for vascular prosthesis,” Braz. J. Phys. 36, 586–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Flaud, P.

S. Chatelin, M. Bernal, T. Deffieux, C. Papadacci, P. Flaud, A. Nahas, C. Boccara, J.-L. Gennisson, M. Tanter, and M. Pernot, “Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fradet, Y.

M. Burger, H. B. Grossman, M. Droller, J. Schmidbauer, G. Hermann, O. Drăgoescu, E. Ray, Y. Fradet, A. Karl, J. P. Burgués, and et al., “Photodynamic diagnosis of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data,” Eur. Urol. 64, 846–854 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Z. M.

J. S. Nahrup, Z. M. Gao, J. E. Mark, and A. Sakr, “Poly (dimethylsiloxane) coatings for controlled drug release–polymer modifications,” Int. J. Pharm. 270, 199–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gatos, K.

S. Varghese, K. Gatos, A. Apostolov, and J. Karger-Kocsis, “Morphology and mechanical properties of layered silicate reinforced natural and polyurethane rubber blends produced by latex compounding,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 92, 543–551 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gennisson, J.-L.

S. Chatelin, M. Bernal, T. Deffieux, C. Papadacci, P. Flaud, A. Nahas, C. Boccara, J.-L. Gennisson, M. Tanter, and M. Pernot, “Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibson, A. P.

J. C. Hebden, B. D. Price, A. P. Gibson, and G. Royle, “A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5581 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goh, A. C.

S. P. Lerner, A. C. Goh, N. J. Tresser, and S. S. Shen, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to white light cystoscopy for intravesical real-time imaging and staging of bladder cancer,” Urology 72, 133–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Y.

Y. Gong, T. D. Soper, V. W. Hou, D. Hu, B. Hannaford, and E. J. Seibel, “Mapping surgical fields by moving a laser-scanning multimodal scope attached to a robot arm,” Proc. SPIE 9036, 90362S (2014).
[Crossref]

Gontero, P.

J. A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, P. Gontero, D. Jacqmin, A. Karl, S. Kruck, P. Mariappan, J. P. Redorta, A. Stenzl, and R. Van Velthoven, “Clinical and cost effectiveness of hexaminolevulinate-guided blue-light cystoscopy: evidence review and updated expert recommendations,” Eur. Urol. 66, 863–871 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goshima, H.

I. Mano, H. Goshima, M. Nambu, and M. Iio, “New polyvinyl alcohol gel material for mri phantoms,” Magn. Reson. Med. 3, 921–926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graeff, C.

W. Neves-Junior, M. Ferreira, M. Alves, C. Graeff, M. Mulato, J. Coutinho-Netto, and M. Bernardes, “Influence of fabrication process on the final properties of natural-rubber latex tubes for vascular prosthesis,” Braz. J. Phys. 36, 586–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gross, S.

A. Behrens, M. Bommes, T. Stehle, S. Gross, S. Leonhardt, and T. Aach, “Real-time image composition of bladder mosaics in fluorescence endoscopy,” Comput. Sci. Res. 26, 51–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grossman, H. B.

M. Burger, H. B. Grossman, M. Droller, J. Schmidbauer, G. Hermann, O. Drăgoescu, E. Ray, Y. Fradet, A. Karl, J. P. Burgués, and et al., “Photodynamic diagnosis of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data,” Eur. Urol. 64, 846–854 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, G.

Hall, M. C.

M. C. Hall, S. S. Chang, G. Dalbagni, R. S. Pruthi, J. D. Seigne, E. C. Skinner, J. S. Wolf, and P. F. Schellhammer, “Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages ta, t1, and tis): 2007 update,” J. Urology 178, 2314–2330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hammer, D. X.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, “Retina-simulating phantom for optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hannaford, B.

Y. Gong, T. D. Soper, V. W. Hou, D. Hu, B. Hannaford, and E. J. Seibel, “Mapping surgical fields by moving a laser-scanning multimodal scope attached to a robot arm,” Proc. SPIE 9036, 90362S (2014).
[Crossref]

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, B. D. Price, A. P. Gibson, and G. Royle, “A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5581 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henderson, P. W.

L. M. Bellan, S. P. Singh, P. W. Henderson, T. J. Porri, H. G. Craighead, and J. A. Spector, “Fabrication of an artificial 3-dimensional vascular network using sacrificial sugar structures,” Soft Matter 5, 1354–1357 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hermann, G.

M. Burger, H. B. Grossman, M. Droller, J. Schmidbauer, G. Hermann, O. Drăgoescu, E. Ray, Y. Fradet, A. Karl, J. P. Burgués, and et al., “Photodynamic diagnosis of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data,” Eur. Urol. 64, 846–854 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hocaoglu, Y.

A. Karl, H. Stepp, E. Willmann, A. Buchner, Y. Hocaoglu, C. Stief, and S. Tritschler, “Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer-ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy?-results of a prospective mono-centre study,” Eur. J. Med. Res. 15, 131 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holloway, J. L.

J. L. Holloway, K. L. Spiller, A. M. Lowman, and G. R. Palmese, “Analysis of the in vitro swelling behavior of poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels in osmotic pressure solution for soft tissue replacement,” Acta Mater. 7, 2477–2482 (2011).

Hou, V.

C. Yang, V. Hou, L. Y. Nelson, and E. J. Seibel, “Color-matched and fluorescence-labeled esophagus phantom and its applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hou, V. W.

Y. Gong, T. D. Soper, V. W. Hou, D. Hu, B. Hannaford, and E. J. Seibel, “Mapping surgical fields by moving a laser-scanning multimodal scope attached to a robot arm,” Proc. SPIE 9036, 90362S (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, D.

Y. Gong, T. D. Soper, V. W. Hou, D. Hu, B. Hannaford, and E. J. Seibel, “Mapping surgical fields by moving a laser-scanning multimodal scope attached to a robot arm,” Proc. SPIE 9036, 90362S (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

Iio, M.

I. Mano, H. Goshima, M. Nambu, and M. Iio, “New polyvinyl alcohol gel material for mri phantoms,” Magn. Reson. Med. 3, 921–926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilev, I.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, “Retina-simulating phantom for optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jacqmin, D.

J. A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, P. Gontero, D. Jacqmin, A. Karl, S. Kruck, P. Mariappan, J. P. Redorta, A. Stenzl, and R. Van Velthoven, “Clinical and cost effectiveness of hexaminolevulinate-guided blue-light cystoscopy: evidence review and updated expert recommendations,” Eur. Urol. 66, 863–871 (2014).
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J. Park, Y. Bae, Y. Bae, H. Kang, K.-J. Lee, and B. Jung, “Fabrication of double layer optical tissue phantom by spin coating method: mimicking epidermal and dermal layer,” Proc. SPIE pp. 85830G (2013).
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J. Park, Y. Bae, Y. Bae, H. Kang, K.-J. Lee, and B. Jung, “Fabrication of double layer optical tissue phantom by spin coating method: mimicking epidermal and dermal layer,” Proc. SPIE pp. 85830G (2013).
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Kang, Z.

W.-H. Yeo, Y.-S. Kim, J. Lee, A. Ameen, L. Shi, M. Li, S. Wang, R. Ma, S. H. Jin, Z. Kang, and et al., “Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2773–2778 (2013).
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A. L. Kaplan, M. S. Litwin, and K. Chamie, “The future of bladder cancer care in the usa,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 11, 59–62 (2014).
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S. Varghese, K. Gatos, A. Apostolov, and J. Karger-Kocsis, “Morphology and mechanical properties of layered silicate reinforced natural and polyurethane rubber blends produced by latex compounding,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 92, 543–551 (2004).
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A. Karimi, M. Navidbakhsh, and S. Faghihi, “Fabrication and mechanical characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol sponge for tissue engineering applications,” Perfusion p. 0267659113513823 (2013).
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Karl, A.

J. A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, P. Gontero, D. Jacqmin, A. Karl, S. Kruck, P. Mariappan, J. P. Redorta, A. Stenzl, and R. Van Velthoven, “Clinical and cost effectiveness of hexaminolevulinate-guided blue-light cystoscopy: evidence review and updated expert recommendations,” Eur. Urol. 66, 863–871 (2014).
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M. Burger, H. B. Grossman, M. Droller, J. Schmidbauer, G. Hermann, O. Drăgoescu, E. Ray, Y. Fradet, A. Karl, J. P. Burgués, and et al., “Photodynamic diagnosis of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data,” Eur. Urol. 64, 846–854 (2013).
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Kennedy, K. M.

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G. T. Smith, K. L. Lurie, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Multilayered disease-mimicking bladder phantom with realistic surface topology for optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 8945, 89450E (2014).
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K. L. Lurie, G. T. Smith, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Three-dimensional, distendable bladder phantom for optical coherence tomography and white light cystoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 036009 (2014).
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H. Ren, W. C. Waltzer, R. Bhalla, J. Liu, Z. Yuan, C. S. Lee, F. Darras, D. Schulsinger, H. L. Adler, and J. Kim, “Diagnosis of bladder cancer with microelectromechanical systems-based cystoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Urology 74, 1351–1357 (2009).
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Kim, Y.-S.

W.-H. Yeo, Y.-S. Kim, J. Lee, A. Ameen, L. Shi, M. Li, S. Wang, R. Ma, S. H. Jin, Z. Kang, and et al., “Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2773–2778 (2013).
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Kirkpatrick, S. J.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
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Klatte, T.

J. Schmidbauer, M. Remzi, T. Klatte, M. Waldert, J. Mauermann, M. Susani, and M. Marberger, “Fluorescence cystoscopy with high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging as an adjunct reduces false-positive findings in the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” Eur. Urol. 56, 914–919 (2009).
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Kodach, V. M.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
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J. A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, P. Gontero, D. Jacqmin, A. Karl, S. Kruck, P. Mariappan, J. P. Redorta, A. Stenzl, and R. Van Velthoven, “Clinical and cost effectiveness of hexaminolevulinate-guided blue-light cystoscopy: evidence review and updated expert recommendations,” Eur. Urol. 66, 863–871 (2014).
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C.-É. Bisaillon and G. Lamouche, “Artery phantoms for intravascular optical coherence tomography: diseased arteries,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096010 (2013).
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C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and G. Lamouche, “Poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel, multi-layer artery phantoms for optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7906, 79060 (2011).
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H. Ren, W. C. Waltzer, R. Bhalla, J. Liu, Z. Yuan, C. S. Lee, F. Darras, D. Schulsinger, H. L. Adler, and J. Kim, “Diagnosis of bladder cancer with microelectromechanical systems-based cystoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Urology 74, 1351–1357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

W.-H. Yeo, Y.-S. Kim, J. Lee, A. Ameen, L. Shi, M. Li, S. Wang, R. Ma, S. H. Jin, Z. Kang, and et al., “Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2773–2778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.-J.

J. Park, Y. Bae, Y. Bae, H. Kang, K.-J. Lee, and B. Jung, “Fabrication of double layer optical tissue phantom by spin coating method: mimicking epidermal and dermal layer,” Proc. SPIE pp. 85830G (2013).
[Crossref]

Leibovich, B. C.

L. Cheng, R. M. Neumann, A. L. Weaver, J. C. Cheville, B. C. Leibovich, D. M. Ramnani, B. G. Scherer, A. Nehra, H. Zincke, and D. G. Bostwick, “Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens,” A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 113, 275–279 (2000).
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Leonhardt, S.

A. Behrens, M. Bommes, T. Stehle, S. Gross, S. Leonhardt, and T. Aach, “Real-time image composition of bladder mosaics in fluorescence endoscopy,” Comput. Sci. Res. 26, 51–64 (2011).
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S. P. Lerner, A. C. Goh, N. J. Tresser, and S. S. Shen, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to white light cystoscopy for intravesical real-time imaging and staging of bladder cancer,” Urology 72, 133–137 (2008).
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Li, C.

Li, M.

W.-H. Yeo, Y.-S. Kim, J. Lee, A. Ameen, L. Shi, M. Li, S. Wang, R. Ma, S. H. Jin, Z. Kang, and et al., “Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2773–2778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, J. C.

K. L. Lurie, G. T. Smith, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Three-dimensional, distendable bladder phantom for optical coherence tomography and white light cystoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 036009 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Smith, K. L. Lurie, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Multilayered disease-mimicking bladder phantom with realistic surface topology for optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 8945, 89450E (2014).
[Crossref]

Litwin, M. S.

A. L. Kaplan, M. S. Litwin, and K. Chamie, “The future of bladder cancer care in the usa,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 11, 59–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

H. Ren, W. C. Waltzer, R. Bhalla, J. Liu, Z. Yuan, C. S. Lee, F. Darras, D. Schulsinger, H. L. Adler, and J. Kim, “Diagnosis of bladder cancer with microelectromechanical systems-based cystoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Urology 74, 1351–1357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loitsch, S.

B. F. Kennedy, S. Loitsch, R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Rigby, and D. D. Sampson, “Fibrin phantom for use in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lowman, A. M.

J. L. Holloway, K. L. Spiller, A. M. Lowman, and G. R. Palmese, “Analysis of the in vitro swelling behavior of poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels in osmotic pressure solution for soft tissue replacement,” Acta Mater. 7, 2477–2482 (2011).

Lurie, K. L.

G. T. Smith, N. Dwork, D. O’Connor, U. Sikora, K. L. Lurie, J. M. Pauly, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Automated, Depth-Resolved Estimation of the Attenuation Coefficient From Optical Coherence Tomography Data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(12), 2592–2602 (2015)
[Crossref]

G. T. Smith, K. L. Lurie, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Multilayered disease-mimicking bladder phantom with realistic surface topology for optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 8945, 89450E (2014).
[Crossref]

K. L. Lurie, G. T. Smith, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Three-dimensional, distendable bladder phantom for optical coherence tomography and white light cystoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 036009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

R. Siegel, J. Ma, Z. Zou, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2014,” CA-Cancer J. Clin. 64, 9–29 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, R.

W.-H. Yeo, Y.-S. Kim, J. Lee, A. Ameen, L. Shi, M. Li, S. Wang, R. Ma, S. H. Jin, Z. Kang, and et al., “Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2773–2778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mano, I.

I. Mano, H. Goshima, M. Nambu, and M. Iio, “New polyvinyl alcohol gel material for mri phantoms,” Magn. Reson. Med. 3, 921–926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marberger, M.

J. Schmidbauer, M. Remzi, T. Klatte, M. Waldert, J. Mauermann, M. Susani, and M. Marberger, “Fluorescence cystoscopy with high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging as an adjunct reduces false-positive findings in the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” Eur. Urol. 56, 914–919 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariappan, P.

J. A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, P. Gontero, D. Jacqmin, A. Karl, S. Kruck, P. Mariappan, J. P. Redorta, A. Stenzl, and R. Van Velthoven, “Clinical and cost effectiveness of hexaminolevulinate-guided blue-light cystoscopy: evidence review and updated expert recommendations,” Eur. Urol. 66, 863–871 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mark, J. E.

J. S. Nahrup, Z. M. Gao, J. E. Mark, and A. Sakr, “Poly (dimethylsiloxane) coatings for controlled drug release–polymer modifications,” Int. J. Pharm. 270, 199–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mauermann, J.

J. Schmidbauer, M. Remzi, T. Klatte, M. Waldert, J. Mauermann, M. Susani, and M. Marberger, “Fluorescence cystoscopy with high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging as an adjunct reduces false-positive findings in the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” Eur. Urol. 56, 914–919 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

B. F. Kennedy, S. Loitsch, R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Rigby, and D. D. Sampson, “Fibrin phantom for use in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mulato, M.

W. Neves-Junior, M. Ferreira, M. Alves, C. Graeff, M. Mulato, J. Coutinho-Netto, and M. Bernardes, “Influence of fabrication process on the final properties of natural-rubber latex tubes for vascular prosthesis,” Braz. J. Phys. 36, 586–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nabi, G.

Nahas, A.

S. Chatelin, M. Bernal, T. Deffieux, C. Papadacci, P. Flaud, A. Nahas, C. Boccara, J.-L. Gennisson, M. Tanter, and M. Pernot, “Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nahrup, J. S.

J. S. Nahrup, Z. M. Gao, J. E. Mark, and A. Sakr, “Poly (dimethylsiloxane) coatings for controlled drug release–polymer modifications,” Int. J. Pharm. 270, 199–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nambu, M.

I. Mano, H. Goshima, M. Nambu, and M. Iio, “New polyvinyl alcohol gel material for mri phantoms,” Magn. Reson. Med. 3, 921–926 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Navidbakhsh, M.

A. Karimi, M. Navidbakhsh, and S. Faghihi, “Fabrication and mechanical characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol sponge for tissue engineering applications,” Perfusion p. 0267659113513823 (2013).
[PubMed]

Nehra, A.

L. Cheng, R. M. Neumann, A. L. Weaver, J. C. Cheville, B. C. Leibovich, D. M. Ramnani, B. G. Scherer, A. Nehra, H. Zincke, and D. G. Bostwick, “Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens,” A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 113, 275–279 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, L. Y.

C. Yang, V. Hou, L. Y. Nelson, and E. J. Seibel, “Color-matched and fluorescence-labeled esophagus phantom and its applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Neumann, R. M.

L. Cheng, R. M. Neumann, A. L. Weaver, J. C. Cheville, B. C. Leibovich, D. M. Ramnani, B. G. Scherer, A. Nehra, H. Zincke, and D. G. Bostwick, “Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens,” A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 113, 275–279 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neves-Junior, W.

W. Neves-Junior, M. Ferreira, M. Alves, C. Graeff, M. Mulato, J. Coutinho-Netto, and M. Bernardes, “Influence of fabrication process on the final properties of natural-rubber latex tubes for vascular prosthesis,” Braz. J. Phys. 36, 586–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, Q. D.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, “Retina-simulating phantom for optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nordstrom, R. J.

R. J. Nordstrom, “The need for validation standards in medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7567, 756702 (2010).
[Crossref]

O’Connor, D.

G. T. Smith, N. Dwork, D. O’Connor, U. Sikora, K. L. Lurie, J. M. Pauly, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Automated, Depth-Resolved Estimation of the Attenuation Coefficient From Optical Coherence Tomography Data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(12), 2592–2602 (2015)
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O’tega, A. Ejofodomi

A. Ejofodomi O’tega, V. Zderic, and J. M. Zara, “Tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantoms for evaluating acoustic radiations force optical coherence elastography systems,” Med. Phys. 37, 1440–1448 (2010).
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Palchesko, R. N.

R. N. Palchesko, L. Zhang, Y. Sun, and A. W. Feinberg, “Development of polydimethylsiloxane substrates with tunable elastic modulus to study cell mechanobiology in muscle and nerve,” PLoS One 7, e51499 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmese, G. R.

J. L. Holloway, K. L. Spiller, A. M. Lowman, and G. R. Palmese, “Analysis of the in vitro swelling behavior of poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels in osmotic pressure solution for soft tissue replacement,” Acta Mater. 7, 2477–2482 (2011).

Papadacci, C.

S. Chatelin, M. Bernal, T. Deffieux, C. Papadacci, P. Flaud, A. Nahas, C. Boccara, J.-L. Gennisson, M. Tanter, and M. Pernot, “Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

J. Park, Y. Bae, Y. Bae, H. Kang, K.-J. Lee, and B. Jung, “Fabrication of double layer optical tissue phantom by spin coating method: mimicking epidermal and dermal layer,” Proc. SPIE pp. 85830G (2013).
[Crossref]

Pauly, J. M.

G. T. Smith, N. Dwork, D. O’Connor, U. Sikora, K. L. Lurie, J. M. Pauly, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Automated, Depth-Resolved Estimation of the Attenuation Coefficient From Optical Coherence Tomography Data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(12), 2592–2602 (2015)
[Crossref]

Pazos, V.

Pernot, M.

S. Chatelin, M. Bernal, T. Deffieux, C. Papadacci, P. Flaud, A. Nahas, C. Boccara, J.-L. Gennisson, M. Tanter, and M. Pernot, “Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, “Retina-simulating phantom for optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Porri, T. J.

L. M. Bellan, S. P. Singh, P. W. Henderson, T. J. Porri, H. G. Craighead, and J. A. Spector, “Fabrication of an artificial 3-dimensional vascular network using sacrificial sugar structures,” Soft Matter 5, 1354–1357 (2009).
[Crossref]

Price, B. D.

J. C. Hebden, B. D. Price, A. P. Gibson, and G. Royle, “A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5581 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pruthi, R. S.

M. C. Hall, S. S. Chang, G. Dalbagni, R. S. Pruthi, J. D. Seigne, E. C. Skinner, J. S. Wolf, and P. F. Schellhammer, “Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages ta, t1, and tis): 2007 update,” J. Urology 178, 2314–2330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ramnani, D. M.

L. Cheng, R. M. Neumann, A. L. Weaver, J. C. Cheville, B. C. Leibovich, D. M. Ramnani, B. G. Scherer, A. Nehra, H. Zincke, and D. G. Bostwick, “Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens,” A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 113, 275–279 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ray, E.

M. Burger, H. B. Grossman, M. Droller, J. Schmidbauer, G. Hermann, O. Drăgoescu, E. Ray, Y. Fradet, A. Karl, J. P. Burgués, and et al., “Photodynamic diagnosis of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data,” Eur. Urol. 64, 846–854 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Redorta, J. P.

J. A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, P. Gontero, D. Jacqmin, A. Karl, S. Kruck, P. Mariappan, J. P. Redorta, A. Stenzl, and R. Van Velthoven, “Clinical and cost effectiveness of hexaminolevulinate-guided blue-light cystoscopy: evidence review and updated expert recommendations,” Eur. Urol. 66, 863–871 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Remzi, M.

J. Schmidbauer, M. Remzi, T. Klatte, M. Waldert, J. Mauermann, M. Susani, and M. Marberger, “Fluorescence cystoscopy with high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging as an adjunct reduces false-positive findings in the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” Eur. Urol. 56, 914–919 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, W. C. Waltzer, R. Bhalla, J. Liu, Z. Yuan, C. S. Lee, F. Darras, D. Schulsinger, H. L. Adler, and J. Kim, “Diagnosis of bladder cancer with microelectromechanical systems-based cystoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Urology 74, 1351–1357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rigby, P.

B. F. Kennedy, S. Loitsch, R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Rigby, and D. D. Sampson, “Fibrin phantom for use in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossi, R.

A. Dabrowska, G.-M. Rotaru, S. Derler, F. Spano, M. Camenzind, S. Annaheim, R. Stämpfli, M. Schmid, and R. Rossi, “Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. (2015).

Rotaru, G.-M.

A. Dabrowska, G.-M. Rotaru, S. Derler, F. Spano, M. Camenzind, S. Annaheim, R. Stämpfli, M. Schmid, and R. Rossi, “Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. (2015).

Royle, G.

J. C. Hebden, B. D. Price, A. P. Gibson, and G. Royle, “A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5581 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakr, A.

J. S. Nahrup, Z. M. Gao, J. E. Mark, and A. Sakr, “Poly (dimethylsiloxane) coatings for controlled drug release–polymer modifications,” Int. J. Pharm. 270, 199–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sampson, D. D.

Schellhammer, P. F.

M. C. Hall, S. S. Chang, G. Dalbagni, R. S. Pruthi, J. D. Seigne, E. C. Skinner, J. S. Wolf, and P. F. Schellhammer, “Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages ta, t1, and tis): 2007 update,” J. Urology 178, 2314–2330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scherer, B. G.

L. Cheng, R. M. Neumann, A. L. Weaver, J. C. Cheville, B. C. Leibovich, D. M. Ramnani, B. G. Scherer, A. Nehra, H. Zincke, and D. G. Bostwick, “Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens,” A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 113, 275–279 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, M.

A. Dabrowska, G.-M. Rotaru, S. Derler, F. Spano, M. Camenzind, S. Annaheim, R. Stämpfli, M. Schmid, and R. Rossi, “Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. (2015).

Schmidbauer, J.

M. Burger, H. B. Grossman, M. Droller, J. Schmidbauer, G. Hermann, O. Drăgoescu, E. Ray, Y. Fradet, A. Karl, J. P. Burgués, and et al., “Photodynamic diagnosis of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data,” Eur. Urol. 64, 846–854 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Schmidbauer, M. Remzi, T. Klatte, M. Waldert, J. Mauermann, M. Susani, and M. Marberger, “Fluorescence cystoscopy with high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging as an adjunct reduces false-positive findings in the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” Eur. Urol. 56, 914–919 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulsinger, D.

H. Ren, W. C. Waltzer, R. Bhalla, J. Liu, Z. Yuan, C. S. Lee, F. Darras, D. Schulsinger, H. L. Adler, and J. Kim, “Diagnosis of bladder cancer with microelectromechanical systems-based cystoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Urology 74, 1351–1357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scolaro, L.

B. F. Kennedy, S. Loitsch, R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Rigby, and D. D. Sampson, “Fibrin phantom for use in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seibel, E. J.

Y. Gong, T. D. Soper, V. W. Hou, D. Hu, B. Hannaford, and E. J. Seibel, “Mapping surgical fields by moving a laser-scanning multimodal scope attached to a robot arm,” Proc. SPIE 9036, 90362S (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, V. Hou, L. Y. Nelson, and E. J. Seibel, “Color-matched and fluorescence-labeled esophagus phantom and its applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seigne, J. D.

M. C. Hall, S. S. Chang, G. Dalbagni, R. S. Pruthi, J. D. Seigne, E. C. Skinner, J. S. Wolf, and P. F. Schellhammer, “Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages ta, t1, and tis): 2007 update,” J. Urology 178, 2314–2330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sepah, Y. J.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, “Retina-simulating phantom for optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shen, S. S.

S. P. Lerner, A. C. Goh, N. J. Tresser, and S. S. Shen, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to white light cystoscopy for intravesical real-time imaging and staging of bladder cancer,” Urology 72, 133–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, L.

W.-H. Yeo, Y.-S. Kim, J. Lee, A. Ameen, L. Shi, M. Li, S. Wang, R. Ma, S. H. Jin, Z. Kang, and et al., “Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2773–2778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinya, N.

H. Kaetsu, T. Uchida, and N. Shinya, “Increased effectiveness of fibrin sealant with a higher fibrin concentration,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 20, 27–31 (2000).
[Crossref]

Siegel, R.

R. Siegel, J. Ma, Z. Zou, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2014,” CA-Cancer J. Clin. 64, 9–29 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sikora, U.

G. T. Smith, N. Dwork, D. O’Connor, U. Sikora, K. L. Lurie, J. M. Pauly, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Automated, Depth-Resolved Estimation of the Attenuation Coefficient From Optical Coherence Tomography Data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(12), 2592–2602 (2015)
[Crossref]

Singh, S. P.

L. M. Bellan, S. P. Singh, P. W. Henderson, T. J. Porri, H. G. Craighead, and J. A. Spector, “Fabrication of an artificial 3-dimensional vascular network using sacrificial sugar structures,” Soft Matter 5, 1354–1357 (2009).
[Crossref]

Skinner, E. C.

M. C. Hall, S. S. Chang, G. Dalbagni, R. S. Pruthi, J. D. Seigne, E. C. Skinner, J. S. Wolf, and P. F. Schellhammer, “Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages ta, t1, and tis): 2007 update,” J. Urology 178, 2314–2330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smith, G. T.

G. T. Smith, N. Dwork, D. O’Connor, U. Sikora, K. L. Lurie, J. M. Pauly, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Automated, Depth-Resolved Estimation of the Attenuation Coefficient From Optical Coherence Tomography Data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(12), 2592–2602 (2015)
[Crossref]

G. T. Smith, K. L. Lurie, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Multilayered disease-mimicking bladder phantom with realistic surface topology for optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 8945, 89450E (2014).
[Crossref]

K. L. Lurie, G. T. Smith, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Three-dimensional, distendable bladder phantom for optical coherence tomography and white light cystoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 036009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, S.

Soper, T. D.

Y. Gong, T. D. Soper, V. W. Hou, D. Hu, B. Hannaford, and E. J. Seibel, “Mapping surgical fields by moving a laser-scanning multimodal scope attached to a robot arm,” Proc. SPIE 9036, 90362S (2014).
[Crossref]

Spano, F.

A. Dabrowska, G.-M. Rotaru, S. Derler, F. Spano, M. Camenzind, S. Annaheim, R. Stämpfli, M. Schmid, and R. Rossi, “Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. (2015).

Spector, J. A.

L. M. Bellan, S. P. Singh, P. W. Henderson, T. J. Porri, H. G. Craighead, and J. A. Spector, “Fabrication of an artificial 3-dimensional vascular network using sacrificial sugar structures,” Soft Matter 5, 1354–1357 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spiller, K. L.

J. L. Holloway, K. L. Spiller, A. M. Lowman, and G. R. Palmese, “Analysis of the in vitro swelling behavior of poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels in osmotic pressure solution for soft tissue replacement,” Acta Mater. 7, 2477–2482 (2011).

Stämpfli, R.

A. Dabrowska, G.-M. Rotaru, S. Derler, F. Spano, M. Camenzind, S. Annaheim, R. Stämpfli, M. Schmid, and R. Rossi, “Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. (2015).

Stehle, T.

A. Behrens, M. Bommes, T. Stehle, S. Gross, S. Leonhardt, and T. Aach, “Real-time image composition of bladder mosaics in fluorescence endoscopy,” Comput. Sci. Res. 26, 51–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stenzl, A.

J. A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, P. Gontero, D. Jacqmin, A. Karl, S. Kruck, P. Mariappan, J. P. Redorta, A. Stenzl, and R. Van Velthoven, “Clinical and cost effectiveness of hexaminolevulinate-guided blue-light cystoscopy: evidence review and updated expert recommendations,” Eur. Urol. 66, 863–871 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepp, H.

A. Karl, H. Stepp, E. Willmann, A. Buchner, Y. Hocaoglu, C. Stief, and S. Tritschler, “Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer-ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy?-results of a prospective mono-centre study,” Eur. J. Med. Res. 15, 131 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jocham, H. Stepp, and R. Waidelich, “Photodynamic diagnosis in urology: state-of-the-art,” Eur. Urol. 53.6, 1138–11150 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stief, C.

A. Karl, H. Stepp, E. Willmann, A. Buchner, Y. Hocaoglu, C. Stief, and S. Tritschler, “Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer-ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy?-results of a prospective mono-centre study,” Eur. J. Med. Res. 15, 131 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

R. N. Palchesko, L. Zhang, Y. Sun, and A. W. Feinberg, “Development of polydimethylsiloxane substrates with tunable elastic modulus to study cell mechanobiology in muscle and nerve,” PLoS One 7, e51499 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Susani, M.

J. Schmidbauer, M. Remzi, T. Klatte, M. Waldert, J. Mauermann, M. Susani, and M. Marberger, “Fluorescence cystoscopy with high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging as an adjunct reduces false-positive findings in the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” Eur. Urol. 56, 914–919 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Syms, R. R. A.

K. Choonee, R. R. A. Syms, M. M. Ahmad, and H. Zou, “Post processing of microstructures by pdms spray deposition,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 155, 253–262 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tanter, M.

S. Chatelin, M. Bernal, T. Deffieux, C. Papadacci, P. Flaud, A. Nahas, C. Boccara, J.-L. Gennisson, M. Tanter, and M. Pernot, “Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tresser, N. J.

S. P. Lerner, A. C. Goh, N. J. Tresser, and S. S. Shen, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to white light cystoscopy for intravesical real-time imaging and staging of bladder cancer,” Urology 72, 133–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tritschler, S.

A. Karl, H. Stepp, E. Willmann, A. Buchner, Y. Hocaoglu, C. Stief, and S. Tritschler, “Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer-ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy?-results of a prospective mono-centre study,” Eur. J. Med. Res. 15, 131 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uchida, T.

H. Kaetsu, T. Uchida, and N. Shinya, “Increased effectiveness of fibrin sealant with a higher fibrin concentration,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 20, 27–31 (2000).
[Crossref]

van der Meer, F.

van Leeuwen, T.

D. Faber, F. van der Meer, M. Aalders, and T. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of weakly scattering media using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4353–4365 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. van Leeuwen, D. Faber, and M. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 9(2), 227–232 (2003).
[Crossref]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Marle, J.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Velthoven, R.

J. A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, P. Gontero, D. Jacqmin, A. Karl, S. Kruck, P. Mariappan, J. P. Redorta, A. Stenzl, and R. Van Velthoven, “Clinical and cost effectiveness of hexaminolevulinate-guided blue-light cystoscopy: evidence review and updated expert recommendations,” Eur. Urol. 66, 863–871 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varghese, S.

S. Varghese, K. Gatos, A. Apostolov, and J. Karger-Kocsis, “Morphology and mechanical properties of layered silicate reinforced natural and polyurethane rubber blends produced by latex compounding,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 92, 543–551 (2004).
[Crossref]

Waidelich, R.

D. Jocham, H. Stepp, and R. Waidelich, “Photodynamic diagnosis in urology: state-of-the-art,” Eur. Urol. 53.6, 1138–11150 (2008).
[Crossref]

Waldert, M.

J. Schmidbauer, M. Remzi, T. Klatte, M. Waldert, J. Mauermann, M. Susani, and M. Marberger, “Fluorescence cystoscopy with high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging as an adjunct reduces false-positive findings in the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” Eur. Urol. 56, 914–919 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waltzer, W. C.

H. Ren, W. C. Waltzer, R. Bhalla, J. Liu, Z. Yuan, C. S. Lee, F. Darras, D. Schulsinger, H. L. Adler, and J. Kim, “Diagnosis of bladder cancer with microelectromechanical systems-based cystoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Urology 74, 1351–1357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

C. Li, G. Guan, F. Zhang, S. Song, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Quantitative elasticity measurement of urinary bladder wall using laser-induced surface acoustic waves,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 4313–4328 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

W.-H. Yeo, Y.-S. Kim, J. Lee, A. Ameen, L. Shi, M. Li, S. Wang, R. Ma, S. H. Jin, Z. Kang, and et al., “Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2773–2778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weaver, A. L.

L. Cheng, R. M. Neumann, A. L. Weaver, J. C. Cheville, B. C. Leibovich, D. M. Ramnani, B. G. Scherer, A. Nehra, H. Zincke, and D. G. Bostwick, “Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens,” A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 113, 275–279 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wientjes, M. G.

M. G. Wientjes, J. T. Dalton, R. A. Badalament, J. R. Drago, and J. L. Au, “Bladder wall penetration of intravesical mitomycin c in dogs,” Cancer Res. 51, 4347–4354 (1991).
[PubMed]

Willmann, E.

A. Karl, H. Stepp, E. Willmann, A. Buchner, Y. Hocaoglu, C. Stief, and S. Tritschler, “Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer-ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy?-results of a prospective mono-centre study,” Eur. J. Med. Res. 15, 131 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witjes, J. A.

J. A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, P. Gontero, D. Jacqmin, A. Karl, S. Kruck, P. Mariappan, J. P. Redorta, A. Stenzl, and R. Van Velthoven, “Clinical and cost effectiveness of hexaminolevulinate-guided blue-light cystoscopy: evidence review and updated expert recommendations,” Eur. Urol. 66, 863–871 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, J. S.

M. C. Hall, S. S. Chang, G. Dalbagni, R. S. Pruthi, J. D. Seigne, E. C. Skinner, J. S. Wolf, and P. F. Schellhammer, “Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages ta, t1, and tis): 2007 update,” J. Urology 178, 2314–2330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

C. Yang, V. Hou, L. Y. Nelson, and E. J. Seibel, “Color-matched and fluorescence-labeled esophagus phantom and its applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeo, W.-H.

W.-H. Yeo, Y.-S. Kim, J. Lee, A. Ameen, L. Shi, M. Li, S. Wang, R. Ma, S. H. Jin, Z. Kang, and et al., “Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2773–2778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

H. Ren, W. C. Waltzer, R. Bhalla, J. Liu, Z. Yuan, C. S. Lee, F. Darras, D. Schulsinger, H. L. Adler, and J. Kim, “Diagnosis of bladder cancer with microelectromechanical systems-based cystoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Urology 74, 1351–1357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zara, J. M.

A. Ejofodomi O’tega, V. Zderic, and J. M. Zara, “Tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantoms for evaluating acoustic radiations force optical coherence elastography systems,” Med. Phys. 37, 1440–1448 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zderic, V.

A. Ejofodomi O’tega, V. Zderic, and J. M. Zara, “Tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantoms for evaluating acoustic radiations force optical coherence elastography systems,” Med. Phys. 37, 1440–1448 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, L.

R. N. Palchesko, L. Zhang, Y. Sun, and A. W. Feinberg, “Development of polydimethylsiloxane substrates with tunable elastic modulus to study cell mechanobiology in muscle and nerve,” PLoS One 7, e51499 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zincke, H.

L. Cheng, R. M. Neumann, A. L. Weaver, J. C. Cheville, B. C. Leibovich, D. M. Ramnani, B. G. Scherer, A. Nehra, H. Zincke, and D. G. Bostwick, “Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens,” A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 113, 275–279 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, H.

K. Choonee, R. R. A. Syms, M. M. Ahmad, and H. Zou, “Post processing of microstructures by pdms spray deposition,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 155, 253–262 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zou, Z.

R. Siegel, J. Ma, Z. Zou, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2014,” CA-Cancer J. Clin. 64, 9–29 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. (1)

L. Cheng, R. M. Neumann, A. L. Weaver, J. C. Cheville, B. C. Leibovich, D. M. Ramnani, B. G. Scherer, A. Nehra, H. Zincke, and D. G. Bostwick, “Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens,” A.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 113, 275–279 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Mater. (1)

J. L. Holloway, K. L. Spiller, A. M. Lowman, and G. R. Palmese, “Analysis of the in vitro swelling behavior of poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels in osmotic pressure solution for soft tissue replacement,” Acta Mater. 7, 2477–2482 (2011).

Adv. Mater. (1)

W.-H. Yeo, Y.-S. Kim, J. Lee, A. Ameen, L. Shi, M. Li, S. Wang, R. Ma, S. H. Jin, Z. Kang, and et al., “Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2773–2778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Braz. J. Phys. (1)

W. Neves-Junior, M. Ferreira, M. Alves, C. Graeff, M. Mulato, J. Coutinho-Netto, and M. Bernardes, “Influence of fabrication process on the final properties of natural-rubber latex tubes for vascular prosthesis,” Braz. J. Phys. 36, 586–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

CA-Cancer J. Clin. (1)

R. Siegel, J. Ma, Z. Zou, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2014,” CA-Cancer J. Clin. 64, 9–29 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Can. Urol. Assoc. J. (1)

S. Aldousari and W. Kassouf, “Update on the management of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 4, 56 (2010).
[PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

M. G. Wientjes, J. T. Dalton, R. A. Badalament, J. R. Drago, and J. L. Au, “Bladder wall penetration of intravesical mitomycin c in dogs,” Cancer Res. 51, 4347–4354 (1991).
[PubMed]

Comput. Sci. Res. (1)

A. Behrens, M. Bommes, T. Stehle, S. Gross, S. Leonhardt, and T. Aach, “Real-time image composition of bladder mosaics in fluorescence endoscopy,” Comput. Sci. Res. 26, 51–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eur. J. Med. Res. (1)

A. Karl, H. Stepp, E. Willmann, A. Buchner, Y. Hocaoglu, C. Stief, and S. Tritschler, “Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer-ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy?-results of a prospective mono-centre study,” Eur. J. Med. Res. 15, 131 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. Urol. (4)

M. Burger, H. B. Grossman, M. Droller, J. Schmidbauer, G. Hermann, O. Drăgoescu, E. Ray, Y. Fradet, A. Karl, J. P. Burgués, and et al., “Photodynamic diagnosis of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data,” Eur. Urol. 64, 846–854 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, P. Gontero, D. Jacqmin, A. Karl, S. Kruck, P. Mariappan, J. P. Redorta, A. Stenzl, and R. Van Velthoven, “Clinical and cost effectiveness of hexaminolevulinate-guided blue-light cystoscopy: evidence review and updated expert recommendations,” Eur. Urol. 66, 863–871 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Schmidbauer, M. Remzi, T. Klatte, M. Waldert, J. Mauermann, M. Susani, and M. Marberger, “Fluorescence cystoscopy with high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging as an adjunct reduces false-positive findings in the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder,” Eur. Urol. 56, 914–919 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jocham, H. Stepp, and R. Waidelich, “Photodynamic diagnosis in urology: state-of-the-art,” Eur. Urol. 53.6, 1138–11150 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Elect. (1)

T. van Leeuwen, D. Faber, and M. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 9(2), 227–232 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

G. T. Smith, N. Dwork, D. O’Connor, U. Sikora, K. L. Lurie, J. M. Pauly, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Automated, Depth-Resolved Estimation of the Attenuation Coefficient From Optical Coherence Tomography Data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(12), 2592–2602 (2015)
[Crossref]

Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. (1)

H. Kaetsu, T. Uchida, and N. Shinya, “Increased effectiveness of fibrin sealant with a higher fibrin concentration,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 20, 27–31 (2000).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Pharm. (1)

J. S. Nahrup, Z. M. Gao, J. E. Mark, and A. Sakr, “Poly (dimethylsiloxane) coatings for controlled drug release–polymer modifications,” Int. J. Pharm. 270, 199–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

S. Varghese, K. Gatos, A. Apostolov, and J. Karger-Kocsis, “Morphology and mechanical properties of layered silicate reinforced natural and polyurethane rubber blends produced by latex compounding,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 92, 543–551 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. Loitsch, R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Rigby, and D. D. Sampson, “Fibrin phantom for use in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yang, V. Hou, L. Y. Nelson, and E. J. Seibel, “Color-matched and fluorescence-labeled esophagus phantom and its applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 026020 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-É. Bisaillon and G. Lamouche, “Artery phantoms for intravascular optical coherence tomography: diseased arteries,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Lurie, G. T. Smith, S. A. Khan, J. C. Liao, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Three-dimensional, distendable bladder phantom for optical coherence tomography and white light cystoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 036009 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, “Retina-simulating phantom for optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Urology (1)

M. C. Hall, S. S. Chang, G. Dalbagni, R. S. Pruthi, J. D. Seigne, E. C. Skinner, J. S. Wolf, and P. F. Schellhammer, “Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages ta, t1, and tis): 2007 update,” J. Urology 178, 2314–2330 (2007).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (21714 KB)      White light and blue light cystoscopy of bladder phantom performed under distention with saline.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Characterization of Dragon Skin. (a) Silicone solvent added (% by weight) to Dragon Skin vs. Young’s modulus for pure (no TiO2) and adulterated (with 0.2% w/w TiO2) Dragon Skin. Solid lines indicate regions in which air-brushing can be successfully applied, in contrast with dashed lines where it cannot. (b) Range of achievable attenuation coefficients (scattering-based) in Dragon Skin (blue circles) and in PDMS (green squares). Orange arrows indicate the attenuation coefficients associated with the various layers of the bladder (U:urothelium, LP: lamina propria, MP: muscularis propria).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Characterization of air-brushing. (a) Total spray time vs. average achievable layer thicknesses with air-brushing. Error bars represent a standard deviation for n = 5 samples. (b) Intrasample variation in thickness for air-brushed layers is given as the standard deviation over a 2.5-mm-long sample (average thicknesses of samples are presented in (a). Representative B-scans for different spray times are also shown. Scale bars are 200 × 200 μm2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Process diagram for the fabrication of a 3D bladder phantom. Circles labelled “D” represent sections of the phantom that are removed and then filled in to create various diseased regions (details provided in Supporting Information). An image of the full 3D bladder phantom is shown last.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison OCT images of human bladder tissue [24] with 3D phantom appearance under OCT, including healthy tissue and several stages of cancerous lesions. Scale bars in bladder tissue images represent 200 μm; white boxes in the phantom images represent 200 × 200 μm2. U: urothelium, LP: lamina propria, MP: muscularis propria.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison WLC and BLC images of human bladder tissue with 3D phantom appearance, including healthy tissue, inflammation and cancer. Inflammation and cancer appear similarly under WLC and BLC (circled regions indicate fluorescent contrast in BLC and their corresponding locations in WLC images). Fluorescence contrast in inflammation may be slightly less than that seen in cancer, which is adequately mimicked in the phantom. Images are roughly 3 cm × 3 cm (notably, distance between probe and tissue varies between images).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 WLC images of papillary tumors in bladder tissue and the phantom, as marked by arrows. Papillary tumors protrude from the surface with a bubbly texture and are clearly discernible with WLC.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Comparison of candidate materials for phantom fabrication. Bold text highlights the property values that are favorable for creating a 3D disease-mimicking optical phantom.

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Table 2 Comparison of previously used phantom fabrication techniques and air-brushing. Only air-brushing is capable of producing conformal, uniformly thin layers on an arbitrary 3D shape.

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Table 3 Appearance descriptors for several diseased states in bladder tissue as seen under WLC, BLC, and OCT. Last column shows the fabricated layer structure to yield the corresponding pathology. In the healthy schematic, U is 50 μm, LP is 250 μm, and MP is 1.6 mm. Note that the images are not to scale. Solid red lines indicate the inclusion of red dye; dashed pink lines indicate the inclusion of transparent fluorescent dye. The slightly longer length of the urothelium layer of dysplastic tissue is intentional. U: urothelium, LP: lamina propria, MP: muscularis propria.

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