Abstract

Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (4)

R. A. Leitgeb, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Blatter, and L. Schmetterer, “Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 41, 26–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sehi, I. Goharian, R. Konduru, O. Tan, S. Srinivas, S. R. Sadda, B. A. Francis, D. Huang, and D. S. Greenfield, “Retinal blood flow in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage,” Ophthalmology 121(3), 750–758 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. You, C. Du, N. D. Volkow, and Y. Pan, “Optical coherence Doppler tomography for quantitative cerebral blood flow imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3217–3230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Du, N. D. Volkow, A. P. Koretsky, and Y. Pan, “Low-frequency calcium oscillations accompany deoxyhemoglobin oscillations in rat somatosensory cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(43), E4677–E4686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. Lee, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, A. Daneshmand, M. Climov, C. Ayata, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative imaging of cerebral blood flow velocity and intracellular motility using dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(6), 819–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Hancock, C. C. Lay, M. F. Davis, and R. D. Frostig, “Sensory stimulation-based complete protection from ischemic stroke remains stable at 4 months post-occlusion of MCA,” J. Neurol. Disord. 1(4), 135 (2013).
[PubMed]

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11429–11440 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

P. Li, A. Liu, L. Shi, X. Yin, S. Rugonyi, and R. K. Wang, “Assessment of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart in vivo using tissue Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(22), 7081–7092 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Lay, M. F. Davis, C. H. Chen-Bee, and R. D. Frostig, “Mild sensory stimulation completely protects the adult rodent cortex from ischemic stroke,” PLoS One 5(6), e11270 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu, E. Nguyen, G. Liu, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Spectral Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging of localized ischemic stroke in a mouse model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Z. Yuan, Z. C. Luo, H. G. Ren, C. W. Du, and Y. Pan, “A digital frequency ramping method for enhancing Doppler flow imaging in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3951–3963 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lesage, E. D. Angelini, I. Bloch, and G. Funka-Lea, “A review of 3D vessel lumen segmentation techniques: models, features and extraction schemes,” Med. Image Anal. 13(6), 819–845 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Dehmeshki, H. Amin, M. Valdivieso, and X. Ye, “Segmentation of pulmonary nodules in thoracic CT scans: a region growing approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(4), 467–480 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Quantitative retinal-blood flow measurement with three-dimensional vessel geometry determination using ultrahigh-resolution Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 836–838 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. Yu, S. B. Reeder, A. Shimakawa, J. H. Brittain, and N. J. Pelc, “Field map estimation with a region growing scheme for iterative 3-point water-fat decomposition,” Magn. Reson. Med. 54(4), 1032–1039 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Y. Satomura, J. Seki, Y. Ooi, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “In vivo imaging of the rat cerebral microvessels with optical coherence tomography,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 31(1), 31–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Lu, T. Jiang, and Y. Zang, “Region growing method for the analysis of functional MRI data,” Neuroimage 20(1), 455–465 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. Fan, D. Y. Yau, A. K. Elmagarmid, and W. G. Aref, “Automatic image segmentation by integrating color-edge extraction and seeded region growing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(10), 1454–1466 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(6), 931–935 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

1998 (1)

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, X. Wang, S. Srinivas, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical Doppler tomography: imaging in vivo blood flow dynamics following pharmacological intervention and photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(1), 56–60 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (4)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, R. J.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Amin, H.

J. Dehmeshki, H. Amin, M. Valdivieso, and X. Ye, “Segmentation of pulmonary nodules in thoracic CT scans: a region growing approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(4), 467–480 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angelini, E. D.

D. Lesage, E. D. Angelini, I. Bloch, and G. Funka-Lea, “A review of 3D vessel lumen segmentation techniques: models, features and extraction schemes,” Med. Image Anal. 13(6), 819–845 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aref, W. G.

J. Fan, D. Y. Yau, A. K. Elmagarmid, and W. G. Aref, “Automatic image segmentation by integrating color-edge extraction and seeded region growing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(10), 1454–1466 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atochin, D. N.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayata, C.

J. Lee, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, A. Daneshmand, M. Climov, C. Ayata, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative imaging of cerebral blood flow velocity and intracellular motility using dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(6), 819–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, S.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Barwick, L.

Baumann, B.

Berry, J. D.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Blatter, C.

R. A. Leitgeb, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Blatter, and L. Schmetterer, “Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 41, 26–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloch, I.

D. Lesage, E. D. Angelini, I. Bloch, and G. Funka-Lea, “A review of 3D vessel lumen segmentation techniques: models, features and extraction schemes,” Med. Image Anal. 13(6), 819–845 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

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Davis, M. F.

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A. M. Hancock, C. C. Lay, M. F. Davis, and R. D. Frostig, “Sensory stimulation-based complete protection from ischemic stroke remains stable at 4 months post-occlusion of MCA,” J. Neurol. Disord. 1(4), 135 (2013).
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Fullerton, H. J.

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Goharian, I.

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Greenfield, D. S.

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Gu, S.

Hailpern, S. M.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
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Hancock, A. M.

A. M. Hancock, C. C. Lay, M. F. Davis, and R. D. Frostig, “Sensory stimulation-based complete protection from ischemic stroke remains stable at 4 months post-occlusion of MCA,” J. Neurol. Disord. 1(4), 135 (2013).
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Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Heit, J. A.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
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V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
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Konduru, R.

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Kulkarni, M. D.

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Lichtman, J. H.

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Lisabeth, L. D.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
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Liu, G.

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
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Lloyd-Jones, D. M.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
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Makuc, D. M.

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Malekafzali, A.

Marcus, G. M.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Marelli, A.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Matchar, D. B.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

McDermott, M. M.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Meigs, J. B.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Moy, C. S.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Mozaffarian, D.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Mussolino, M. E.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(6), 931–935 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114–116 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. Shen, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1358–1360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, X. Wang, S. Srinivas, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical Doppler tomography: imaging in vivo blood flow dynamics following pharmacological intervention and photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(1), 56–60 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 22(1), 64–66 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, E.

L. Yu, E. Nguyen, G. Liu, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Spectral Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging of localized ischemic stroke in a mouse model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nichol, G.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ooi, Y.

Y. Satomura, J. Seki, Y. Ooi, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “In vivo imaging of the rat cerebral microvessels with optical coherence tomography,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 31(1), 31–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Pan, Y.

C. Du, N. D. Volkow, A. P. Koretsky, and Y. Pan, “Low-frequency calcium oscillations accompany deoxyhemoglobin oscillations in rat somatosensory cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(43), E4677–E4686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. You, C. Du, N. D. Volkow, and Y. Pan, “Optical coherence Doppler tomography for quantitative cerebral blood flow imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3217–3230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, C. Du, Z. Yuan, K. Park, N. D. Volkow, and Y. Pan, “Cocaine-induced cortical microischemia in the rodent brain: clinical implications,” Mol. Psychiatry 17(10), 1017–1025 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Z. C. Luo, H. G. Ren, C. W. Du, and Y. Pan, “A digital frequency ramping method for enhancing Doppler flow imaging in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3951–3963 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, K.

H. Ren, C. Du, Z. Yuan, K. Park, N. D. Volkow, and Y. Pan, “Cocaine-induced cortical microischemia in the rodent brain: clinical implications,” Mol. Psychiatry 17(10), 1017–1025 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paynter, N. P.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Pelc, N. J.

H. Yu, S. B. Reeder, A. Shimakawa, J. H. Brittain, and N. J. Pelc, “Field map estimation with a region growing scheme for iterative 3-point water-fat decomposition,” Magn. Reson. Med. 54(4), 1032–1039 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peterson, L. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, W.

Radhakrishnan, H.

J. Lee, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, A. Daneshmand, M. Climov, C. Ayata, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative imaging of cerebral blood flow velocity and intracellular motility using dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(6), 819–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, B.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reeder, S. B.

H. Yu, S. B. Reeder, A. Shimakawa, J. H. Brittain, and N. J. Pelc, “Field map estimation with a region growing scheme for iterative 3-point water-fat decomposition,” Magn. Reson. Med. 54(4), 1032–1039 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, C. Du, Z. Yuan, K. Park, N. D. Volkow, and Y. Pan, “Cocaine-induced cortical microischemia in the rodent brain: clinical implications,” Mol. Psychiatry 17(10), 1017–1025 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(6), 931–935 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ren, H. G.

Roger, V. L.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Rosamond, W. D.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Rugonyi, S.

P. Li, A. Liu, L. Shi, X. Yin, S. Rugonyi, and R. K. Wang, “Assessment of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart in vivo using tissue Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(22), 7081–7092 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruvinskaya, S.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadda, S. R.

M. Sehi, I. Goharian, R. Konduru, O. Tan, S. Srinivas, S. R. Sadda, B. A. Francis, D. Huang, and D. S. Greenfield, “Retinal blood flow in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage,” Ophthalmology 121(3), 750–758 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakadzic, S.

Satomura, Y.

Y. Satomura, J. Seki, Y. Ooi, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “In vivo imaging of the rat cerebral microvessels with optical coherence tomography,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 31(1), 31–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Schmetterer, L.

R. A. Leitgeb, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Blatter, and L. Schmetterer, “Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 41, 26–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sehi, M.

M. Sehi, I. Goharian, R. Konduru, O. Tan, S. Srinivas, S. R. Sadda, B. A. Francis, D. Huang, and D. S. Greenfield, “Retinal blood flow in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage,” Ophthalmology 121(3), 750–758 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seiyama, A.

Y. Satomura, J. Seki, Y. Ooi, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “In vivo imaging of the rat cerebral microvessels with optical coherence tomography,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 31(1), 31–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Seki, J.

Y. Satomura, J. Seki, Y. Ooi, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “In vivo imaging of the rat cerebral microvessels with optical coherence tomography,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 31(1), 31–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Shen, Q.

Shi, L.

P. Li, A. Liu, L. Shi, X. Yin, S. Rugonyi, and R. K. Wang, “Assessment of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart in vivo using tissue Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(22), 7081–7092 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimakawa, A.

H. Yu, S. B. Reeder, A. Shimakawa, J. H. Brittain, and N. J. Pelc, “Field map estimation with a region growing scheme for iterative 3-point water-fat decomposition,” Magn. Reson. Med. 54(4), 1032–1039 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorlie, P. D.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

M. Sehi, I. Goharian, R. Konduru, O. Tan, S. Srinivas, S. R. Sadda, B. A. Francis, D. Huang, and D. S. Greenfield, “Retinal blood flow in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage,” Ophthalmology 121(3), 750–758 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, X. Wang, S. Srinivas, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical Doppler tomography: imaging in vivo blood flow dynamics following pharmacological intervention and photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(1), 56–60 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stafford, R. S.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, V.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

M. Sehi, I. Goharian, R. Konduru, O. Tan, S. Srinivas, S. R. Sadda, B. A. Francis, D. Huang, and D. S. Greenfield, “Retinal blood flow in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage,” Ophthalmology 121(3), 750–758 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turan, T. N.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Turner, M. B.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Valdivieso, M.

J. Dehmeshki, H. Amin, M. Valdivieso, and X. Ye, “Segmentation of pulmonary nodules in thoracic CT scans: a region growing approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(4), 467–480 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Volkow, N. D.

J. You, C. Du, N. D. Volkow, and Y. Pan, “Optical coherence Doppler tomography for quantitative cerebral blood flow imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3217–3230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Du, N. D. Volkow, A. P. Koretsky, and Y. Pan, “Low-frequency calcium oscillations accompany deoxyhemoglobin oscillations in rat somatosensory cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(43), E4677–E4686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, C. Du, Z. Yuan, K. Park, N. D. Volkow, and Y. Pan, “Cocaine-induced cortical microischemia in the rodent brain: clinical implications,” Mol. Psychiatry 17(10), 1017–1025 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

P. Li, A. Liu, L. Shi, X. Yin, S. Rugonyi, and R. K. Wang, “Assessment of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart in vivo using tissue Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(22), 7081–7092 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, X. Wang, S. Srinivas, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical Doppler tomography: imaging in vivo blood flow dynamics following pharmacological intervention and photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(1), 56–60 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(14), 1119–1121 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

Welch, A. J.

Werkmeister, R. M.

R. A. Leitgeb, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Blatter, and L. Schmetterer, “Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 41, 26–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, N. D.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Wu, W.

J. Lee, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, A. Daneshmand, M. Climov, C. Ayata, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative imaging of cerebral blood flow velocity and intracellular motility using dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(6), 819–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wylie-Rosett, J.

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Xiang, S.

Yanagida, T.

Y. Satomura, J. Seki, Y. Ooi, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “In vivo imaging of the rat cerebral microvessels with optical coherence tomography,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 31(1), 31–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Yau, D. Y.

J. Fan, D. Y. Yau, A. K. Elmagarmid, and W. G. Aref, “Automatic image segmentation by integrating color-edge extraction and seeded region growing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(10), 1454–1466 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

Ye, X.

J. Dehmeshki, H. Amin, M. Valdivieso, and X. Ye, “Segmentation of pulmonary nodules in thoracic CT scans: a region growing approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(4), 467–480 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

P. Li, A. Liu, L. Shi, X. Yin, S. Rugonyi, and R. K. Wang, “Assessment of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart in vivo using tissue Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(22), 7081–7092 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, J.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, S. B. Reeder, A. Shimakawa, J. H. Brittain, and N. J. Pelc, “Field map estimation with a region growing scheme for iterative 3-point water-fat decomposition,” Magn. Reson. Med. 54(4), 1032–1039 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

L. Yu, E. Nguyen, G. Liu, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Spectral Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging of localized ischemic stroke in a mouse model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

H. Ren, C. Du, Z. Yuan, K. Park, N. D. Volkow, and Y. Pan, “Cocaine-induced cortical microischemia in the rodent brain: clinical implications,” Mol. Psychiatry 17(10), 1017–1025 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Z. C. Luo, H. G. Ren, C. W. Du, and Y. Pan, “A digital frequency ramping method for enhancing Doppler flow imaging in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3951–3963 (2009).
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Zacharias, L. C.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zang, Y.

Y. Lu, T. Jiang, and Y. Zang, “Region growing method for the analysis of functional MRI data,” Neuroimage 20(1), 455–465 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Circulation (1)

V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D. Wong, J. Wylie-Rosett, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 123(4), e18–e209 (2011).
[PubMed]

Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. (1)

Y. Satomura, J. Seki, Y. Ooi, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “In vivo imaging of the rat cerebral microvessels with optical coherence tomography,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 31(1), 31–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(6), 931–935 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

J. Fan, D. Y. Yau, A. K. Elmagarmid, and W. G. Aref, “Automatic image segmentation by integrating color-edge extraction and seeded region growing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(10), 1454–1466 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

J. Dehmeshki, H. Amin, M. Valdivieso, and X. Ye, “Segmentation of pulmonary nodules in thoracic CT scans: a region growing approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(4), 467–480 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

L. Yu, E. Nguyen, G. Liu, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Spectral Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging of localized ischemic stroke in a mouse model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, “Imaging pulsatile retinal blood flow in human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2)

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, A. Daneshmand, M. Climov, C. Ayata, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative imaging of cerebral blood flow velocity and intracellular motility using dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(6), 819–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurol. Disord. (1)

A. M. Hancock, C. C. Lay, M. F. Davis, and R. D. Frostig, “Sensory stimulation-based complete protection from ischemic stroke remains stable at 4 months post-occlusion of MCA,” J. Neurol. Disord. 1(4), 135 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magn. Reson. Med. (1)

H. Yu, S. B. Reeder, A. Shimakawa, J. H. Brittain, and N. J. Pelc, “Field map estimation with a region growing scheme for iterative 3-point water-fat decomposition,” Magn. Reson. Med. 54(4), 1032–1039 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Image Anal. (1)

D. Lesage, E. D. Angelini, I. Bloch, and G. Funka-Lea, “A review of 3D vessel lumen segmentation techniques: models, features and extraction schemes,” Med. Image Anal. 13(6), 819–845 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mol. Psychiatry (1)

H. Ren, C. Du, Z. Yuan, K. Park, N. D. Volkow, and Y. Pan, “Cocaine-induced cortical microischemia in the rodent brain: clinical implications,” Mol. Psychiatry 17(10), 1017–1025 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (1)

Y. Lu, T. Jiang, and Y. Zang, “Region growing method for the analysis of functional MRI data,” Neuroimage 20(1), 455–465 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

M. Sehi, I. Goharian, R. Konduru, O. Tan, S. Srinivas, S. R. Sadda, B. A. Francis, D. Huang, and D. S. Greenfield, “Retinal blood flow in glaucomatous eyes with single-hemifield damage,” Ophthalmology 121(3), 750–758 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Quantitative retinal-blood flow measurement with three-dimensional vessel geometry determination using ultrahigh-resolution Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 836–838 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114–116 (2000).
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Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 22(1), 64–66 (1997).
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J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(18), 1439–1441 (1997).
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Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. Shen, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1358–1360 (2000).
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Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, X. Wang, S. Srinivas, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical Doppler tomography: imaging in vivo blood flow dynamics following pharmacological intervention and photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(1), 56–60 (1998).
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Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

P. Li, A. Liu, L. Shi, X. Yin, S. Rugonyi, and R. K. Wang, “Assessment of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart in vivo using tissue Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(22), 7081–7092 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS One (1)

C. C. Lay, M. F. Davis, C. H. Chen-Bee, and R. D. Frostig, “Mild sensory stimulation completely protects the adult rodent cortex from ischemic stroke,” PLoS One 5(6), e11270 (2010).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. Du, N. D. Volkow, A. P. Koretsky, and Y. Pan, “Low-frequency calcium oscillations accompany deoxyhemoglobin oscillations in rat somatosensory cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(43), E4677–E4686 (2014).
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Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

R. A. Leitgeb, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Blatter, and L. Schmetterer, “Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 41, 26–43 (2014).
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Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Y. Wang-Fischer, ed., Manual of Stroke Models in Rats (CRC, 2008).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Changing Doppler angles according to the vessel geometry.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The DOCT structure used in experiments.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The work flow of the proposed volumetric vessel reconstruction method for fully distributed absolute BFV measurement.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The acquired frame 123 and frame 180 of a total of 256 frames from a rat brain imaging experiment. The limited dynamic range of the resolved Doppler phase can be seen clearly: the cross-sectional profiles of different vessels are only prominent at particular time intervals while in the averaged profile, these vessels all stood out from the background.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Ordinary region growing method leads to a diffuse vessel border; (b) the vessel lumen was successfully controlled by the two constraints using the proposed restricted region growing method.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The averaging method for Doppler angle correction.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Flow phantom experiment. From left to right: the Doppler angle; the flow velocity before Doppler angle correction; the flow velocity after Doppler angle correction. (See text for detailed explanation).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Vessel reconstruction results for subjects 1, 2 and 3. First column: IBDV en face images; second column: reconstructed vessels before lumen refinement; third column: vessel structures after lumen refinement; fourth column: extracted vessel skeleton.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Doppler angle measurement. (a): Doppler angle calculation results (cosine value) for subject 1; (b) and (c): details of the flow direction in (a); (d) and (e): Doppler angle calculated for subject 2 and subject 3.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Fully distributed absolute BFV measurement. First column: color coded BFV measured without Doppler angle correction. M1 and M2 are the two main branches, and B1-B4 are the side branches of the MCA, respectively. Second column: the reconstructed absolute BFV distributed along the entire vessel. The velocity difference is caused by scanning of a pulsatile flow. Third column: comparison between corrected and uncorrected flow measurement results of different main branches and side branches.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Images produced from adopting intensity variance method and Doppler method at baseline and post-occlusion with different time intervals. (a-f) Comparison of the blood flow velocities between baseline and post-occlusion at different vessel locations. The color bars represent the axial velocity range of the PRCD method.

Tables (2)

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Algorithm 1. The restricted region growing algorithm for MCA segmentation

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of flux in different MCA branches

Equations (7)

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v= λf 4πnΔTcosθ
f=Δφ= φ j+1,z φ j,z
f= tan 1 [ Im( A j+1,z )Re( A j,z )Im( A j,z )Re( A j+1,z ) Re( A j,z )Re( A j+1,z )+Im( A j+1,z )Im( A j,z ) ].
G ¯ k =[ d x k d y k d z k ]= 1 w i=1 w P k+i P ki 2i+1
θ k =arccos( ηd z k d x k 2 +d y k 2 +d z k 2 )
σ 2 = 1 T 2 [ 1 j=1 J z=1 N ( | A j+1,z || A j,z | ) j=1 J z=1 N 1 2 ( | A j+1,z | 2 + | A j,z | 2 ) ].
Flux= v ¯ π ( D 2 ) 2

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