Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical diagnostic modality that can acquire cross-sectional images of the microscopic structure of the esophagus, including Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and associated dysplasia. We developed a swallowable tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) device that acquires high-resolution images of entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract luminal organs. This device has a potential to become a screening method that identifies patients with an abnormal esophagus that should be further referred for upper endoscopy. Currently, the characterization of the OCT-TCE esophageal wall data set is performed manually, which is time-consuming and inefficient. Additionally, since the capsule optics optimally focus light approximately 500 µm outside the capsule wall and the best quality images are obtained when the tissue is in full contact with the capsule, it is crucial to provide feedback for the operator about tissue contact during the imaging procedure. In this study, we developed a fully automated algorithm for the segmentation of in vivo OCT-TCE data sets and characterization of the esophageal wall. The algorithm provides a two-dimensional representation of both the contact map from the data collected in human clinical studies as well as a tissue map depicting areas of BE with or without dysplasia. Results suggest that these techniques can potentially improve the current TCE data acquisition procedure and provide an efficient characterization of the diseased esophageal wall.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

J. Melson, V. Desai, M. Greenspan, S. Yau, M. Abdalla, R. Dhanekula, S. Mobarhan, D. Shapiro, J. Losurdo, and S. Jakate, “Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus,” Dis. Esophagus 28(7), 660–665 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, “Safety and feasibility of volumetric laser endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 82(4), 631–640 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

C. L. Leggett, E. Gorospe, V. L. Owens, M. Anderson, L. Lutzke, and K. K. Wang, “Volumetric laser endomicroscopy detects subsquamous Barrett’s adenocarcinoma,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(2), 298–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Vermeer, J. Mo, J. J. Weda, H. G. Lemij, and J. F. de Boer, “Depth-resolved model-based reconstruction of attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 322–337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, P. Sinnaeve, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automated tissue characterization of in vivo atherosclerotic plaques by intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1014–1030 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Fully automatic three-dimensional visualization of intravascular optical coherence tomography images: methods and feasibility in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3291–3303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

P. N. Thota, G. Zuccaro, J. J. Vargo, D. L. Conwell, J. A. Dumot, and M. Xu, “A randomized prospective trial comparing unsedated esophagoscopy via transnasal and transoral routes using a 4-mm video endoscope with conventional endoscopy with sedation,” Endoscopy 37(6), 559–565 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Wong Kee Song and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic detection of early upper GI cancers,” Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 19(6), 833–856 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdalla, M.

J. Melson, V. Desai, M. Greenspan, S. Yau, M. Abdalla, R. Dhanekula, S. Mobarhan, D. Shapiro, J. Losurdo, and S. Jakate, “Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus,” Dis. Esophagus 28(7), 660–665 (2015).
[PubMed]

Adriaenssens, T.

Amygdalos, I.

Anderson, M.

C. L. Leggett, E. Gorospe, V. L. Owens, M. Anderson, L. Lutzke, and K. K. Wang, “Volumetric laser endomicroscopy detects subsquamous Barrett’s adenocarcinoma,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(2), 298–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnason, T.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, J. J.

A. F. Swager, D. F. Boerwinkel, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, B. L. Weusten, S. L. Meijer, J. J. Bergman, and W. L. Curvers, “Detection of buried Barrett’s glands after radiofrequency ablation with volumetric laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. In press (2015).

Boerwinkel, D. F.

A. F. Swager, D. F. Boerwinkel, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, B. L. Weusten, S. L. Meijer, J. J. Bergman, and W. L. Curvers, “Detection of buried Barrett’s glands after radiofrequency ablation with volumetric laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. In press (2015).

Bouma, B. E.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlton, D. T.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carruth, R. W.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conwell, D. L.

P. N. Thota, G. Zuccaro, J. J. Vargo, D. L. Conwell, J. A. Dumot, and M. Xu, “A randomized prospective trial comparing unsedated esophagoscopy via transnasal and transoral routes using a 4-mm video endoscope with conventional endoscopy with sedation,” Endoscopy 37(6), 559–565 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coosemans, M.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curvers, W. L.

A. F. Swager, D. F. Boerwinkel, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, B. L. Weusten, S. L. Meijer, J. J. Bergman, and W. L. Curvers, “Detection of buried Barrett’s glands after radiofrequency ablation with volumetric laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. In press (2015).

D’hooge, J.

de Boer, J. F.

K. A. Vermeer, J. Mo, J. J. Weda, H. G. Lemij, and J. F. de Boer, “Depth-resolved model-based reconstruction of attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 322–337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Bruin, D. M.

A. F. Swager, D. F. Boerwinkel, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, B. L. Weusten, S. L. Meijer, J. J. Bergman, and W. L. Curvers, “Detection of buried Barrett’s glands after radiofrequency ablation with volumetric laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. In press (2015).

Desai, V.

J. Melson, V. Desai, M. Greenspan, S. Yau, M. Abdalla, R. Dhanekula, S. Mobarhan, D. Shapiro, J. Losurdo, and S. Jakate, “Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus,” Dis. Esophagus 28(7), 660–665 (2015).
[PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desmet, W.

Dhanapala, H.

Dhanekula, R.

J. Melson, V. Desai, M. Greenspan, S. Yau, M. Abdalla, R. Dhanekula, S. Mobarhan, D. Shapiro, J. Losurdo, and S. Jakate, “Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus,” Dis. Esophagus 28(7), 660–665 (2015).
[PubMed]

Dubois, C.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumot, J. A.

P. N. Thota, G. Zuccaro, J. J. Vargo, D. L. Conwell, J. A. Dumot, and M. Xu, “A randomized prospective trial comparing unsedated esophagoscopy via transnasal and transoral routes using a 4-mm video endoscope with conventional endoscopy with sedation,” Endoscopy 37(6), 559–565 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckhaus, M. A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elson, D. S.

Evans, J. A.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

A. F. Swager, D. F. Boerwinkel, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, B. L. Weusten, S. L. Meijer, J. J. Bergman, and W. L. Curvers, “Detection of buried Barrett’s glands after radiofrequency ablation with volumetric laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. In press (2015).

Fard, A. M.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[PubMed]

Gallagher, K. A.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallagher, T. P.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Allende, P. B.

Gardecki, J. A.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldin, R. D.

Gora, M. J.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorospe, E.

C. L. Leggett, E. Gorospe, V. L. Owens, M. Anderson, L. Lutzke, and K. K. Wang, “Volumetric laser endomicroscopy detects subsquamous Barrett’s adenocarcinoma,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(2), 298–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenspan, M.

J. Melson, V. Desai, M. Greenspan, S. Yau, M. Abdalla, R. Dhanekula, S. Mobarhan, D. Shapiro, J. Losurdo, and S. Jakate, “Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus,” Dis. Esophagus 28(7), 660–665 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hanna, G. B.

Hara, T.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[PubMed]

Isenberg, G.

X. Qi, Y. Pan, M. V. Sivak, J. E. Willis, G. Isenberg, and A. M. Rollins, “Image analysis for classification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 825–847 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaffer, F. A.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jakate, S.

J. Melson, V. Desai, M. Greenspan, S. Yau, M. Abdalla, R. Dhanekula, S. Mobarhan, D. Shapiro, J. Losurdo, and S. Jakate, “Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus,” Dis. Esophagus 28(7), 660–665 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jang, I. K.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kava, L.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kava, L. E.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kayaert, P.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knüttel, A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauwers, G. Y.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leggett, C.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, “Safety and feasibility of volumetric laser endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 82(4), 631–640 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leggett, C. L.

C. L. Leggett, E. Gorospe, V. L. Owens, M. Anderson, L. Lutzke, and K. K. Wang, “Volumetric laser endomicroscopy detects subsquamous Barrett’s adenocarcinoma,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(2), 298–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemij, H. G.

Losurdo, J.

J. Melson, V. Desai, M. Greenspan, S. Yau, M. Abdalla, R. Dhanekula, S. Mobarhan, D. Shapiro, J. Losurdo, and S. Jakate, “Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus,” Dis. Esophagus 28(7), 660–665 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lu, W.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lutzke, L.

C. L. Leggett, E. Gorospe, V. L. Owens, M. Anderson, L. Lutzke, and K. K. Wang, “Volumetric laser endomicroscopy detects subsquamous Barrett’s adenocarcinoma,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(2), 298–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauskapf, A.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[PubMed]

Meijer, S. L.

A. F. Swager, D. F. Boerwinkel, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, B. L. Weusten, S. L. Meijer, J. J. Bergman, and W. L. Curvers, “Detection of buried Barrett’s glands after radiofrequency ablation with volumetric laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. In press (2015).

Melson, J.

J. Melson, V. Desai, M. Greenspan, S. Yau, M. Abdalla, R. Dhanekula, S. Mobarhan, D. Shapiro, J. Losurdo, and S. Jakate, “Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus,” Dis. Esophagus 28(7), 660–665 (2015).
[PubMed]

Mo, J.

Mobarhan, S.

J. Melson, V. Desai, M. Greenspan, S. Yau, M. Abdalla, R. Dhanekula, S. Mobarhan, D. Shapiro, J. Losurdo, and S. Jakate, “Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus,” Dis. Esophagus 28(7), 660–665 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onsea, K.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osborn, E.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[PubMed]

Owens, V. L.

C. L. Leggett, E. Gorospe, V. L. Owens, M. Anderson, L. Lutzke, and K. K. Wang, “Volumetric laser endomicroscopy detects subsquamous Barrett’s adenocarcinoma,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(2), 298–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, Y.

Qi, X.

X. Qi, Y. Pan, M. V. Sivak, J. E. Willis, G. Isenberg, and A. M. Rollins, “Image analysis for classification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 825–847 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

X. Qi, Y. Pan, M. V. Sivak, J. E. Willis, G. Isenberg, and A. M. Rollins, “Image analysis for classification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 825–847 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, M.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauk, J.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauk, J. S.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, D.

J. Melson, V. Desai, M. Greenspan, S. Yau, M. Abdalla, R. Dhanekula, S. Mobarhan, D. Shapiro, J. Losurdo, and S. Jakate, “Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus,” Dis. Esophagus 28(7), 660–665 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sharma, P.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, “Safety and feasibility of volumetric laser endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 82(4), 631–640 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinnaeve, P.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, P. Sinnaeve, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automated tissue characterization of in vivo atherosclerotic plaques by intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1014–1030 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivak, M. V.

X. Qi, Y. Pan, M. V. Sivak, J. E. Willis, G. Isenberg, and A. M. Rollins, “Image analysis for classification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 825–847 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soomro, A.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soomro, A. R.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swager, A. F.

A. F. Swager, D. F. Boerwinkel, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, B. L. Weusten, S. L. Meijer, J. J. Bergman, and W. L. Curvers, “Detection of buried Barrett’s glands after radiofrequency ablation with volumetric laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. In press (2015).

Tan, K. M.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, “Safety and feasibility of volumetric laser endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 82(4), 631–640 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thota, P. N.

P. N. Thota, G. Zuccaro, J. J. Vargo, D. L. Conwell, J. A. Dumot, and M. Xu, “A randomized prospective trial comparing unsedated esophagoscopy via transnasal and transoral routes using a 4-mm video endoscope with conventional endoscopy with sedation,” Endoscopy 37(6), 559–565 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ughi, G. J.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, P. Sinnaeve, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automated tissue characterization of in vivo atherosclerotic plaques by intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1014–1030 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Fully automatic three-dimensional visualization of intravascular optical coherence tomography images: methods and feasibility in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3291–3303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

A. F. Swager, D. F. Boerwinkel, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, B. L. Weusten, S. L. Meijer, J. J. Bergman, and W. L. Curvers, “Detection of buried Barrett’s glands after radiofrequency ablation with volumetric laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. In press (2015).

Vargo, J. J.

P. N. Thota, G. Zuccaro, J. J. Vargo, D. L. Conwell, J. A. Dumot, and M. Xu, “A randomized prospective trial comparing unsedated esophagoscopy via transnasal and transoral routes using a 4-mm video endoscope with conventional endoscopy with sedation,” Endoscopy 37(6), 559–565 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verjans, J.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[PubMed]

Vermeer, K. A.

Wallace, M. B.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, “Safety and feasibility of volumetric laser endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 82(4), 631–640 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, K. K.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, “Safety and feasibility of volumetric laser endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 82(4), 631–640 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Leggett, E. Gorospe, V. L. Owens, M. Anderson, L. Lutzke, and K. K. Wang, “Volumetric laser endomicroscopy detects subsquamous Barrett’s adenocarcinoma,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(2), 298–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weda, J. J.

Weusten, B. L.

A. F. Swager, D. F. Boerwinkel, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, B. L. Weusten, S. L. Meijer, J. J. Bergman, and W. L. Curvers, “Detection of buried Barrett’s glands after radiofrequency ablation with volumetric laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. In press (2015).

Willis, J. E.

X. Qi, Y. Pan, M. V. Sivak, J. E. Willis, G. Isenberg, and A. M. Rollins, “Image analysis for classification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 825–847 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

L. M. Wong Kee Song and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic detection of early upper GI cancers,” Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 19(6), 833–856 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolfsen, H. C.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, “Safety and feasibility of volumetric laser endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 82(4), 631–640 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong Kee Song, L. M.

L. M. Wong Kee Song and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic detection of early upper GI cancers,” Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 19(6), 833–856 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

P. N. Thota, G. Zuccaro, J. J. Vargo, D. L. Conwell, J. A. Dumot, and M. Xu, “A randomized prospective trial comparing unsedated esophagoscopy via transnasal and transoral routes using a 4-mm video endoscope with conventional endoscopy with sedation,” Endoscopy 37(6), 559–565 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yau, S.

J. Melson, V. Desai, M. Greenspan, S. Yau, M. Abdalla, R. Dhanekula, S. Mobarhan, D. Shapiro, J. Losurdo, and S. Jakate, “Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus,” Dis. Esophagus 28(7), 660–665 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuccaro, G.

P. N. Thota, G. Zuccaro, J. J. Vargo, D. L. Conwell, J. A. Dumot, and M. Xu, “A randomized prospective trial comparing unsedated esophagoscopy via transnasal and transoral routes using a 4-mm video endoscope with conventional endoscopy with sedation,” Endoscopy 37(6), 559–565 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

C. L. Leggett, E. Gorospe, V. L. Owens, M. Anderson, L. Lutzke, and K. K. Wang, “Volumetric laser endomicroscopy detects subsquamous Barrett’s adenocarcinoma,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(2), 298–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. (1)

L. M. Wong Kee Song and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic detection of early upper GI cancers,” Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 19(6), 833–856 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Dis. Esophagus (1)

J. Melson, V. Desai, M. Greenspan, S. Yau, M. Abdalla, R. Dhanekula, S. Mobarhan, D. Shapiro, J. Losurdo, and S. Jakate, “Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus,” Dis. Esophagus 28(7), 660–665 (2015).
[PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

P. N. Thota, G. Zuccaro, J. J. Vargo, D. L. Conwell, J. A. Dumot, and M. Xu, “A randomized prospective trial comparing unsedated esophagoscopy via transnasal and transoral routes using a 4-mm video endoscope with conventional endoscopy with sedation,” Endoscopy 37(6), 559–565 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract in unsedated patients using tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (2)

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, “Safety and feasibility of volumetric laser endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 82(4), 631–640 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging (2)

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (2)

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. M. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, Computer and Robot Vision, Vol. I (1992).

“Matlab R2015a Documentation” (MathWorks, 2015), retrieved June 16th, 2015, http://www.mathworks.com/help/signal/ref/findpeaks.html .

A. F. Swager, D. F. Boerwinkel, D. M. de Bruin, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, B. L. Weusten, S. L. Meijer, J. J. Bergman, and W. L. Curvers, “Detection of buried Barrett’s glands after radiofrequency ablation with volumetric laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. In press (2015).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The tether encloses an optical fiber that delivers light from the OCT system through the capsule. The capsule encloses micro optics capable of redirecting and focusing the light laterally and immediately outside of its housing for side viewing imaging. Cross sectional imaging is accomplished by spinning micro optics in the capsule and fiber proximally at a speed of 20 frames per second by the means of a rotary junction.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Flowchart of the entire automated processing framework. The algorithm receives as its input an entire OCT pullback data set that typically comprises >1,000 images. Initially, the algorithm automatically locates the position of the tissue’s surface over the entire 3D data set and then tissue characteristics are assigned. Squamous esophagus is differentiated from BE (with or without dysplasia) tissue by identifying the presence of horizontal layers. The output of the algorithm is a tissue map of the entire data set, automatically depicting the presence of BE and a contact map showing areas that lack contact between the capsule and the tissue.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 An entire OCT data set can be displayed as a single image by concatenating adjacent frames. w indicates the window used for binarization and s is the rectangular structuring element used for morphological image dilation/erosion following binarization.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Layer detection. (a) shows a representative OCT image of squamous esophagus where the typical layers are visible: squamous epithelium (E), lamina propria (L), muscularis mucosa (MM), submucosa (S), inner muscularis propria (IM) and outer muscularis propria (OM). (b) shows an example of BE tissue where the layers characterizing normal esophagus are absent. (c) schematic A-lines for both layered normal esophagus (from lumen to IM – blue line) and BE (red).. Blue arrow and vertical/horizontal lines correspond to peak position, height and width measured at half-height, respectively. Scale bar equal to 500 µm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Example of segmentation results and tissue contact analysis. (a) capsule in the stomach with very low tissue contact, (b) capsule in the esophagus with complete contact, (c) capsule partially touching the esophageal wall (d) 2D contact map automatically generated by segmenting the entire data set. Colormap ranges from blue to red, where blue corresponds to full contact and red corresponds to no contact. (e) example of segmentation with the presence of intraluminal debris (indicated by *). (f) and (g) additional examples of fully automated segmentation results.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Example of tissue characterization results. (a) OCT cross sectional image of BE, (b) squamous and (c) lack of contact at 5 o’clock. (d) Tissue 2D map depicting BE tissue distribution. Yellow color indicates tissue classified as squamous esophagus, red color depicts BE (green arrow) and grey color corresponds to lack of contact. Blue arrow indicates folding artifact (see section 6.1).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Examples of lack of contact. Image (a) shows an example of squamous esophagus and tissue out of capsule focus with reduced image contrast between the different layers (arrow). Image (b) shows an example of tissue out of the system and capsule image range (arrow).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Appearance of squamous esophagus (a) compared to BE (b) and folded squamous tissue, or the so called “folding artifact” (FA). As it is possible to appreciate from the image, folded squamous esophagus appearance is similar to BE, as the layers that typify squamous mucosa disappear on the OCT image.

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