Abstract

Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer with high lethal rate. Tumor thickness and tumor-associated vasculature are two key parameters for staging melanoma. Previous techniques for diagnosing melanoma have insurmountable restrictions, such as invasive, low specificity, or inaccurate depth measurement. Here we develop an integrated photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) imaging system dedicated to overcome these limitations. An integrated detector with sound-light coaxial/confocal design and flexible coupling mode is employed for the combined PA/US imaging strategy. PA imaging results enable a clear characterization of tumor angiogenesis with high resolution and high contrast. Furthermore, accurate thickness measurements of melanoma in different stages can be resolved with the simultaneously obtained PA/US image. Phantom experiments and in vivo animal experimental results demonstrate the integrated PA/US system could provide potential for noninvasive biopsy of melanoma.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

X. Wortsman, “Ultrasound in dermatology: why, how, and when?” Semin. Ultrasound CT MR 34(3), 177–195 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Dunki-Jacobs, G. G. Callender, and K. M. McMasters, “Current management of melanoma,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 50(8), 351–382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2010 (2)

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Catalano, C. Caracò, N. Mozzillo, and A. Siani, “Locoregional spread of cutaneous melanoma: sonography findings,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194(3), 735–745 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. Benvenuto-Andrade, S. W. Dusza, A. L. C. Agero, A. Scope, M. Rajadhyaksha, A. C. Halpern, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences between polarized light dermoscopy and immersion contact dermoscopy for the evaluation of skin lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. 143(3), 329–338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

N. Lassau, M. Lamuraglia, S. Koscielny, A. Spatz, A. Roche, J. Leclere, and M. F. Avril, “Prognostic value of angiogenesis evaluated with high-frequency and colour Doppler sonography for preoperative assessment of primary cutaneous melanomas: correlation with recurrence after a 5 year follow-up period,” Cancer Imaging 6(1), 24–29 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Miller and M. C. Mihm., “Melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(1), 51–65 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinaro, and S. Seidenari, “Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy of pigmented skin lesions--improvement in melanoma diagnostic specificity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 53(6), 979–985 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Cook, “Surgical margins for resection of primary cutaneous melanoma,” Clin. Dermatol. 22(3), 228–233 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Srivastava, R. Ralhan, and J. Kaur, “Angiogenesis in cutaneous melanoma: pathogenesis and clinical implications,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 60(2), 208–224 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Swetter, “Dermatological perspectives of malignant melanoma,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 83(1), 77–95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Cascinelli, “Margin of resection in the management of primary melanoma,” Semin. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 272–275 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

W. Dummer, H. J. Blaheta, B. C. Bastian, T. Schenk, E. V. Bröcker, and W. Remy, “Preoperative characterization of pigmented skin lesions by epiluminescence microscopy and high-frequency ultrasound,” Arch. Dermatol. 131(3), 279–285 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Semple, A. K. Gupta, L. From, K. A. Harasiewicz, D. N. Sauder, F. S. Foster, and D. H. Turnbull, “Does high-frequency (40-60 MHz) ultrasound imaging play a role in the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma?” Ann. Plast. Surg. 34(6), 599–606 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

W. H. Clark, A. M. Ainsworth, E. A. Bernardino, C. H. Yang, C. M. Mihm, and R. J. Reed, “The developmental biology of primary human malignant melanomas,” Semin. Oncol. 2(2), 83–103 (1975).
[PubMed]

Agero, A. L. C.

C. Benvenuto-Andrade, S. W. Dusza, A. L. C. Agero, A. Scope, M. Rajadhyaksha, A. C. Halpern, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences between polarized light dermoscopy and immersion contact dermoscopy for the evaluation of skin lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. 143(3), 329–338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ainsworth, A. M.

W. H. Clark, A. M. Ainsworth, E. A. Bernardino, C. H. Yang, C. M. Mihm, and R. J. Reed, “The developmental biology of primary human malignant melanomas,” Semin. Oncol. 2(2), 83–103 (1975).
[PubMed]

Atkins, M. B.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Au, L.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avril, M. F.

N. Lassau, M. Lamuraglia, S. Koscielny, A. Spatz, A. Roche, J. Leclere, and M. F. Avril, “Prognostic value of angiogenesis evaluated with high-frequency and colour Doppler sonography for preoperative assessment of primary cutaneous melanomas: correlation with recurrence after a 5 year follow-up period,” Cancer Imaging 6(1), 24–29 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayala, F.

M. Scotto di Santolo, M. Sagnelli, M. Mancini, M. Scalvenzi, M. Delfino, F. Schonauer, G. Molea, F. Ayala, and M. Salvatore, “High-resolution color-Doppler ultrasound for the study of skin growths,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(7), 559–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balch, C. M.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bastian, B. C.

W. Dummer, H. J. Blaheta, B. C. Bastian, T. Schenk, E. V. Bröcker, and W. Remy, “Preoperative characterization of pigmented skin lesions by epiluminescence microscopy and high-frequency ultrasound,” Arch. Dermatol. 131(3), 279–285 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benvenuto-Andrade, C.

C. Benvenuto-Andrade, S. W. Dusza, A. L. C. Agero, A. Scope, M. Rajadhyaksha, A. C. Halpern, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences between polarized light dermoscopy and immersion contact dermoscopy for the evaluation of skin lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. 143(3), 329–338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berman, C.

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernardino, E. A.

W. H. Clark, A. M. Ainsworth, E. A. Bernardino, C. H. Yang, C. M. Mihm, and R. J. Reed, “The developmental biology of primary human malignant melanomas,” Semin. Oncol. 2(2), 83–103 (1975).
[PubMed]

Blaheta, H. J.

W. Dummer, H. J. Blaheta, B. C. Bastian, T. Schenk, E. V. Bröcker, and W. Remy, “Preoperative characterization of pigmented skin lesions by epiluminescence microscopy and high-frequency ultrasound,” Arch. Dermatol. 131(3), 279–285 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bröcker, E. V.

W. Dummer, H. J. Blaheta, B. C. Bastian, T. Schenk, E. V. Bröcker, and W. Remy, “Preoperative characterization of pigmented skin lesions by epiluminescence microscopy and high-frequency ultrasound,” Arch. Dermatol. 131(3), 279–285 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buzaid, A. C.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byrd, D. R.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Callender, G. G.

E. M. Dunki-Jacobs, G. G. Callender, and K. M. McMasters, “Current management of melanoma,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 50(8), 351–382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caracò, C.

O. Catalano, C. Caracò, N. Mozzillo, and A. Siani, “Locoregional spread of cutaneous melanoma: sonography findings,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194(3), 735–745 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cascinelli, N.

N. Cascinelli, “Margin of resection in the management of primary melanoma,” Semin. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 272–275 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Catalano, O.

O. Catalano, C. Caracò, N. Mozzillo, and A. Siani, “Locoregional spread of cutaneous melanoma: sonography findings,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194(3), 735–745 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cesinaro, A. M.

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinaro, and S. Seidenari, “Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy of pigmented skin lesions--improvement in melanoma diagnostic specificity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 53(6), 979–985 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

L. Nie and X. Chen, “Structural and functional photoacoustic molecular tomography aided by emerging contrast agents,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(20), 7132–7170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cho, E. C.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, W. H.

W. H. Clark, A. M. Ainsworth, E. A. Bernardino, C. H. Yang, C. M. Mihm, and R. J. Reed, “The developmental biology of primary human malignant melanomas,” Semin. Oncol. 2(2), 83–103 (1975).
[PubMed]

Cobley, C. M.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cochran, A. J.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coit, D. G.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, J.

J. Cook, “Surgical margins for resection of primary cutaneous melanoma,” Clin. Dermatol. 22(3), 228–233 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cruse, C. W.

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeConti, R.

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delfino, M.

M. Scotto di Santolo, M. Sagnelli, M. Mancini, M. Scalvenzi, M. Delfino, F. Schonauer, G. Molea, F. Ayala, and M. Salvatore, “High-resolution color-Doppler ultrasound for the study of skin growths,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(7), 559–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, S.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dummer, W.

W. Dummer, H. J. Blaheta, B. C. Bastian, T. Schenk, E. V. Bröcker, and W. Remy, “Preoperative characterization of pigmented skin lesions by epiluminescence microscopy and high-frequency ultrasound,” Arch. Dermatol. 131(3), 279–285 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunki-Jacobs, E. M.

E. M. Dunki-Jacobs, G. G. Callender, and K. M. McMasters, “Current management of melanoma,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 50(8), 351–382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dusza, S. W.

C. Benvenuto-Andrade, S. W. Dusza, A. L. C. Agero, A. Scope, M. Rajadhyaksha, A. C. Halpern, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences between polarized light dermoscopy and immersion contact dermoscopy for the evaluation of skin lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. 143(3), 329–338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eggermont, A. M.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favazza, C.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fenske, N. A.

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flaherty, K. T.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foster, F. S.

J. L. Semple, A. K. Gupta, L. From, K. A. Harasiewicz, D. N. Sauder, F. S. Foster, and D. H. Turnbull, “Does high-frequency (40-60 MHz) ultrasound imaging play a role in the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma?” Ann. Plast. Surg. 34(6), 599–606 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

From, L.

J. L. Semple, A. K. Gupta, L. From, K. A. Harasiewicz, D. N. Sauder, F. S. Foster, and D. H. Turnbull, “Does high-frequency (40-60 MHz) ultrasound imaging play a role in the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma?” Ann. Plast. Surg. 34(6), 599–606 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gershenwald, J. E.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gimotty, P. A.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glass, L. F.

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, X.

Gupta, A. K.

J. L. Semple, A. K. Gupta, L. From, K. A. Harasiewicz, D. N. Sauder, F. S. Foster, and D. H. Turnbull, “Does high-frequency (40-60 MHz) ultrasound imaging play a role in the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma?” Ann. Plast. Surg. 34(6), 599–606 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halpern, A. C.

C. Benvenuto-Andrade, S. W. Dusza, A. L. C. Agero, A. Scope, M. Rajadhyaksha, A. C. Halpern, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences between polarized light dermoscopy and immersion contact dermoscopy for the evaluation of skin lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. 143(3), 329–338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harasiewicz, K. A.

J. L. Semple, A. K. Gupta, L. From, K. A. Harasiewicz, D. N. Sauder, F. S. Foster, and D. H. Turnbull, “Does high-frequency (40-60 MHz) ultrasound imaging play a role in the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma?” Ann. Plast. Surg. 34(6), 599–606 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, G.

He, L.

Hu, S.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

Ji, X.

Joseph, E.

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaur, J.

A. Srivastava, R. Ralhan, and J. Kaur, “Angiogenesis in cutaneous melanoma: pathogenesis and clinical implications,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 60(2), 208–224 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirkwood, J. M.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koscielny, S.

N. Lassau, M. Lamuraglia, S. Koscielny, A. Spatz, A. Roche, J. Leclere, and M. F. Avril, “Prognostic value of angiogenesis evaluated with high-frequency and colour Doppler sonography for preoperative assessment of primary cutaneous melanomas: correlation with recurrence after a 5 year follow-up period,” Cancer Imaging 6(1), 24–29 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamuraglia, M.

N. Lassau, M. Lamuraglia, S. Koscielny, A. Spatz, A. Roche, J. Leclere, and M. F. Avril, “Prognostic value of angiogenesis evaluated with high-frequency and colour Doppler sonography for preoperative assessment of primary cutaneous melanomas: correlation with recurrence after a 5 year follow-up period,” Cancer Imaging 6(1), 24–29 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lassau, N.

N. Lassau, M. Lamuraglia, S. Koscielny, A. Spatz, A. Roche, J. Leclere, and M. F. Avril, “Prognostic value of angiogenesis evaluated with high-frequency and colour Doppler sonography for preoperative assessment of primary cutaneous melanomas: correlation with recurrence after a 5 year follow-up period,” Cancer Imaging 6(1), 24–29 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leclere, J.

N. Lassau, M. Lamuraglia, S. Koscielny, A. Spatz, A. Roche, J. Leclere, and M. F. Avril, “Prognostic value of angiogenesis evaluated with high-frequency and colour Doppler sonography for preoperative assessment of primary cutaneous melanomas: correlation with recurrence after a 5 year follow-up period,” Cancer Imaging 6(1), 24–29 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M. L.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, R.

Liu, R.

Lyman, G. H.

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mancini, M.

M. Scotto di Santolo, M. Sagnelli, M. Mancini, M. Scalvenzi, M. Delfino, F. Schonauer, G. Molea, F. Ayala, and M. Salvatore, “High-resolution color-Doppler ultrasound for the study of skin growths,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(7), 559–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marghoob, A. A.

C. Benvenuto-Andrade, S. W. Dusza, A. L. C. Agero, A. Scope, M. Rajadhyaksha, A. C. Halpern, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences between polarized light dermoscopy and immersion contact dermoscopy for the evaluation of skin lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. 143(3), 329–338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMasters, K. M.

E. M. Dunki-Jacobs, G. G. Callender, and K. M. McMasters, “Current management of melanoma,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 50(8), 351–382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messina, J.

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mihm, C. M.

W. H. Clark, A. M. Ainsworth, E. A. Bernardino, C. H. Yang, C. M. Mihm, and R. J. Reed, “The developmental biology of primary human malignant melanomas,” Semin. Oncol. 2(2), 83–103 (1975).
[PubMed]

Mihm, M. C.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Miller and M. C. Mihm., “Melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(1), 51–65 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, A. J.

A. J. Miller and M. C. Mihm., “Melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(1), 51–65 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molea, G.

M. Scotto di Santolo, M. Sagnelli, M. Mancini, M. Scalvenzi, M. Delfino, F. Schonauer, G. Molea, F. Ayala, and M. Salvatore, “High-resolution color-Doppler ultrasound for the study of skin growths,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(7), 559–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morton, D. L.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mozzillo, N.

O. Catalano, C. Caracò, N. Mozzillo, and A. Siani, “Locoregional spread of cutaneous melanoma: sonography findings,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194(3), 735–745 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, L.

L. Nie and X. Chen, “Structural and functional photoacoustic molecular tomography aided by emerging contrast agents,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(20), 7132–7170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, J. T.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pellacani, G.

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinaro, and S. Seidenari, “Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy of pigmented skin lesions--improvement in melanoma diagnostic specificity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 53(6), 979–985 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, K.

Qin, H.

Rajadhyaksha, M.

C. Benvenuto-Andrade, S. W. Dusza, A. L. C. Agero, A. Scope, M. Rajadhyaksha, A. C. Halpern, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences between polarized light dermoscopy and immersion contact dermoscopy for the evaluation of skin lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. 143(3), 329–338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ralhan, R.

A. Srivastava, R. Ralhan, and J. Kaur, “Angiogenesis in cutaneous melanoma: pathogenesis and clinical implications,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 60(2), 208–224 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, R. J.

W. H. Clark, A. M. Ainsworth, E. A. Bernardino, C. H. Yang, C. M. Mihm, and R. J. Reed, “The developmental biology of primary human malignant melanomas,” Semin. Oncol. 2(2), 83–103 (1975).
[PubMed]

Reintgen, D. S.

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Remy, W.

W. Dummer, H. J. Blaheta, B. C. Bastian, T. Schenk, E. V. Bröcker, and W. Remy, “Preoperative characterization of pigmented skin lesions by epiluminescence microscopy and high-frequency ultrasound,” Arch. Dermatol. 131(3), 279–285 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roche, A.

N. Lassau, M. Lamuraglia, S. Koscielny, A. Spatz, A. Roche, J. Leclere, and M. F. Avril, “Prognostic value of angiogenesis evaluated with high-frequency and colour Doppler sonography for preoperative assessment of primary cutaneous melanomas: correlation with recurrence after a 5 year follow-up period,” Cancer Imaging 6(1), 24–29 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ross, M. I.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sagnelli, M.

M. Scotto di Santolo, M. Sagnelli, M. Mancini, M. Scalvenzi, M. Delfino, F. Schonauer, G. Molea, F. Ayala, and M. Salvatore, “High-resolution color-Doppler ultrasound for the study of skin growths,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(7), 559–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salvatore, M.

M. Scotto di Santolo, M. Sagnelli, M. Mancini, M. Scalvenzi, M. Delfino, F. Schonauer, G. Molea, F. Ayala, and M. Salvatore, “High-resolution color-Doppler ultrasound for the study of skin growths,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(7), 559–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauder, D. N.

J. L. Semple, A. K. Gupta, L. From, K. A. Harasiewicz, D. N. Sauder, F. S. Foster, and D. H. Turnbull, “Does high-frequency (40-60 MHz) ultrasound imaging play a role in the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma?” Ann. Plast. Surg. 34(6), 599–606 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scalvenzi, M.

M. Scotto di Santolo, M. Sagnelli, M. Mancini, M. Scalvenzi, M. Delfino, F. Schonauer, G. Molea, F. Ayala, and M. Salvatore, “High-resolution color-Doppler ultrasound for the study of skin growths,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(7), 559–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schenk, T.

W. Dummer, H. J. Blaheta, B. C. Bastian, T. Schenk, E. V. Bröcker, and W. Remy, “Preoperative characterization of pigmented skin lesions by epiluminescence microscopy and high-frequency ultrasound,” Arch. Dermatol. 131(3), 279–285 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schonauer, F.

M. Scotto di Santolo, M. Sagnelli, M. Mancini, M. Scalvenzi, M. Delfino, F. Schonauer, G. Molea, F. Ayala, and M. Salvatore, “High-resolution color-Doppler ultrasound for the study of skin growths,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(7), 559–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scope, A.

C. Benvenuto-Andrade, S. W. Dusza, A. L. C. Agero, A. Scope, M. Rajadhyaksha, A. C. Halpern, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences between polarized light dermoscopy and immersion contact dermoscopy for the evaluation of skin lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. 143(3), 329–338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scotto di Santolo, M.

M. Scotto di Santolo, M. Sagnelli, M. Mancini, M. Scalvenzi, M. Delfino, F. Schonauer, G. Molea, F. Ayala, and M. Salvatore, “High-resolution color-Doppler ultrasound for the study of skin growths,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(7), 559–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidenari, S.

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinaro, and S. Seidenari, “Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy of pigmented skin lesions--improvement in melanoma diagnostic specificity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 53(6), 979–985 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semple, J. L.

J. L. Semple, A. K. Gupta, L. From, K. A. Harasiewicz, D. N. Sauder, F. S. Foster, and D. H. Turnbull, “Does high-frequency (40-60 MHz) ultrasound imaging play a role in the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma?” Ann. Plast. Surg. 34(6), 599–606 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shivers, S. C.

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siani, A.

O. Catalano, C. Caracò, N. Mozzillo, and A. Siani, “Locoregional spread of cutaneous melanoma: sonography findings,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194(3), 735–745 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sober, A. J.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sondak, V. K.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, K. H.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, L.

Song, W.

Soong, S. J.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spatz, A.

N. Lassau, M. Lamuraglia, S. Koscielny, A. Spatz, A. Roche, J. Leclere, and M. F. Avril, “Prognostic value of angiogenesis evaluated with high-frequency and colour Doppler sonography for preoperative assessment of primary cutaneous melanomas: correlation with recurrence after a 5 year follow-up period,” Cancer Imaging 6(1), 24–29 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, A.

A. Srivastava, R. Ralhan, and J. Kaur, “Angiogenesis in cutaneous melanoma: pathogenesis and clinical implications,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 60(2), 208–224 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swetter, S. M.

S. M. Swetter, “Dermatological perspectives of malignant melanoma,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 83(1), 77–95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, J. F.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turnbull, D. H.

J. L. Semple, A. K. Gupta, L. From, K. A. Harasiewicz, D. N. Sauder, F. S. Foster, and D. H. Turnbull, “Does high-frequency (40-60 MHz) ultrasound imaging play a role in the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma?” Ann. Plast. Surg. 34(6), 599–606 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wortsman, X.

X. Wortsman, “Ultrasound in dermatology: why, how, and when?” Semin. Ultrasound CT MR 34(3), 177–195 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, J.

Xing, D.

Xiong, K.

Xu, D.

Yang, C. H.

W. H. Clark, A. M. Ainsworth, E. A. Bernardino, C. H. Yang, C. M. Mihm, and R. J. Reed, “The developmental biology of primary human malignant melanomas,” Semin. Oncol. 2(2), 83–103 (1975).
[PubMed]

Yang, S.

Zhang, H. F.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

Zheng, W.

ACS Nano (1)

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. (1)

O. Catalano, C. Caracò, N. Mozzillo, and A. Siani, “Locoregional spread of cutaneous melanoma: sonography findings,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194(3), 735–745 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Plast. Surg. (1)

J. L. Semple, A. K. Gupta, L. From, K. A. Harasiewicz, D. N. Sauder, F. S. Foster, and D. H. Turnbull, “Does high-frequency (40-60 MHz) ultrasound imaging play a role in the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma?” Ann. Plast. Surg. 34(6), 599–606 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Dermatol. (2)

C. Benvenuto-Andrade, S. W. Dusza, A. L. C. Agero, A. Scope, M. Rajadhyaksha, A. C. Halpern, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences between polarized light dermoscopy and immersion contact dermoscopy for the evaluation of skin lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. 143(3), 329–338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Dummer, H. J. Blaheta, B. C. Bastian, T. Schenk, E. V. Bröcker, and W. Remy, “Preoperative characterization of pigmented skin lesions by epiluminescence microscopy and high-frequency ultrasound,” Arch. Dermatol. 131(3), 279–285 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Dermatol. Res. (1)

M. Scotto di Santolo, M. Sagnelli, M. Mancini, M. Scalvenzi, M. Delfino, F. Schonauer, G. Molea, F. Ayala, and M. Salvatore, “High-resolution color-Doppler ultrasound for the study of skin growths,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 307(7), 559–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Cancer Imaging (1)

N. Lassau, M. Lamuraglia, S. Koscielny, A. Spatz, A. Roche, J. Leclere, and M. F. Avril, “Prognostic value of angiogenesis evaluated with high-frequency and colour Doppler sonography for preoperative assessment of primary cutaneous melanomas: correlation with recurrence after a 5 year follow-up period,” Cancer Imaging 6(1), 24–29 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

L. Nie and X. Chen, “Structural and functional photoacoustic molecular tomography aided by emerging contrast agents,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(20), 7132–7170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Dermatol. (1)

J. Cook, “Surgical margins for resection of primary cutaneous melanoma,” Clin. Dermatol. 22(3), 228–233 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Probl. Surg. (1)

E. M. Dunki-Jacobs, G. G. Callender, and K. M. McMasters, “Current management of melanoma,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 50(8), 351–382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinaro, and S. Seidenari, “Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy of pigmented skin lesions--improvement in melanoma diagnostic specificity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 53(6), 979–985 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA (1)

S. C. Shivers, X. Wang, W. Li, E. Joseph, J. Messina, L. F. Glass, R. DeConti, C. W. Cruse, C. Berman, N. A. Fenske, G. H. Lyman, and D. S. Reintgen, “Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome,” JAMA 280(16), 1410–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

A. Srivastava, R. Ralhan, and J. Kaur, “Angiogenesis in cutaneous melanoma: pathogenesis and clinical implications,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 60(2), 208–224 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

A. J. Miller and M. C. Mihm., “Melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(1), 51–65 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semin. Oncol. (1)

W. H. Clark, A. M. Ainsworth, E. A. Bernardino, C. H. Yang, C. M. Mihm, and R. J. Reed, “The developmental biology of primary human malignant melanomas,” Semin. Oncol. 2(2), 83–103 (1975).
[PubMed]

Semin. Surg. Oncol. (1)

N. Cascinelli, “Margin of resection in the management of primary melanoma,” Semin. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 272–275 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semin. Ultrasound CT MR (1)

X. Wortsman, “Ultrasound in dermatology: why, how, and when?” Semin. Ultrasound CT MR 34(3), 177–195 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surg. Clin. North Am. (1)

S. M. Swetter, “Dermatological perspectives of malignant melanoma,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 83(1), 77–95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

“American national standard for the safe use of lasers,” ANSI Standard Z136.1–2007 (2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the PA and US dual-modality imaging system. (a) Experimental setup. SF: single-mode fiber; FC: fiber collimator; ID: integrated detector. (b) Timing diagrams for the trigger. (c) Structure diagram and photo of the integrated detector. OL: objective lens; UT: ultrasound transducer; CG: cover glass; CS: coupling slot.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Resolution of the dual-modality system. (a) Photograph of the optical resolution chart. (b) MAP image of the optical resolution chart. (c) Distribution of PA normalized function value along the dashed line in (b). ESF: edge spread function; LSF: line spread function. (d) Sample schematic of axial resolution. (e) PA B-scan image of the sample. (f) Normalized PA amplitude along the dashed line in (e).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Phantom imaging of the dual-modality system. (a) Photograph of melanoma phantoms. PA (b), US (c), and combined PA/US (d) images of the melanoma phantoms.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 MAP images of PA for day 7 (a) and day 30 (f). B-scan images of PA (b, g), US (c, h), and combined image (d, i) for the dot lines in (a) and (f). Quantitative statistics of the number of vessels and the maximum thickness of the melanoma (e). Histology image (H&E staining) (j).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Tab. 1 Average SNR of skin, the top/bottom boundary of melanoma at day 7 and day 30, blood vessels calculated from Fig. 4. (-, SNR is too weak to statistics)

Metrics