Abstract

There is a need for miniature optical-sectioning microscopes to enable in vivo interrogation of tissues as a real-time and noninvasive alternative to gold-standard histopathology. Such devices could have a transformative impact for the early detection of cancer as well as for guiding tumor-resection procedures. Miniature confocal microscopes have been developed by various researchers and corporations to enable optical sectioning of highly scattering tissues, all of which have necessitated various trade-offs in size, speed, depth selectivity, field of view, resolution, image contrast, and sensitivity. In this study, a miniature line-scanned (LS) dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscope, with a 12-mm diameter distal tip, has been developed for clinical point-of-care pathology. The dual-axis architecture has demonstrated an advantage over the conventional single-axis confocal configuration for reducing background noise from out-of-focus and multiply scattered light. The use of line scanning enables fast frame rates (16 frames/sec is demonstrated here, but faster rates are possible), which mitigates motion artifacts of a hand-held device during clinical use. We have developed a method to actively align the illumination and collection beams in a DAC microscope through the use of a pair of rotatable alignment mirrors. Incorporation of a custom objective lens, with a small form factor for in vivo clinical use, enables our device to achieve an optical-sectioning thickness and lateral resolution of 2.0 and 1.1 microns respectively. Validation measurements with reflective targets, as well as in vivo and ex vivo images of tissues, demonstrate the clinical potential of this high-speed optical-sectioning microscopy device.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2015 (2)

E. S. Flores, M. Cordova, K. Kose, W. Phillips, A. Rossi, K. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Intraoperative imaging during Mohs surgery with reflectance confocal microscopy: initial clinical experience,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, D. Wang, A. Khan, Y. Wang, S. Borwege, N. Sanai, and J. T. Liu, “Video-rate in vivo fluorescence imaging with a line-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

D. Wang, D. Meza, Y. Wang, L. Gao, and J. T. C. Liu, “Sheet-scanned dual-axis confocal microscopy using Richardson-Lucy deconvolution,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5431–5434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kose, M. Cordova, M. Duffy, E. S. Flores, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Video-mosaicing of reflectance confocal images for examination of extended areas of skin in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 171(5), 1239–1241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

D. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, and J. T. C. Liu, “Comparison of line-scanned and point-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope performance,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5280–5283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rosa, M. S. Erden, T. Vercauteren, B. Herman, J. Szewczyk, and G. Morel, “Building large mosaics of confocal edomicroscopic images using visual servoing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(4), 1041–1049 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

Y. Chen, D. Wang, and J. T. C. Liu, “Assessing the tissue-imaging performance of confocal microscope architectures via Monte Carlo simulations,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4495–4497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Leigh and J. T. C. Liu, “Multi-color miniature dual-axis confocal microscope for point-of-care pathology,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2430–2432 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal. Cell Pathol. (Amst.) 34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Loewke, D. B. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, S. Thrun, and J. K. Salisbury, “In vivo micro-image mosaicing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 159–171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, N. O. Loewke, H. Haeberle, H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Arrasmith, D. L. Dickensheets, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “MEMS-based handheld confocal microscope for in-vivo skin imaging,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3805–3819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. J. H. Lum, D. C. W. Friedman, G. Sankaranarayanan, H. King, K. Fodero, R. Leuschke, B. Hannaford, J. Rosen, and M. N. Sinanan, “The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 28(9), 1183–1197 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Maitland, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, M. R. Descour, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo imaging of oral neoplasia using a miniaturized fiber optic confocal reflectance microscope,” Oral Oncol. 44(11), 1059–1066 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

H. J. Shin, M. C. Pierce, D. Lee, H. Ra, O. Solgaard, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal microscope using a MEMS scanner and miniature objective lens,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9113–9122 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, H. Ra, L. K. Wong, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, W. Piyawattanametha, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Miniature near-infrared dual-axes confocal microscope utilizing a two-dimensional microelectromechanical systems scanner,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 256–258 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P.-L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jean, G. Bourg-Heckly, and B. Viellerobe, “Fibered confocal spectroscopy and multicolor imaging system for in vivo fluorescence analysis,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4008–4017 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

P. J. Dwyer, C. A. DiMarzio, J. M. Zavislan, W. J. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance theta line scanning microscope for imaging human skin in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 942–944 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054019 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

T. Ota, H. Fukuyama, Y. Ishihara, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “In situ fluorescence imaging of organs through compact scanning head for confocal laser microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024010 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Carlson, M. Chidley, K.-B. Sung, M. Descour, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with an injection-molded plastic miniature objective lens,” Appl. Opt. 44(10), 1792–1797 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. MacAulay, P. Lane, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo pathology: microendoscopy as a new endoscopic imaging modality,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 14(3), 595–620 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 137–145 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, K.-B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, “Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 267–273 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

Anderson, R. R.

Arifler, D.

K. Sokolov, K.-B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arrasmith, C. L.

Becker, V.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bixler, J. N.

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borwege, S.

Y. Chen, D. Wang, A. Khan, Y. Wang, S. Borwege, N. Sanai, and J. T. Liu, “Video-rate in vivo fluorescence imaging with a line-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourg-Heckly, G.

Brooks, D. H.

K. Kose, M. Cordova, M. Duffy, E. S. Flores, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Video-mosaicing of reflectance confocal images for examination of extended areas of skin in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 171(5), 1239–1241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buess, G.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, “Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 267–273 (2001).
[Crossref]

Camarillo, D. B.

K. E. Loewke, D. B. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, S. Thrun, and J. K. Salisbury, “In vivo micro-image mosaicing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 159–171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlson, K.

Castle, P.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chidley, M.

Clark, A.

K. Sokolov, K.-B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collier, T.

K. Sokolov, K.-B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 137–145 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contag, C. H.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal. Cell Pathol. (Amst.) 34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Loewke, D. B. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, S. Thrun, and J. K. Salisbury, “In vivo micro-image mosaicing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 159–171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, N. O. Loewke, H. Haeberle, H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P.-L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, H. Ra, L. K. Wong, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, W. Piyawattanametha, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Miniature near-infrared dual-axes confocal microscope utilizing a two-dimensional microelectromechanical systems scanner,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 256–258 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054019 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cordova, M.

E. S. Flores, M. Cordova, K. Kose, W. Phillips, A. Rossi, K. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Intraoperative imaging during Mohs surgery with reflectance confocal microscopy: initial clinical experience,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kose, M. Cordova, M. Duffy, E. S. Flores, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Video-mosaicing of reflectance confocal images for examination of extended areas of skin in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 171(5), 1239–1241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Côté, D.

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal. Cell Pathol. (Amst.) 34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P.-L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054019 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delaney, P. M.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Descour, M.

K. Carlson, M. Chidley, K.-B. Sung, M. Descour, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with an injection-molded plastic miniature objective lens,” Appl. Opt. 44(10), 1792–1797 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, K.-B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 137–145 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Descour, M. R.

K. C. Maitland, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, M. R. Descour, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo imaging of oral neoplasia using a miniaturized fiber optic confocal reflectance microscope,” Oral Oncol. 44(11), 1059–1066 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickensheets, D. L.

DiMarzio, C. A.

Donaldson, L.

Duffy, M.

K. Kose, M. Cordova, M. Duffy, E. S. Flores, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Video-mosaicing of reflectance confocal images for examination of extended areas of skin in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 171(5), 1239–1241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dwyer, P. J.

El-Naggar, A. K.

K. C. Maitland, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, M. R. Descour, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo imaging of oral neoplasia using a miniaturized fiber optic confocal reflectance microscope,” Oral Oncol. 44(11), 1059–1066 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erden, M. S.

B. Rosa, M. S. Erden, T. Vercauteren, B. Herman, J. Szewczyk, and G. Morel, “Building large mosaics of confocal edomicroscopic images using visual servoing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(4), 1041–1049 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flores, E. S.

E. S. Flores, M. Cordova, K. Kose, W. Phillips, A. Rossi, K. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Intraoperative imaging during Mohs surgery with reflectance confocal microscopy: initial clinical experience,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kose, M. Cordova, M. Duffy, E. S. Flores, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Video-mosaicing of reflectance confocal images for examination of extended areas of skin in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 171(5), 1239–1241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fodero, K.

M. J. H. Lum, D. C. W. Friedman, G. Sankaranarayanan, H. King, K. Fodero, R. Leuschke, B. Hannaford, J. Rosen, and M. N. Sinanan, “The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 28(9), 1183–1197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Follen, M.

K. Carlson, M. Chidley, K.-B. Sung, M. Descour, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with an injection-molded plastic miniature objective lens,” Appl. Opt. 44(10), 1792–1797 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 137–145 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fox, W. J.

Friedland, S.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P.-L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054019 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, D. C. W.

M. J. H. Lum, D. C. W. Friedman, G. Sankaranarayanan, H. King, K. Fodero, R. Leuschke, B. Hannaford, J. Rosen, and M. N. Sinanan, “The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 28(9), 1183–1197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fukuyama, H.

T. Ota, H. Fukuyama, Y. Ishihara, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “In situ fluorescence imaging of organs through compact scanning head for confocal laser microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024010 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

Gillenwater, A.

Gillenwater, A. M.

K. C. Maitland, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, M. R. Descour, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo imaging of oral neoplasia using a miniaturized fiber optic confocal reflectance microscope,” Oral Oncol. 44(11), 1059–1066 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gmitro, A. F.

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Sabharwal, A. R. Rouse, L. Donaldson, M. F. Hopkins, and A. F. Gmitro, “Slit-scanning confocal microendoscope for high-resolution in vivo imaging,” Appl. Opt. 38(34), 7133–7144 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, Y.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haeberle, H.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, N. O. Loewke, H. Haeberle, H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hannaford, B.

M. J. H. Lum, D. C. W. Friedman, G. Sankaranarayanan, H. King, K. Fodero, R. Leuschke, B. Hannaford, J. Rosen, and M. N. Sinanan, “The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 28(9), 1183–1197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Herman, B.

B. Rosa, M. S. Erden, T. Vercauteren, B. Herman, J. Szewczyk, and G. Morel, “Building large mosaics of confocal edomicroscopic images using visual servoing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(4), 1041–1049 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hopkins, M. F.

Hsiung, P.-L.

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P.-L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishihara, Y.

T. Ota, H. Fukuyama, Y. Ishihara, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “In situ fluorescence imaging of organs through compact scanning head for confocal laser microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024010 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jabbour, J. M.

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jean, F.

Khan, A.

Y. Chen, D. Wang, A. Khan, Y. Wang, S. Borwege, N. Sanai, and J. T. Liu, “Video-rate in vivo fluorescence imaging with a line-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

King, H.

M. J. H. Lum, D. C. W. Friedman, G. Sankaranarayanan, H. King, K. Fodero, R. Leuschke, B. Hannaford, J. Rosen, and M. N. Sinanan, “The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 28(9), 1183–1197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kino, G. S.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, N. O. Loewke, H. Haeberle, H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, H. Ra, L. K. Wong, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, W. Piyawattanametha, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Miniature near-infrared dual-axes confocal microscope utilizing a two-dimensional microelectromechanical systems scanner,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 256–258 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054019 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knittel, J.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, “Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 267–273 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kose, K.

E. S. Flores, M. Cordova, K. Kose, W. Phillips, A. Rossi, K. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Intraoperative imaging during Mohs surgery with reflectance confocal microscopy: initial clinical experience,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kose, M. Cordova, M. Duffy, E. S. Flores, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Video-mosaicing of reflectance confocal images for examination of extended areas of skin in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 171(5), 1239–1241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lacy, A.

K. Sokolov, K.-B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lane, P.

C. MacAulay, P. Lane, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo pathology: microendoscopy as a new endoscopic imaging modality,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 14(3), 595–620 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

Leigh, S. Y.

Leuschke, R.

M. J. H. Lum, D. C. W. Friedman, G. Sankaranarayanan, H. King, K. Fodero, R. Leuschke, B. Hannaford, J. Rosen, and M. N. Sinanan, “The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 28(9), 1183–1197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Levenson, R. M.

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal. Cell Pathol. (Amst.) 34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, C.

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 137–145 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. T.

Y. Chen, D. Wang, A. Khan, Y. Wang, S. Borwege, N. Sanai, and J. T. Liu, “Video-rate in vivo fluorescence imaging with a line-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. T. C.

D. Wang, D. Meza, Y. Wang, L. Gao, and J. T. C. Liu, “Sheet-scanned dual-axis confocal microscopy using Richardson-Lucy deconvolution,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5431–5434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, and J. T. C. Liu, “Comparison of line-scanned and point-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope performance,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5280–5283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, D. Wang, and J. T. C. Liu, “Assessing the tissue-imaging performance of confocal microscope architectures via Monte Carlo simulations,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4495–4497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Leigh and J. T. C. Liu, “Multi-color miniature dual-axis confocal microscope for point-of-care pathology,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2430–2432 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal. Cell Pathol. (Amst.) 34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, N. O. Loewke, H. Haeberle, H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, H. Ra, L. K. Wong, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, W. Piyawattanametha, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Miniature near-infrared dual-axes confocal microscope utilizing a two-dimensional microelectromechanical systems scanner,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 256–258 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P.-L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054019 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loewke, K.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loewke, K. E.

K. E. Loewke, D. B. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, S. Thrun, and J. K. Salisbury, “In vivo micro-image mosaicing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 159–171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loewke, N. O.

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal. Cell Pathol. (Amst.) 34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, N. O. Loewke, H. Haeberle, H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lum, M. J. H.

M. J. H. Lum, D. C. W. Friedman, G. Sankaranarayanan, H. King, K. Fodero, R. Leuschke, B. Hannaford, J. Rosen, and M. N. Sinanan, “The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 28(9), 1183–1197 (2009).
[Crossref]

MacAulay, C.

C. MacAulay, P. Lane, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo pathology: microendoscopy as a new endoscopic imaging modality,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 14(3), 595–620 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Maitland, K. C.

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Maitland, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, M. R. Descour, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo imaging of oral neoplasia using a miniaturized fiber optic confocal reflectance microscope,” Oral Oncol. 44(11), 1059–1066 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makhlouf, H.

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 137–145 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandella, M. J.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal. Cell Pathol. (Amst.) 34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Loewke, D. B. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, S. Thrun, and J. K. Salisbury, “In vivo micro-image mosaicing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 159–171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, N. O. Loewke, H. Haeberle, H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, H. Ra, L. K. Wong, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, W. Piyawattanametha, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Miniature near-infrared dual-axes confocal microscope utilizing a two-dimensional microelectromechanical systems scanner,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 256–258 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054019 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLaren, W. J.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meining, A.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messerschmidt, B.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, “Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 267–273 (2001).
[Crossref]

Meza, D.

Morel, G.

B. Rosa, M. S. Erden, T. Vercauteren, B. Herman, J. Szewczyk, and G. Morel, “Building large mosaics of confocal edomicroscopic images using visual servoing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(4), 1041–1049 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nehal, K.

E. S. Flores, M. Cordova, K. Kose, W. Phillips, A. Rossi, K. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Intraoperative imaging during Mohs surgery with reflectance confocal microscopy: initial clinical experience,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ota, T.

T. Ota, H. Fukuyama, Y. Ishihara, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “In situ fluorescence imaging of organs through compact scanning head for confocal laser microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024010 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, W.

E. S. Flores, M. Cordova, K. Kose, W. Phillips, A. Rossi, K. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Intraoperative imaging during Mohs surgery with reflectance confocal microscopy: initial clinical experience,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Shin, M. C. Pierce, D. Lee, H. Ra, O. Solgaard, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal microscope using a MEMS scanner and miniature objective lens,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9113–9122 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piyawattanametha, W.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Loewke, D. B. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, S. Thrun, and J. K. Salisbury, “In vivo micro-image mosaicing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 159–171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, N. O. Loewke, H. Haeberle, H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, H. Ra, L. K. Wong, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, W. Piyawattanametha, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Miniature near-infrared dual-axes confocal microscope utilizing a two-dimensional microelectromechanical systems scanner,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 256–258 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polglase, A. L.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Possner, T.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, “Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 267–273 (2001).
[Crossref]

Prinz, C.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puoris’haag, M.

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, Y.-L.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, Z.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinn, M. K.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ra, H.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, N. O. Loewke, H. Haeberle, H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, H. Ra, L. K. Wong, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, W. Piyawattanametha, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Miniature near-infrared dual-axes confocal microscope utilizing a two-dimensional microelectromechanical systems scanner,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 256–258 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Shin, M. C. Pierce, D. Lee, H. Ra, O. Solgaard, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal microscope using a MEMS scanner and miniature objective lens,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9113–9122 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

E. S. Flores, M. Cordova, K. Kose, W. Phillips, A. Rossi, K. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Intraoperative imaging during Mohs surgery with reflectance confocal microscopy: initial clinical experience,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kose, M. Cordova, M. Duffy, E. S. Flores, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Video-mosaicing of reflectance confocal images for examination of extended areas of skin in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 171(5), 1239–1241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Dwyer, C. A. DiMarzio, J. M. Zavislan, W. J. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance theta line scanning microscope for imaging human skin in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 942–944 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 2105–2115 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Shin, M. C. Pierce, D. Lee, H. Ra, O. Solgaard, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal microscope using a MEMS scanner and miniature objective lens,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9113–9122 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Carlson, M. Chidley, K.-B. Sung, M. Descour, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with an injection-molded plastic miniature objective lens,” Appl. Opt. 44(10), 1792–1797 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. MacAulay, P. Lane, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo pathology: microendoscopy as a new endoscopic imaging modality,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 14(3), 595–620 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 137–145 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, K.-B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

K. C. Maitland, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, M. R. Descour, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo imaging of oral neoplasia using a miniaturized fiber optic confocal reflectance microscope,” Oral Oncol. 44(11), 1059–1066 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosa, B.

B. Rosa, M. S. Erden, T. Vercauteren, B. Herman, J. Szewczyk, and G. Morel, “Building large mosaics of confocal edomicroscopic images using visual servoing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(4), 1041–1049 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, J.

M. J. H. Lum, D. C. W. Friedman, G. Sankaranarayanan, H. King, K. Fodero, R. Leuschke, B. Hannaford, J. Rosen, and M. N. Sinanan, “The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 28(9), 1183–1197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rossi, A.

E. S. Flores, M. Cordova, K. Kose, W. Phillips, A. Rossi, K. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Intraoperative imaging during Mohs surgery with reflectance confocal microscopy: initial clinical experience,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rouse, A. R.

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Sabharwal, A. R. Rouse, L. Donaldson, M. F. Hopkins, and A. F. Gmitro, “Slit-scanning confocal microendoscope for high-resolution in vivo imaging,” Appl. Opt. 38(34), 7133–7144 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabharwal, Y. S.

Sahbaie, P.

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P.-L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saldua, M. A.

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salisbury, J. K.

K. E. Loewke, D. B. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, S. Thrun, and J. K. Salisbury, “In vivo micro-image mosaicing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 159–171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanai, N.

Y. Chen, D. Wang, A. Khan, Y. Wang, S. Borwege, N. Sanai, and J. T. Liu, “Video-rate in vivo fluorescence imaging with a line-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sankaranarayanan, G.

M. J. H. Lum, D. C. W. Friedman, G. Sankaranarayanan, H. King, K. Fodero, R. Leuschke, B. Hannaford, J. Rosen, and M. N. Sinanan, “The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 28(9), 1183–1197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmid, R. M.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnieder, L.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, “Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 267–273 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shin, H. J.

Sinanan, M. N.

M. J. H. Lum, D. C. W. Friedman, G. Sankaranarayanan, H. King, K. Fodero, R. Leuschke, B. Hannaford, J. Rosen, and M. N. Sinanan, “The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 28(9), 1183–1197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Skinner, S. A.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soetikno, R.

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P.-L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054019 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

K. Sokolov, K.-B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solgaard, O.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, N. O. Loewke, H. Haeberle, H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, H. Ra, L. K. Wong, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, W. Piyawattanametha, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Miniature near-infrared dual-axes confocal microscope utilizing a two-dimensional microelectromechanical systems scanner,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 256–258 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Shin, M. C. Pierce, D. Lee, H. Ra, O. Solgaard, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal microscope using a MEMS scanner and miniature objective lens,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9113–9122 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, K. B.

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 137–145 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, K.-B.

Szewczyk, J.

B. Rosa, M. S. Erden, T. Vercauteren, B. Herman, J. Szewczyk, and G. Morel, “Building large mosaics of confocal edomicroscopic images using visual servoing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(4), 1041–1049 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takamatsu, T.

T. Ota, H. Fukuyama, Y. Ishihara, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “In situ fluorescence imaging of organs through compact scanning head for confocal laser microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024010 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, H.

T. Ota, H. Fukuyama, Y. Ishihara, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “In situ fluorescence imaging of organs through compact scanning head for confocal laser microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024010 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanbakuchi, A. A.

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrun, S.

K. E. Loewke, D. B. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, S. Thrun, and J. K. Salisbury, “In vivo micro-image mosaicing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 159–171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Udovich, J. A.

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vercauteren, T.

B. Rosa, M. S. Erden, T. Vercauteren, B. Herman, J. Szewczyk, and G. Morel, “Building large mosaics of confocal edomicroscopic images using visual servoing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(4), 1041–1049 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viellerobe, B.

von Weyhern, C. H.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

Wang, T. D.

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, H. Ra, L. K. Wong, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, W. Piyawattanametha, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Miniature near-infrared dual-axes confocal microscope utilizing a two-dimensional microelectromechanical systems scanner,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 256–258 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P.-L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054019 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Webb, R. H.

Williams, M. D.

K. C. Maitland, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, M. R. Descour, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo imaging of oral neoplasia using a miniaturized fiber optic confocal reflectance microscope,” Oral Oncol. 44(11), 1059–1066 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, L. K.

Yun, S. H.

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zavislan, J. M.

Zhang, W.-H.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Cell Pathol. (Amst.) (1)

J. T. C. Liu, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, R. M. Levenson, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Point-of-care pathology with miniature microscopes,” Anal. Cell Pathol. (Amst.) 34(3), 81–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 378–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

K. Kose, M. Cordova, M. Duffy, E. S. Flores, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Video-mosaicing of reflectance confocal images for examination of extended areas of skin in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 171(5), 1239–1241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) (1)

M. C. Pierce, Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W.-H. Zhang, Y.-L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P.-L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dis. Markers (1)

K. Sokolov, K.-B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (2)

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. (1)

C. MacAulay, P. Lane, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo pathology: microendoscopy as a new endoscopic imaging modality,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 14(3), 595–620 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2)

K. E. Loewke, D. B. Camarillo, W. Piyawattanametha, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, S. Thrun, and J. K. Salisbury, “In vivo micro-image mosaicing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 159–171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rosa, M. S. Erden, T. Vercauteren, B. Herman, J. Szewczyk, and G. Morel, “Building large mosaics of confocal edomicroscopic images using visual servoing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(4), 1041–1049 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Robot. Res. (1)

M. J. H. Lum, D. C. W. Friedman, G. Sankaranarayanan, H. King, K. Fodero, R. Leuschke, B. Hannaford, J. Rosen, and M. N. Sinanan, “The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 28(9), 1183–1197 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (9)

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, D. Wang, A. Khan, Y. Wang, S. Borwege, N. Sanai, and J. T. Liu, “Video-rate in vivo fluorescence imaging with a line-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, “Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, “Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054019 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Flores, M. Cordova, K. Kose, W. Phillips, A. Rossi, K. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Intraoperative imaging during Mohs surgery with reflectance confocal microscopy: initial clinical experience,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, N. O. Loewke, H. Haeberle, H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, O. Solgaard, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ota, H. Fukuyama, Y. Ishihara, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “In situ fluorescence imaging of organs through compact scanning head for confocal laser microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024010 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Makhlouf, A. F. Gmitro, A. A. Tanbakuchi, J. A. Udovich, and A. R. Rouse, “Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, Z. Qiu, S. Friedland, J. T. C. Liu, K. Loewke, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, and C. H. Contag, “In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 137–145 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, “Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 267–273 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Oral Oncol. (1)

K. C. Maitland, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, M. R. Descour, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo imaging of oral neoplasia using a miniaturized fiber optic confocal reflectance microscope,” Oral Oncol. 44(11), 1059–1066 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Y. Gong, T. D. Soper, V. W. Hou, D. Hu, B. Hannaford, and E. J. Seibel, “Mapping surgical fields by moving a laser-scanning multimodal scope attached to a robot arm,” 90362S–90362S–90368 (2014).

J. B. Pawley, “Handbook of biological confocal microscopy‎,” 985 (2006).

A. E. Sonmez, W. M. Spees, A. Ozcan, Z. Deng, A. G. Webb, and N. V. Tsekos, “Robot-assisted mechanical scanning and co-registration of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and light-induced fluorescence,” Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), 2012 4th IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on 775–780 (2012).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (6082 KB)      Vascular flow at 16 frames/sec
» Visualization 2: AVI (3701 KB)      Mouse tongue at various depths
» Visualization 3: AVI (3616 KB)      Vasculature at various depths

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical circuit of the miniature LS-DAC microscope. The illumination beam path is colored blue whereas the collection beam path is colored green. The main body houses the MEMS scanning mirror, the mirrors (M1 and M2) used to align the dual-axis beams such that they intersect at the back focal plane of the objective lens, and the primary optics (L1, L2, L3 & L4) that focus the dual-axis beams at the back focal plane. The custom objective lens relays the beams from the back focal plane (at the left side of the objective) to the front focal plane in tissue (right side) with 3x de-magnification. The focusing angle of the beams in tissue, α, and crossing angle, θ, enable high-contrast optical sectioning with a resolution of 1 – 2 μm in the lateral and axial dimensions, respectively (see section 2.5).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Line-focusing illumination fiber module. (b) Illumination and collection optics within the main body. (c) Main body with detector. (d) Main body scan head. (e) Microscope package (in progress). (f) Handheld device (in progress).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ray-trace simulations. (a) Illumination beam path shown as two orthogonal views (x-z plane and y-z plane). (b) Illumination spot diagrams for the MEMS mirror in its neutral position (left) and for the MEMS mirror tilted by 4.5 deg such that the focal line is offset by 200 μm in the x direction at the sample. The spot diagrams indicate that aberrations are minimal since the spread in the rays is < 1 μm RMS at both the center of the field of view (neutral position, left) as well as at the edge of the field of view (x ~200 μm, right). (c) Collection beam path shown as two orthogonal views (x-z plane and y-z plane). (d) Collection spot diagrams for photons originating from three positions along the focal line at the sample (blue: y = 0 μm, red: y = 100 μm, and green: y = 200 μm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of microscope components. (a) Illumination fiber module housing two spherical doublet achromats, L1 and L2, and a cylindrical doublet achromat, C. (b) Main body with optical components installed, including the two alignment mirrors, M1 and M2, and the collection lenses (spherical doublets), L3 and L4. (c) Main body scan head and detailed photos of the MEMS chip. The MEMS chip is wire-bonded into an LCC18 package, which is soldered onto a custom PCB. The MEMS PCB module is held in place by two triangular clamps. (d) Main body and objective lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Axial response to a flat mirror, plotted on a linear scale, showing a FWHM optical-sectioning thickness of 2.0 μm. (b) Axial response to a flat mirror, plotted on a log scale, showing > 30 dB of dynamic range (1000-fold attenuation in signal) as the mirror is translated away from the focal plane. (c) Edge response to a chrome knife edge on a glass substrate. (d) Image of a reflective USAF bar target. The scale bar represents 20 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Mouse tongue image at a depth of ~50 μm. (b) Histologic section (H&E staining) of corresponding tissue. (c) Mouse kidney image at a depth of ~100 μm. (d) Histologic section (H&E staining) of corresponding tissue. (e) Mouse kidney image at a depth of ~50 μm. (f) Histologic section (H&E staining) of corresponding tissue. (g) Mouse colon image at a depth of ~70 μm. (h) Histologic section (H&E staining) of corresponding tissue. The scale bar represents 50 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Depth projection of vasculature in a mouse ear, imaged between 120- and 170-μm deep. The trafficking of blood cells can be observed within the vessels at an in vivo imaging speed of 16 frames/sec (see Visualization 1). The scale bar represents 50 μm.

Equations (2)

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α 2 = sin 1 (3 n 1 n 2 sin α 1 )=0.202
Δx= 0.446λ n(π/2·α)cosθ =0.77μm;Δy= 0.446λ n(π/2·α) =0.70μm;Δz= 0.446λ n(π/2·α)sinθ =1.64μm

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