Abstract

We investigate the potential of mobile smartphone-based multispectral imaging for the quantitative diagnosis and management of skin lesions. Recently, various mobile devices such as a smartphone have emerged as healthcare tools. They have been applied for the early diagnosis of nonmalignant and malignant skin diseases. Particularly, when they are combined with an advanced optical imaging technique such as multispectral imaging and analysis, it would be beneficial for the early diagnosis of such skin diseases and for further quantitative prognosis monitoring after treatment at home. Thus, we demonstrate here the development of a smartphone-based multispectral imaging system with high portability and its potential for mobile skin diagnosis. The results suggest that smartphone-based multispectral imaging and analysis has great potential as a healthcare tool for quantitative mobile skin diagnosis.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  3. P. Y. Mazzer, C. H. Barbieri, N. Mazzer, and V. P. Fazan, “Morphologic and morphometric evaluation of experimental acute crush injuries of the sciatic nerve of rats,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173(2), 249–258 (2008).
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  6. V. K. Ramanujan, S. Ren, S. Park, and D. L. Farkas, “Non-invasive, Contrast-enhanced Spectral Imaging of Breast Cancer Signatures in Preclinical Animal Models In vivo,” J. Cell Sci. Ther. 1(102), 1 (2010).
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  8. M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. Fujii, T. Yanagisawa, M. Mitsui, Y. Murakami, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, T. Abe, I. Yokoi, Y. Matsuoka, and Y. Kubota, “Extraction of acne lesion in acne patients from multispectral images,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 4078–4081 (2008).
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    [Crossref]
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  21. P. J. Mease and A. W. Armstrong, “Managing patients with psoriatic disease: the diagnosis and pharmacologic treatment of psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis,” Drugs 74(4), 423–441 (2014).
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  23. T. Wadhawan, N. Situ, K. Lancaster, X. Yuan, and G. Zouridakis, “SkinScan©: a portable library for melanoma detection on handheld devices,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Biomed. Imaging 2011, 133–136 (2011).
    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. F. L. Laetitia Abel-Tiberini, G. Marchand, and G. A. A. M. L. Luc Roussel, “Manufacturing of linear variable filters with straight iso-thickness lines,” Proc SPIE 5963, 59630B (2005)
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

Y. Jung, J. Kim, O. Awofeso, H. Kim, F. Regnier, and E. Bae, “Smartphone-based colorimetric analysis for detection of saliva alcohol concentration,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9183–9189 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Song, C. Kim, and Y. Yoo, “Vein visualization using a smart phone with multispectral Wiener estimation for point-of-care applications,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 19(2), 773–778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

D. Kapsokalyvas, R. Cicchi, N. Bruscino, D. Alfieri, F. Prignano, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In-vivo imaging of psoriatic lesions with polarization multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2405–2419 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Schäkel, T. Döbel, and I. Bosselmann, “Future treatment options for atopic dermatitis - small molecules and beyond,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 73(2), 91–100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Mease and A. W. Armstrong, “Managing patients with psoriatic disease: the diagnosis and pharmacologic treatment of psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis,” Drugs 74(4), 423–441 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vasefi, N. MacKinnon, R. B. Saager, A. J. Durkin, R. Chave, E. H. Lindsley, and D. L. Farkas, “Polarization-sensitive hyperspectral imaging in vivo: a multimode dermoscope for skin analysis,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Yetisen, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, A. Garcia-Melendrez, F. D. Vasconcellos, and C. R. Lowe, “A smartphone algorithm with inter-phone repeatability for the analysis of colorimetric tests,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 196, 156–160 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Do, Y. Zhou, H. Zheng, N. M. Cheung, and D. Koh, “Early melanoma diagnosis with mobile imaging,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2014, 6752–6757 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nakamura, J. Nishikawa, A. Goto, J. Nishimura, S. Hashimoto, T. Okamoto, and I. Sakaida, “Usefulness of ultraslim endoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement for detection of gastric neoplasm: a preliminary study,” J. Gastrointest. Cancer 44(3), 325–328 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, X. He, Y. Wang, H. Liu, D. Xu, and F. Guo, “Review of spectral imaging technology in biomedical engineering: achievements and challenges,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 100901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

T. Wadhawan, N. Situ, H. Rui, K. Lancaster, X. Yuan, and G. Zouridakis, “Implementation of the 7-point checklist for melanoma detection on smart handheld devices,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2011, 3180–3183 (2011).
[PubMed]

T. Wadhawan, N. Situ, K. Lancaster, X. Yuan, and G. Zouridakis, “SkinScan©: a portable library for melanoma detection on handheld devices,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Biomed. Imaging 2011, 133–136 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

V. K. Ramanujan, S. Ren, S. Park, and D. L. Farkas, “Non-invasive, Contrast-enhanced Spectral Imaging of Breast Cancer Signatures in Preclinical Animal Models In vivo,” J. Cell Sci. Ther. 1(102), 1 (2010).
[PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. Y. Mazzer, C. H. Barbieri, N. Mazzer, and V. P. Fazan, “Morphologic and morphometric evaluation of experimental acute crush injuries of the sciatic nerve of rats,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173(2), 249–258 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fujii, T. Yanagisawa, M. Mitsui, Y. Murakami, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, T. Abe, I. Yokoi, Y. Matsuoka, and Y. Kubota, “Extraction of acne lesion in acne patients from multispectral images,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 4078–4081 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

L. M. Buys, “Treatment options for atopic dermatitis,” Am. Fam. Physician 75(4), 523–528 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (2)

G. N. Stamatas, M. Southall, and N. Kollias, “In vivo monitoring of cutaneous edema using spectral imaging in the visible and near infrared,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 126(8), 1753–1760 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Garini, I. T. Young, and G. McNamara, “Spectral imaging: principles and applications,” Cytometry A 69(8), 735–747 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. L. Laetitia Abel-Tiberini, G. Marchand, and G. A. A. M. L. Luc Roussel, “Manufacturing of linear variable filters with straight iso-thickness lines,” Proc SPIE 5963, 59630B (2005)

2003 (1)

B. C. P. K. Tuan Vo-Dinh, “Development of a multi-spectral imaging system for medical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36, 302 (2003).

2001 (2)

D. L. Farkas and D. Becker, “Applications of spectral imaging: detection and analysis of human melanoma and its precursors,” Pigment Cell Res. 14(1), 2–8 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation,” Nat. Med. 5(10), 1209–1212 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

D. L. Farkas, G. Baxter, R. L. DeBiasio, A. Gough, M. A. Nederlof, D. Pane, J. Pane, D. R. Patek, K. W. Ryan, and D. L. Taylor, “Multimode light microscopy and the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55(1), 785–817 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. A. Afromowitz, J. B. Callis, D. M. Heimbach, L. A. DeSoto, and M. K. Norton, “Multispectral imaging of burn wounds: a new clinical instrument for evaluating burn depth,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35(10), 842–850 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

R. J. Friedman, D. S. Rigel, and A. W. Kopf, “Early detection of malignant melanoma: the role of physician examination and self-examination of the skin,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 35(3), 130–151 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abe, T.

H. Fujii, T. Yanagisawa, M. Mitsui, Y. Murakami, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, T. Abe, I. Yokoi, Y. Matsuoka, and Y. Kubota, “Extraction of acne lesion in acne patients from multispectral images,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 4078–4081 (2008).
[PubMed]

Afromowitz, M. A.

M. A. Afromowitz, J. B. Callis, D. M. Heimbach, L. A. DeSoto, and M. K. Norton, “Multispectral imaging of burn wounds: a new clinical instrument for evaluating burn depth,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35(10), 842–850 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfieri, D.

Armstrong, A. W.

P. J. Mease and A. W. Armstrong, “Managing patients with psoriatic disease: the diagnosis and pharmacologic treatment of psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis,” Drugs 74(4), 423–441 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Awofeso, O.

Bae, E.

Barbieri, C. H.

P. Y. Mazzer, C. H. Barbieri, N. Mazzer, and V. P. Fazan, “Morphologic and morphometric evaluation of experimental acute crush injuries of the sciatic nerve of rats,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173(2), 249–258 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baxter, G.

D. L. Farkas, G. Baxter, R. L. DeBiasio, A. Gough, M. A. Nederlof, D. Pane, J. Pane, D. R. Patek, K. W. Ryan, and D. L. Taylor, “Multimode light microscopy and the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55(1), 785–817 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, D.

D. L. Farkas and D. Becker, “Applications of spectral imaging: detection and analysis of human melanoma and its precursors,” Pigment Cell Res. 14(1), 2–8 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogdan, A.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosselmann, I.

K. Schäkel, T. Döbel, and I. Bosselmann, “Future treatment options for atopic dermatitis - small molecules and beyond,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 73(2), 91–100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, G. J.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation,” Nat. Med. 5(10), 1209–1212 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruscino, N.

Buys, L. M.

L. M. Buys, “Treatment options for atopic dermatitis,” Am. Fam. Physician 75(4), 523–528 (2007).
[PubMed]

Callis, J. B.

M. A. Afromowitz, J. B. Callis, D. M. Heimbach, L. A. DeSoto, and M. K. Norton, “Multispectral imaging of burn wounds: a new clinical instrument for evaluating burn depth,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35(10), 842–850 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chave, R.

F. Vasefi, N. MacKinnon, R. B. Saager, A. J. Durkin, R. Chave, E. H. Lindsley, and D. L. Farkas, “Polarization-sensitive hyperspectral imaging in vivo: a multimode dermoscope for skin analysis,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, N. M.

T. T. Do, Y. Zhou, H. Zheng, N. M. Cheung, and D. Koh, “Early melanoma diagnosis with mobile imaging,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2014, 6752–6757 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cicchi, R.

Clark, P. P.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, B. T.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeBiasio, R. L.

D. L. Farkas, G. Baxter, R. L. DeBiasio, A. Gough, M. A. Nederlof, D. Pane, J. Pane, D. R. Patek, K. W. Ryan, and D. L. Taylor, “Multimode light microscopy and the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55(1), 785–817 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeSoto, L. A.

M. A. Afromowitz, J. B. Callis, D. M. Heimbach, L. A. DeSoto, and M. K. Norton, “Multispectral imaging of burn wounds: a new clinical instrument for evaluating burn depth,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35(10), 842–850 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Do, T. T.

T. T. Do, Y. Zhou, H. Zheng, N. M. Cheung, and D. Koh, “Early melanoma diagnosis with mobile imaging,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2014, 6752–6757 (2014).
[PubMed]

Döbel, T.

K. Schäkel, T. Döbel, and I. Bosselmann, “Future treatment options for atopic dermatitis - small molecules and beyond,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 73(2), 91–100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

F. Vasefi, N. MacKinnon, R. B. Saager, A. J. Durkin, R. Chave, E. H. Lindsley, and D. L. Farkas, “Polarization-sensitive hyperspectral imaging in vivo: a multimode dermoscope for skin analysis,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elbaum, M.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farkas, D. L.

F. Vasefi, N. MacKinnon, R. B. Saager, A. J. Durkin, R. Chave, E. H. Lindsley, and D. L. Farkas, “Polarization-sensitive hyperspectral imaging in vivo: a multimode dermoscope for skin analysis,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. K. Ramanujan, S. Ren, S. Park, and D. L. Farkas, “Non-invasive, Contrast-enhanced Spectral Imaging of Breast Cancer Signatures in Preclinical Animal Models In vivo,” J. Cell Sci. Ther. 1(102), 1 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. L. Farkas and D. Becker, “Applications of spectral imaging: detection and analysis of human melanoma and its precursors,” Pigment Cell Res. 14(1), 2–8 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Farkas, G. Baxter, R. L. DeBiasio, A. Gough, M. A. Nederlof, D. Pane, J. Pane, D. R. Patek, K. W. Ryan, and D. L. Taylor, “Multimode light microscopy and the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55(1), 785–817 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fazan, V. P.

P. Y. Mazzer, C. H. Barbieri, N. Mazzer, and V. P. Fazan, “Morphologic and morphometric evaluation of experimental acute crush injuries of the sciatic nerve of rats,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173(2), 249–258 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, R. J.

R. J. Friedman, D. S. Rigel, and A. W. Kopf, “Early detection of malignant melanoma: the role of physician examination and self-examination of the skin,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 35(3), 130–151 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujii, H.

H. Fujii, T. Yanagisawa, M. Mitsui, Y. Murakami, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, T. Abe, I. Yokoi, Y. Matsuoka, and Y. Kubota, “Extraction of acne lesion in acne patients from multispectral images,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 4078–4081 (2008).
[PubMed]

Gallegos, D.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Melendrez, A.

A. K. Yetisen, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, A. Garcia-Melendrez, F. D. Vasconcellos, and C. R. Lowe, “A smartphone algorithm with inter-phone repeatability for the analysis of colorimetric tests,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 196, 156–160 (2014).
[Crossref]

Garini, Y.

Y. Garini, I. T. Young, and G. McNamara, “Spectral imaging: principles and applications,” Cytometry A 69(8), 735–747 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, S.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goto, A.

M. Nakamura, J. Nishikawa, A. Goto, J. Nishimura, S. Hashimoto, T. Okamoto, and I. Sakaida, “Usefulness of ultraslim endoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement for detection of gastric neoplasm: a preliminary study,” J. Gastrointest. Cancer 44(3), 325–328 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gough, A.

D. L. Farkas, G. Baxter, R. L. DeBiasio, A. Gough, M. A. Nederlof, D. Pane, J. Pane, D. R. Patek, K. W. Ryan, and D. L. Taylor, “Multimode light microscopy and the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55(1), 785–817 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenebaum, M.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groner, W.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation,” Nat. Med. 5(10), 1209–1212 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, F.

Q. Li, X. He, Y. Wang, H. Liu, D. Xu, and F. Guo, “Review of spectral imaging technology in biomedical engineering: achievements and challenges,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 100901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gutkowicz-Krusin, D.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, A. G.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation,” Nat. Med. 5(10), 1209–1212 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, S.

M. Nakamura, J. Nishikawa, A. Goto, J. Nishimura, S. Hashimoto, T. Okamoto, and I. Sakaida, “Usefulness of ultraslim endoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement for detection of gastric neoplasm: a preliminary study,” J. Gastrointest. Cancer 44(3), 325–328 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, X.

Q. Li, X. He, Y. Wang, H. Liu, D. Xu, and F. Guo, “Review of spectral imaging technology in biomedical engineering: achievements and challenges,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 100901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heimbach, D. M.

M. A. Afromowitz, J. B. Callis, D. M. Heimbach, L. A. DeSoto, and M. K. Norton, “Multispectral imaging of burn wounds: a new clinical instrument for evaluating burn depth,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35(10), 842–850 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation,” Nat. Med. 5(10), 1209–1212 (1999).
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Jung, Y.

Kamino, H.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapsokalyvas, D.

Keem, S.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

J. H. Song, C. Kim, and Y. Yoo, “Vein visualization using a smart phone with multispectral Wiener estimation for point-of-care applications,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 19(2), 773–778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

Koh, D.

T. T. Do, Y. Zhou, H. Zheng, N. M. Cheung, and D. Koh, “Early melanoma diagnosis with mobile imaging,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2014, 6752–6757 (2014).
[PubMed]

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G. N. Stamatas, M. Southall, and N. Kollias, “In vivo monitoring of cutaneous edema using spectral imaging in the visible and near infrared,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 126(8), 1753–1760 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kopf, A. W.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Friedman, D. S. Rigel, and A. W. Kopf, “Early detection of malignant melanoma: the role of physician examination and self-examination of the skin,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 35(3), 130–151 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Fujii, T. Yanagisawa, M. Mitsui, Y. Murakami, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, T. Abe, I. Yokoi, Y. Matsuoka, and Y. Kubota, “Extraction of acne lesion in acne patients from multispectral images,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 4078–4081 (2008).
[PubMed]

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F. L. Laetitia Abel-Tiberini, G. Marchand, and G. A. A. M. L. Luc Roussel, “Manufacturing of linear variable filters with straight iso-thickness lines,” Proc SPIE 5963, 59630B (2005)

Lancaster, K.

T. Wadhawan, N. Situ, K. Lancaster, X. Yuan, and G. Zouridakis, “SkinScan©: a portable library for melanoma detection on handheld devices,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Biomed. Imaging 2011, 133–136 (2011).
[PubMed]

T. Wadhawan, N. Situ, H. Rui, K. Lancaster, X. Yuan, and G. Zouridakis, “Implementation of the 7-point checklist for melanoma detection on smart handheld devices,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2011, 3180–3183 (2011).
[PubMed]

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M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Q. Li, X. He, Y. Wang, H. Liu, D. Xu, and F. Guo, “Review of spectral imaging technology in biomedical engineering: achievements and challenges,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 100901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
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F. Vasefi, N. MacKinnon, R. B. Saager, A. J. Durkin, R. Chave, E. H. Lindsley, and D. L. Farkas, “Polarization-sensitive hyperspectral imaging in vivo: a multimode dermoscope for skin analysis,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4924 (2014).
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Q. Li, X. He, Y. Wang, H. Liu, D. Xu, and F. Guo, “Review of spectral imaging technology in biomedical engineering: achievements and challenges,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 100901 (2013).
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F. Vasefi, N. MacKinnon, R. B. Saager, A. J. Durkin, R. Chave, E. H. Lindsley, and D. L. Farkas, “Polarization-sensitive hyperspectral imaging in vivo: a multimode dermoscope for skin analysis,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4924 (2014).
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F. L. Laetitia Abel-Tiberini, G. Marchand, and G. A. A. M. L. Luc Roussel, “Manufacturing of linear variable filters with straight iso-thickness lines,” Proc SPIE 5963, 59630B (2005)

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A. K. Yetisen, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, A. Garcia-Melendrez, F. D. Vasconcellos, and C. R. Lowe, “A smartphone algorithm with inter-phone repeatability for the analysis of colorimetric tests,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 196, 156–160 (2014).
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Y. Garini, I. T. Young, and G. McNamara, “Spectral imaging: principles and applications,” Cytometry A 69(8), 735–747 (2006).
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P. J. Mease and A. W. Armstrong, “Managing patients with psoriatic disease: the diagnosis and pharmacologic treatment of psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis,” Drugs 74(4), 423–441 (2014).
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W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation,” Nat. Med. 5(10), 1209–1212 (1999).
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M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Fujii, T. Yanagisawa, M. Mitsui, Y. Murakami, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, T. Abe, I. Yokoi, Y. Matsuoka, and Y. Kubota, “Extraction of acne lesion in acne patients from multispectral images,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 4078–4081 (2008).
[PubMed]

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H. Fujii, T. Yanagisawa, M. Mitsui, Y. Murakami, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, T. Abe, I. Yokoi, Y. Matsuoka, and Y. Kubota, “Extraction of acne lesion in acne patients from multispectral images,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 4078–4081 (2008).
[PubMed]

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W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation,” Nat. Med. 5(10), 1209–1212 (1999).
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M. Nakamura, J. Nishikawa, A. Goto, J. Nishimura, S. Hashimoto, T. Okamoto, and I. Sakaida, “Usefulness of ultraslim endoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement for detection of gastric neoplasm: a preliminary study,” J. Gastrointest. Cancer 44(3), 325–328 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nath, P.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
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D. L. Farkas, G. Baxter, R. L. DeBiasio, A. Gough, M. A. Nederlof, D. Pane, J. Pane, D. R. Patek, K. W. Ryan, and D. L. Taylor, “Multimode light microscopy and the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55(1), 785–817 (1993).
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M. Nakamura, J. Nishikawa, A. Goto, J. Nishimura, S. Hashimoto, T. Okamoto, and I. Sakaida, “Usefulness of ultraslim endoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement for detection of gastric neoplasm: a preliminary study,” J. Gastrointest. Cancer 44(3), 325–328 (2013).
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M. Nakamura, J. Nishikawa, A. Goto, J. Nishimura, S. Hashimoto, T. Okamoto, and I. Sakaida, “Usefulness of ultraslim endoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement for detection of gastric neoplasm: a preliminary study,” J. Gastrointest. Cancer 44(3), 325–328 (2013).
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M. A. Afromowitz, J. B. Callis, D. M. Heimbach, L. A. DeSoto, and M. K. Norton, “Multispectral imaging of burn wounds: a new clinical instrument for evaluating burn depth,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35(10), 842–850 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Fujii, T. Yanagisawa, M. Mitsui, Y. Murakami, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, T. Abe, I. Yokoi, Y. Matsuoka, and Y. Kubota, “Extraction of acne lesion in acne patients from multispectral images,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 4078–4081 (2008).
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M. Nakamura, J. Nishikawa, A. Goto, J. Nishimura, S. Hashimoto, T. Okamoto, and I. Sakaida, “Usefulness of ultraslim endoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement for detection of gastric neoplasm: a preliminary study,” J. Gastrointest. Cancer 44(3), 325–328 (2013).
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M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
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D. L. Farkas, G. Baxter, R. L. DeBiasio, A. Gough, M. A. Nederlof, D. Pane, J. Pane, D. R. Patek, K. W. Ryan, and D. L. Taylor, “Multimode light microscopy and the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55(1), 785–817 (1993).
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D. L. Farkas, G. Baxter, R. L. DeBiasio, A. Gough, M. A. Nederlof, D. Pane, J. Pane, D. R. Patek, K. W. Ryan, and D. L. Taylor, “Multimode light microscopy and the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55(1), 785–817 (1993).
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Park, S.

V. K. Ramanujan, S. Ren, S. Park, and D. L. Farkas, “Non-invasive, Contrast-enhanced Spectral Imaging of Breast Cancer Signatures in Preclinical Animal Models In vivo,” J. Cell Sci. Ther. 1(102), 1 (2010).
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Patek, D. R.

D. L. Farkas, G. Baxter, R. L. DeBiasio, A. Gough, M. A. Nederlof, D. Pane, J. Pane, D. R. Patek, K. W. Ryan, and D. L. Taylor, “Multimode light microscopy and the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55(1), 785–817 (1993).
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Pavone, F. S.

Peck, G. L.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
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Prignano, F.

Rabinovitz, H. S.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
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Ramanujan, V. K.

V. K. Ramanujan, S. Ren, S. Park, and D. L. Farkas, “Non-invasive, Contrast-enhanced Spectral Imaging of Breast Cancer Signatures in Preclinical Animal Models In vivo,” J. Cell Sci. Ther. 1(102), 1 (2010).
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Ren, S.

V. K. Ramanujan, S. Ren, S. Park, and D. L. Farkas, “Non-invasive, Contrast-enhanced Spectral Imaging of Breast Cancer Signatures in Preclinical Animal Models In vivo,” J. Cell Sci. Ther. 1(102), 1 (2010).
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Rigel, D. S.

R. J. Friedman, D. S. Rigel, and A. W. Kopf, “Early detection of malignant melanoma: the role of physician examination and self-examination of the skin,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 35(3), 130–151 (1985).
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Rui, H.

T. Wadhawan, N. Situ, H. Rui, K. Lancaster, X. Yuan, and G. Zouridakis, “Implementation of the 7-point checklist for melanoma detection on smart handheld devices,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2011, 3180–3183 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ryan, K. W.

D. L. Farkas, G. Baxter, R. L. DeBiasio, A. Gough, M. A. Nederlof, D. Pane, J. Pane, D. R. Patek, K. W. Ryan, and D. L. Taylor, “Multimode light microscopy and the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55(1), 785–817 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saager, R. B.

F. Vasefi, N. MacKinnon, R. B. Saager, A. J. Durkin, R. Chave, E. H. Lindsley, and D. L. Farkas, “Polarization-sensitive hyperspectral imaging in vivo: a multimode dermoscope for skin analysis,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakaida, I.

M. Nakamura, J. Nishikawa, A. Goto, J. Nishimura, S. Hashimoto, T. Okamoto, and I. Sakaida, “Usefulness of ultraslim endoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement for detection of gastric neoplasm: a preliminary study,” J. Gastrointest. Cancer 44(3), 325–328 (2013).
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K. Schäkel, T. Döbel, and I. Bosselmann, “Future treatment options for atopic dermatitis - small molecules and beyond,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 73(2), 91–100 (2014).
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T. Wadhawan, N. Situ, K. Lancaster, X. Yuan, and G. Zouridakis, “SkinScan©: a portable library for melanoma detection on handheld devices,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Biomed. Imaging 2011, 133–136 (2011).
[PubMed]

T. Wadhawan, N. Situ, H. Rui, K. Lancaster, X. Yuan, and G. Zouridakis, “Implementation of the 7-point checklist for melanoma detection on smart handheld devices,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2011, 3180–3183 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sober, A. J.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
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A. C. Society, “Cancer Facts and Figures 2015,” (2015).

Song, J. H.

J. H. Song, C. Kim, and Y. Yoo, “Vein visualization using a smart phone with multispectral Wiener estimation for point-of-care applications,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 19(2), 773–778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Southall, M.

G. N. Stamatas, M. Southall, and N. Kollias, “In vivo monitoring of cutaneous edema using spectral imaging in the visible and near infrared,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 126(8), 1753–1760 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stamatas, G. N.

G. N. Stamatas, M. Southall, and N. Kollias, “In vivo monitoring of cutaneous edema using spectral imaging in the visible and near infrared,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 126(8), 1753–1760 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, D. L.

D. L. Farkas, G. Baxter, R. L. DeBiasio, A. Gough, M. A. Nederlof, D. Pane, J. Pane, D. R. Patek, K. W. Ryan, and D. L. Taylor, “Multimode light microscopy and the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55(1), 785–817 (1993).
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A. K. Yetisen, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, A. Garcia-Melendrez, F. D. Vasconcellos, and C. R. Lowe, “A smartphone algorithm with inter-phone repeatability for the analysis of colorimetric tests,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 196, 156–160 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vasefi, F.

F. Vasefi, N. MacKinnon, R. B. Saager, A. J. Durkin, R. Chave, E. H. Lindsley, and D. L. Farkas, “Polarization-sensitive hyperspectral imaging in vivo: a multimode dermoscope for skin analysis,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wadhawan, T.

T. Wadhawan, N. Situ, H. Rui, K. Lancaster, X. Yuan, and G. Zouridakis, “Implementation of the 7-point checklist for melanoma detection on smart handheld devices,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2011, 3180–3183 (2011).
[PubMed]

T. Wadhawan, N. Situ, K. Lancaster, X. Yuan, and G. Zouridakis, “SkinScan©: a portable library for melanoma detection on handheld devices,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Biomed. Imaging 2011, 133–136 (2011).
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M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44(2), 207–218 (2001).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Diagram of a smartphone-attached multispectral imaging system for the diagnosis and management of skin lesions, and (b) photographic image of the proposed system

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Miniaturization of the multispectral imaging system: (a) schematics of the miniaturized multispectral imaging system, and (b) photographic images of developed multispectral imaging system. The magnified photographic image indicated by a red solid rectangular represents the probe region to be in contact with the skin. The arrow indicates the embedded white target.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diced linear variable bandpass filters: (a) transmission of each diced linear variable filter and size of the diced linear variable bandpass filter, and (b) inherent spectrum of the smartphone LED used in the system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematics of the interface circuits: (a) circuit diagram, (b) photographic image of the interface circuit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Illustrations of the automated spectral classification of skin lesions using the customized Android application (SpectroVision).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calibration of spectral signatures at every pixel: (a) Photographic image of skin regions obtained using our system and an image cube. The arrow indicates the embedded white target in the image. The red-dotted rectangular represents the area selected for calculation of the mean intensity of the embedded white target. The red- and green-dotted circles indicate the regions selected to obtain the spectral signatures of normal skin and nevus regions. (b) Extraction of weight factors at different wavelengths from the embedded white target. w(λi): weight factor at the ith wavelength (λ) (c) Calibration of a selected spectral signature. Intensity of the selected spectral signature at each wavelength was multiplied by the weight factor at the identical wavelength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Resolution of a smartphone-based multispectral imaging system: (a) cropped image of a resolution target, (b) intensity variations along the line of A’ (horizontal direction) in the image acquired using the proposed system, and (c) intensity variations along the line of B’ (vertical direction) in the image acquired using the developed system. The scale bar indicates ~300 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral signatures of a white target acquired using (a) the smartphone-based multispectral imaging system (red: fixed white balance, blue: automated white balance) and (b) a spectrometer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparisons between outcomes obtained by multispectral imaging and analysis using the smartphone-based and LCTF-based multispectral imaging systems: (a) multispectral letter images (lower) and a spectral classified image (middle) obtained using the smartphone-based multispectral imaging system (upper) (b) multispectral letter images (lower) and a spectral classified image (middle) obtained using the LCTF-based multispectral imaging system (upper). The scale bar indicates 500 μm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectral classification of a nevus: (a) original RGB image, (b) a shading-corrected image (left), and a comparison of intensity profiles of the original and corrected image along the dotted lines (right); (c) a conventional spectral classified image (left) and normalized reference spectral signatures for normal skin and a nevus (right) are shown.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Ratiometric spectral imaging and analysis of acne regions: (a) original RGB image, (b) spectral signatures for normal skin and acne (left), and conventional (left) spectral classified images (right) of acne regions; (c) (b) ratiometric spectral signatures for normal skin and acne (left) and a ratiometric spectral classified image (right) of acne regions (green: 1 x normal skin + 0 x acne, cyan: 0.75 x normal skin + 0.25 x acne, yellow: 0.5 x normal skin + 0.5 x acne, orange: 0.25 x normal skin + 0.75 x acne, and red: 0 x normal skin + 1 x acne). The arrow direction indicates the severity of the acne regions with respect to the normal skin.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Standard deviations of calibrated spectral signatures of a white target acquired using the smartphone-based multispectral imaging system (n = 10) and a spectrometer at the indicated wavelengths (n = 15).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I= 1 3 ( R+G+B ),
I cal ( x,y,λ )= I origin ( x,y,λ )× W T max (λ) WT(x,y,λ) × w c (λ)
SAM( s i , μ j )= cos 1 ( l=1 L s il μ jl ( l=1 L s il 2 ) 1 2 ( l=1 L μ jl 2 ) 1 2 )

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