Abstract

With availability of different retinal imaging modalities such as fundus photography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), having a robust and accurate registration scheme to enable utilization of this complementary information is beneficial. The few existing fundus-OCT registration approaches contain a vessel segmentation step, as the retinal blood vessels are the most dominant structures that are in common between the pair of images. However, errors in the vessel segmentation from either modality may cause corresponding errors in the registration. In this paper, we propose a feature-based registration method for registering fundus photographs and SD-OCT projection images that benefits from vasculature structural information without requiring blood vessel segmentation. In particular, after a preprocessing step, a set of control points (CPs) are identified by looking for the corners in the images. Next, each CP is represented by a feature vector which encodes the local structural information via computing the histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) from the neighborhood of each CP. The best matching CPs are identified by calculating the distance of their corresponding feature vectors. After removing the incorrect matches the best affine transform that registers fundus photographs to SD-OCT projection images is computed using the random sample consensus (RANSAC) method. The proposed method was tested on 44 pairs of fundus and SD-OCT projection images of glaucoma patients and the result showed that the proposed method successfully registers the multimodal images and produced a registration error of 25.34 ± 12.34 μm (0.84 ± 0.41 pixels).

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  4. W. L. M. Alward, S. Q. Longmuir, M. S. Miri, M. K. Garvin, and Y. H. Kwon, “Movement of retinal vessels to optic nerve head with intraocular pressure elevation in a child,” Ophthalmol. 122(7), 1532–1534 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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  6. M. S. Miri, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images,” Proc. SPIE 8669, 86690O (2013).
    [Crossref]
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  9. M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Incorporation of gradient vector flow field in a multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmenting the internal limiting membrane from glaucomatous optic nerve head-centered SD-OCT volumes,” Comp. Med. Imag. Graph., (to be published).
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    [Crossref]
  20. H. Bogunović, M. Sonka, Y. H. Kwon, P. Kemp, M. D. Abràmoff, and X. Wu, “Multi-surface and multi-field co-segmentation of 3-D retinal optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 33(12), 2242–2253 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
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  24. M. Golabbakhsh and H. Rabbani, “Vessel-based registration of fundus and optical coherence tomography projection images of retina using a quadratic registration model,” IET Imag. Proc. 7(8), 768–776 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y. Li, G. Gregori, R. W. Knighton, B. J. Lujan, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Registration of OCT fundus images with color fundus photographs based on blood vessel ridges,” Opt. Exp. 19(1), 7–16 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Niu, Q. Chen, H. Shen, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Registration of SD-OCT en-face images with color fundus photographs based on local patch matching,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis First International Workshop, OMIA 2014, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2014 (2014), pp. 25–32.
  27. M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3-D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. E. Rosten and T. Drummond, “Fusing points and lines for high performance tracking,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1508–1511.
  29. E. Rosten and T. Drummond, “Machine learning for high-speed corner detection,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Computer Vision (2006), pp. 430–443.
  30. N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 886–893.
  31. D. G. Lowe, “Distinctive Image features from scale-invariant keypoints,” Int. J. Comp. Vis. 60(2), 91–110 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. Hartley and A. Zisserman, Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision (Cambridge University, 2003), Chap. 4.
  33. M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  34. K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. T. H. Romeny, and J. B. Zimmerman, “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Comp. Vis. Graph. Imag. Proc. 39(3), 355–368 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  36. M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

W. L. M. Alward, S. Q. Longmuir, M. S. Miri, M. K. Garvin, and Y. H. Kwon, “Movement of retinal vessels to optic nerve head with intraocular pressure elevation in a child,” Ophthalmol. 122(7), 1532–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J.-K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from SD-OCT and color fundus photographs using a machine-learning graph-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Multimodal retinal vessel segmentation from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus photography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 156(2), 218–227 (2014).

H. Bogunović, M. Sonka, Y. H. Kwon, P. Kemp, M. D. Abràmoff, and X. Wu, “Multi-surface and multi-field co-segmentation of 3-D retinal optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 33(12), 2242–2253 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. S. Miri, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images,” Proc. SPIE 8669, 86690O (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Ghassabi, J. Shanbehzadeh, A. Sedaghat, and E. Fatemizadeh, “An efficient approach for robust multimodal retinal image registration based on UR-SIFT features and PIIFD descriptors,” EURASIP J. Imag. Vid. Proc. 25, 1–16 (2013).

M. Golabbakhsh and H. Rabbani, “Vessel-based registration of fundus and optical coherence tomography projection images of retina using a quadratic registration model,” IET Imag. Proc. 7(8), 768–776 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

B. C. Chauhan and C. F. Burgoyne, “From clinical examination of the optic disc to clinical assessment of the optic nerve head: a paradigm change,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 31(10), 1900–1911 (2012).

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. Zheng, J. Tian, K. Deng, X. Dai, X. Zhang, and M. Xu, “Salient feature region: a new method for retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Tech. Biomed. 15(2), 221–232 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, G. Gregori, R. W. Knighton, B. J. Lujan, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Registration of OCT fundus images with color fundus photographs based on blood vessel ridges,” Opt. Exp. 19(1), 7–16 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. Chen, J. Tian, N. Lee, J. Zheng, R. T. Smith, and A. F. Laine, “A partial intensity invariant feature descriptor for multimodal retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(7), 1707–1718 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Li, G. Yang, and K.-S. Lin, “The edge-driven dual-bootstrap iterative closest point algorithm for registration of multimodal fluorescein angiogram sequence,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(3), 636–649 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal imaging and image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, B. van Ginneken, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3D spectral OCT volumes using 3D SIFT feature point matching,” Proc. SPIE 7259, 72591I (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. S. Schuman, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography for glaucoma (an AOS thesis),” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 106, 426–458 (2008).

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3-D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

G. Yang, C. V. Stewart, M. Sofka, and C.-L. Tsai, “Registration of challenging image pairs: initialization, estimation, and decision,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 29(11), 1973–1989 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

D. G. Lowe, “Distinctive Image features from scale-invariant keypoints,” Int. J. Comp. Vis. 60(2), 91–110 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. T. H. Romeny, and J. B. Zimmerman, “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Comp. Vis. Graph. Imag. Proc. 39(3), 355–368 (1987).
[Crossref]

E. Peli, R. A. Augliere, and G. T. Timberlake, “Feature-based registration of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. MI-6(2), 272–278 (1987).
[Crossref]

Abràmoff, M. D.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J.-K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from SD-OCT and color fundus photographs using a machine-learning graph-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Multimodal retinal vessel segmentation from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus photography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 156(2), 218–227 (2014).

H. Bogunović, M. Sonka, Y. H. Kwon, P. Kemp, M. D. Abràmoff, and X. Wu, “Multi-surface and multi-field co-segmentation of 3-D retinal optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 33(12), 2242–2253 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images,” Proc. SPIE 8669, 86690O (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal imaging and image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, B. van Ginneken, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3D spectral OCT volumes using 3D SIFT feature point matching,” Proc. SPIE 7259, 72591I (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3-D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmentation of the internal limiting membrane at the optic nerve head,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Second International Workshop, OMIA 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015 (2015), pp. 57–64.

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Incorporation of gradient vector flow field in a multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmenting the internal limiting membrane from glaucomatous optic nerve head-centered SD-OCT volumes,” Comp. Med. Imag. Graph., (to be published).

Alward, W. L. M.

W. L. M. Alward, S. Q. Longmuir, M. S. Miri, M. K. Garvin, and Y. H. Kwon, “Movement of retinal vessels to optic nerve head with intraocular pressure elevation in a child,” Ophthalmol. 122(7), 1532–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amburn, E. P.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. T. H. Romeny, and J. B. Zimmerman, “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Comp. Vis. Graph. Imag. Proc. 39(3), 355–368 (1987).
[Crossref]

Asvestas, P. A.

G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
[Crossref]

Augliere, R. A.

E. Peli, R. A. Augliere, and G. T. Timberlake, “Feature-based registration of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. MI-6(2), 272–278 (1987).
[Crossref]

Austin, J. D.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. T. H. Romeny, and J. B. Zimmerman, “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Comp. Vis. Graph. Imag. Proc. 39(3), 355–368 (1987).
[Crossref]

Badr, Y.

H. M. Taha, N. El-Bendary, A. E. Hassanien, Y. Badr, and V. Snase, “Retinal feature-based registration schema,” in Proceedings of Informatics Engineering and Information Science (2011), pp. 26–36.
[Crossref]

Bay, H.

P. C. Cattin, H. Bay, L. Van Gool, and G. Székely, “Retina mosaicing using local features,” in Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2006 (2006), LNCS 4191, pp. 185–192.
[Crossref]

Bogunovic, H.

H. Bogunović, M. Sonka, Y. H. Kwon, P. Kemp, M. D. Abràmoff, and X. Wu, “Multi-surface and multi-field co-segmentation of 3-D retinal optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 33(12), 2242–2253 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burgoyne, C. F.

B. C. Chauhan and C. F. Burgoyne, “From clinical examination of the optic disc to clinical assessment of the optic nerve head: a paradigm change,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 31(10), 1900–1911 (2012).

Burns, T. L.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cattin, P. C.

P. C. Cattin, H. Bay, L. Van Gool, and G. Székely, “Retina mosaicing using local features,” in Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2006 (2006), LNCS 4191, pp. 185–192.
[Crossref]

Chauhan, B. C.

B. C. Chauhan and C. F. Burgoyne, “From clinical examination of the optic disc to clinical assessment of the optic nerve head: a paradigm change,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 31(10), 1900–1911 (2012).

Chen, J.

J. Chen, J. Tian, N. Lee, J. Zheng, R. T. Smith, and A. F. Laine, “A partial intensity invariant feature descriptor for multimodal retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(7), 1707–1718 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

S. Niu, Q. Chen, H. Shen, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Registration of SD-OCT en-face images with color fundus photographs based on local patch matching,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis First International Workshop, OMIA 2014, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2014 (2014), pp. 25–32.

Cromartie, R.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. T. H. Romeny, and J. B. Zimmerman, “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Comp. Vis. Graph. Imag. Proc. 39(3), 355–368 (1987).
[Crossref]

Dai, X.

J. Zheng, J. Tian, K. Deng, X. Dai, X. Zhang, and M. Xu, “Salient feature region: a new method for retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Tech. Biomed. 15(2), 221–232 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dalal, N.

N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 886–893.

de Sisternes, L.

S. Niu, Q. Chen, H. Shen, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Registration of SD-OCT en-face images with color fundus photographs based on local patch matching,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis First International Workshop, OMIA 2014, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2014 (2014), pp. 25–32.

Delibasis, K. K.

G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
[Crossref]

Deng, K.

J. Zheng, J. Tian, K. Deng, X. Dai, X. Zhang, and M. Xu, “Salient feature region: a new method for retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Tech. Biomed. 15(2), 221–232 (2011).
[Crossref]

Drummond, T.

E. Rosten and T. Drummond, “Fusing points and lines for high performance tracking,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1508–1511.

E. Rosten and T. Drummond, “Machine learning for high-speed corner detection,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Computer Vision (2006), pp. 430–443.

El-Bendary, N.

H. M. Taha, N. El-Bendary, A. E. Hassanien, Y. Badr, and V. Snase, “Retinal feature-based registration schema,” in Proceedings of Informatics Engineering and Information Science (2011), pp. 26–36.
[Crossref]

Fatemizadeh, E.

Z. Ghassabi, J. Shanbehzadeh, A. Sedaghat, and E. Fatemizadeh, “An efficient approach for robust multimodal retinal image registration based on UR-SIFT features and PIIFD descriptors,” EURASIP J. Imag. Vid. Proc. 25, 1–16 (2013).

Garvin, M. K.

W. L. M. Alward, S. Q. Longmuir, M. S. Miri, M. K. Garvin, and Y. H. Kwon, “Movement of retinal vessels to optic nerve head with intraocular pressure elevation in a child,” Ophthalmol. 122(7), 1532–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J.-K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from SD-OCT and color fundus photographs using a machine-learning graph-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Multimodal retinal vessel segmentation from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus photography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 156(2), 218–227 (2014).

M. S. Miri, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images,” Proc. SPIE 8669, 86690O (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal imaging and image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, B. van Ginneken, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3D spectral OCT volumes using 3D SIFT feature point matching,” Proc. SPIE 7259, 72591I (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3-D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Incorporation of gradient vector flow field in a multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmenting the internal limiting membrane from glaucomatous optic nerve head-centered SD-OCT volumes,” Comp. Med. Imag. Graph., (to be published).

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmentation of the internal limiting membrane at the optic nerve head,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Second International Workshop, OMIA 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015 (2015), pp. 57–64.

Geselowitz, A.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. T. H. Romeny, and J. B. Zimmerman, “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Comp. Vis. Graph. Imag. Proc. 39(3), 355–368 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ghassabi, Z.

Z. Ghassabi, J. Shanbehzadeh, A. Sedaghat, and E. Fatemizadeh, “An efficient approach for robust multimodal retinal image registration based on UR-SIFT features and PIIFD descriptors,” EURASIP J. Imag. Vid. Proc. 25, 1–16 (2013).

Golabbakhsh, M.

M. Golabbakhsh and H. Rabbani, “Vessel-based registration of fundus and optical coherence tomography projection images of retina using a quadratic registration model,” IET Imag. Proc. 7(8), 768–776 (2013).
[Crossref]

Greer, T.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. T. H. Romeny, and J. B. Zimmerman, “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Comp. Vis. Graph. Imag. Proc. 39(3), 355–368 (1987).
[Crossref]

Gregori, G.

Y. Li, G. Gregori, R. W. Knighton, B. J. Lujan, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Registration of OCT fundus images with color fundus photographs based on blood vessel ridges,” Opt. Exp. 19(1), 7–16 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hartley, R.

R. Hartley and A. Zisserman, Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision (Cambridge University, 2003), Chap. 4.

Hassanien, A. E.

H. M. Taha, N. El-Bendary, A. E. Hassanien, Y. Badr, and V. Snase, “Retinal feature-based registration schema,” in Proceedings of Informatics Engineering and Information Science (2011), pp. 26–36.
[Crossref]

Hu, Z.

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Multimodal retinal vessel segmentation from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus photography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 156(2), 218–227 (2014).

Kemp, P.

H. Bogunović, M. Sonka, Y. H. Kwon, P. Kemp, M. D. Abràmoff, and X. Wu, “Multi-surface and multi-field co-segmentation of 3-D retinal optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 33(12), 2242–2253 (2014).
[Crossref]

Knighton, R. W.

Y. Li, G. Gregori, R. W. Knighton, B. J. Lujan, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Registration of OCT fundus images with color fundus photographs based on blood vessel ridges,” Opt. Exp. 19(1), 7–16 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kolar, R.

R. Kolar and P. Tasevsky, “Registration of 3D retinal optical coherence tomography data and 2D fundus images,” in Proceedings of Biomedical Image Registration (2010), pp. 72–82.
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Kwon, Y. H.

W. L. M. Alward, S. Q. Longmuir, M. S. Miri, M. K. Garvin, and Y. H. Kwon, “Movement of retinal vessels to optic nerve head with intraocular pressure elevation in a child,” Ophthalmol. 122(7), 1532–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J.-K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from SD-OCT and color fundus photographs using a machine-learning graph-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Bogunović, M. Sonka, Y. H. Kwon, P. Kemp, M. D. Abràmoff, and X. Wu, “Multi-surface and multi-field co-segmentation of 3-D retinal optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 33(12), 2242–2253 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images,” Proc. SPIE 8669, 86690O (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Incorporation of gradient vector flow field in a multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmenting the internal limiting membrane from glaucomatous optic nerve head-centered SD-OCT volumes,” Comp. Med. Imag. Graph., (to be published).

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmentation of the internal limiting membrane at the optic nerve head,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Second International Workshop, OMIA 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015 (2015), pp. 57–64.

Laine, A. F.

J. Chen, J. Tian, N. Lee, J. Zheng, R. T. Smith, and A. F. Laine, “A partial intensity invariant feature descriptor for multimodal retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(7), 1707–1718 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J.-K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from SD-OCT and color fundus photographs using a machine-learning graph-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images,” Proc. SPIE 8669, 86690O (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, B. van Ginneken, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3D spectral OCT volumes using 3D SIFT feature point matching,” Proc. SPIE 7259, 72591I (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, N.

J. Chen, J. Tian, N. Lee, J. Zheng, R. T. Smith, and A. F. Laine, “A partial intensity invariant feature descriptor for multimodal retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(7), 1707–1718 (2010).
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C.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Li, G. Yang, and K.-S. Lin, “The edge-driven dual-bootstrap iterative closest point algorithm for registration of multimodal fluorescein angiogram sequence,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(3), 636–649 (2010).
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Y. Li, G. Gregori, R. W. Knighton, B. J. Lujan, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Registration of OCT fundus images with color fundus photographs based on blood vessel ridges,” Opt. Exp. 19(1), 7–16 (2011).
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C.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Li, G. Yang, and K.-S. Lin, “The edge-driven dual-bootstrap iterative closest point algorithm for registration of multimodal fluorescein angiogram sequence,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(3), 636–649 (2010).
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W. L. M. Alward, S. Q. Longmuir, M. S. Miri, M. K. Garvin, and Y. H. Kwon, “Movement of retinal vessels to optic nerve head with intraocular pressure elevation in a child,” Ophthalmol. 122(7), 1532–1534 (2015).
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Y. Li, G. Gregori, R. W. Knighton, B. J. Lujan, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Registration of OCT fundus images with color fundus photographs based on blood vessel ridges,” Opt. Exp. 19(1), 7–16 (2011).
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G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
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Y. Lin and G. Medioni, “Retinal image registration from 2D to 3D,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–8.

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W. L. M. Alward, S. Q. Longmuir, M. S. Miri, M. K. Garvin, and Y. H. Kwon, “Movement of retinal vessels to optic nerve head with intraocular pressure elevation in a child,” Ophthalmol. 122(7), 1532–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J.-K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from SD-OCT and color fundus photographs using a machine-learning graph-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images,” Proc. SPIE 8669, 86690O (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmentation of the internal limiting membrane at the optic nerve head,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Second International Workshop, OMIA 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015 (2015), pp. 57–64.

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Incorporation of gradient vector flow field in a multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmenting the internal limiting membrane from glaucomatous optic nerve head-centered SD-OCT volumes,” Comp. Med. Imag. Graph., (to be published).

Mouravliansky, N. A.

G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
[Crossref]

Niemeijer, M.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J.-K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from SD-OCT and color fundus photographs using a machine-learning graph-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Multimodal retinal vessel segmentation from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus photography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 156(2), 218–227 (2014).

M. S. Miri, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images,” Proc. SPIE 8669, 86690O (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, B. van Ginneken, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3D spectral OCT volumes using 3D SIFT feature point matching,” Proc. SPIE 7259, 72591I (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3-D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
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S. Niu, Q. Chen, H. Shen, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Registration of SD-OCT en-face images with color fundus photographs based on local patch matching,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis First International Workshop, OMIA 2014, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2014 (2014), pp. 25–32.

Peli, E.

E. Peli, R. A. Augliere, and G. T. Timberlake, “Feature-based registration of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. MI-6(2), 272–278 (1987).
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S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. T. H. Romeny, and J. B. Zimmerman, “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Comp. Vis. Graph. Imag. Proc. 39(3), 355–368 (1987).
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Rabbani, H.

M. Golabbakhsh and H. Rabbani, “Vessel-based registration of fundus and optical coherence tomography projection images of retina using a quadratic registration model,” IET Imag. Proc. 7(8), 768–776 (2013).
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Robles, V. A.

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Incorporation of gradient vector flow field in a multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmenting the internal limiting membrane from glaucomatous optic nerve head-centered SD-OCT volumes,” Comp. Med. Imag. Graph., (to be published).

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmentation of the internal limiting membrane at the optic nerve head,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Second International Workshop, OMIA 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015 (2015), pp. 57–64.

Romeny, B. T. H.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. T. H. Romeny, and J. B. Zimmerman, “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Comp. Vis. Graph. Imag. Proc. 39(3), 355–368 (1987).
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Y. Li, G. Gregori, R. W. Knighton, B. J. Lujan, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Registration of OCT fundus images with color fundus photographs based on blood vessel ridges,” Opt. Exp. 19(1), 7–16 (2011).
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S. Niu, Q. Chen, H. Shen, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Registration of SD-OCT en-face images with color fundus photographs based on local patch matching,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis First International Workshop, OMIA 2014, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2014 (2014), pp. 25–32.

Russell, S. R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
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Z. Ghassabi, J. Shanbehzadeh, A. Sedaghat, and E. Fatemizadeh, “An efficient approach for robust multimodal retinal image registration based on UR-SIFT features and PIIFD descriptors,” EURASIP J. Imag. Vid. Proc. 25, 1–16 (2013).

Shanbehzadeh, J.

Z. Ghassabi, J. Shanbehzadeh, A. Sedaghat, and E. Fatemizadeh, “An efficient approach for robust multimodal retinal image registration based on UR-SIFT features and PIIFD descriptors,” EURASIP J. Imag. Vid. Proc. 25, 1–16 (2013).

Shen, H.

S. Niu, Q. Chen, H. Shen, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Registration of SD-OCT en-face images with color fundus photographs based on local patch matching,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis First International Workshop, OMIA 2014, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2014 (2014), pp. 25–32.

Smith, R. T.

J. Chen, J. Tian, N. Lee, J. Zheng, R. T. Smith, and A. F. Laine, “A partial intensity invariant feature descriptor for multimodal retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(7), 1707–1718 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snase, V.

H. M. Taha, N. El-Bendary, A. E. Hassanien, Y. Badr, and V. Snase, “Retinal feature-based registration schema,” in Proceedings of Informatics Engineering and Information Science (2011), pp. 26–36.
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H. Bogunović, M. Sonka, Y. H. Kwon, P. Kemp, M. D. Abràmoff, and X. Wu, “Multi-surface and multi-field co-segmentation of 3-D retinal optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 33(12), 2242–2253 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Multimodal retinal vessel segmentation from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus photography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 156(2), 218–227 (2014).

M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal imaging and image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, B. van Ginneken, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3D spectral OCT volumes using 3D SIFT feature point matching,” Proc. SPIE 7259, 72591I (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3-D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
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G. Yang, C. V. Stewart, M. Sofka, and C.-L. Tsai, “Registration of challenging image pairs: initialization, estimation, and decision,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 29(11), 1973–1989 (2007).
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R. Kolar and P. Tasevsky, “Registration of 3D retinal optical coherence tomography data and 2D fundus images,” in Proceedings of Biomedical Image Registration (2010), pp. 72–82.
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Peli, R. A. Augliere, and G. T. Timberlake, “Feature-based registration of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. MI-6(2), 272–278 (1987).
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C.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Li, G. Yang, and K.-S. Lin, “The edge-driven dual-bootstrap iterative closest point algorithm for registration of multimodal fluorescein angiogram sequence,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(3), 636–649 (2010).
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G. Yang, C. V. Stewart, M. Sofka, and C.-L. Tsai, “Registration of challenging image pairs: initialization, estimation, and decision,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 29(11), 1973–1989 (2007).
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van Ginneken, B.

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, B. van Ginneken, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3D spectral OCT volumes using 3D SIFT feature point matching,” Proc. SPIE 7259, 72591I (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3-D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[Crossref]

Van Gool, L.

P. C. Cattin, H. Bay, L. Van Gool, and G. Székely, “Retina mosaicing using local features,” in Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2006 (2006), LNCS 4191, pp. 185–192.
[Crossref]

Wang, J.-K.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J.-K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from SD-OCT and color fundus photographs using a machine-learning graph-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

H. Bogunović, M. Sonka, Y. H. Kwon, P. Kemp, M. D. Abràmoff, and X. Wu, “Multi-surface and multi-field co-segmentation of 3-D retinal optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 33(12), 2242–2253 (2014).
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M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

J. Zheng, J. Tian, K. Deng, X. Dai, X. Zhang, and M. Xu, “Salient feature region: a new method for retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Tech. Biomed. 15(2), 221–232 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, G.

C.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Li, G. Yang, and K.-S. Lin, “The edge-driven dual-bootstrap iterative closest point algorithm for registration of multimodal fluorescein angiogram sequence,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(3), 636–649 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, C. V. Stewart, M. Sofka, and C.-L. Tsai, “Registration of challenging image pairs: initialization, estimation, and decision,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 29(11), 1973–1989 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

J. Zheng, J. Tian, K. Deng, X. Dai, X. Zhang, and M. Xu, “Salient feature region: a new method for retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Tech. Biomed. 15(2), 221–232 (2011).
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Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, J. Tian, K. Deng, X. Dai, X. Zhang, and M. Xu, “Salient feature region: a new method for retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Tech. Biomed. 15(2), 221–232 (2011).
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J. Chen, J. Tian, N. Lee, J. Zheng, R. T. Smith, and A. F. Laine, “A partial intensity invariant feature descriptor for multimodal retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(7), 1707–1718 (2010).
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Zimmerman, J. B.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. T. H. Romeny, and J. B. Zimmerman, “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Comp. Vis. Graph. Imag. Proc. 39(3), 355–368 (1987).
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R. Hartley and A. Zisserman, Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision (Cambridge University, 2003), Chap. 4.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

B. C. Chauhan and C. F. Burgoyne, “From clinical examination of the optic disc to clinical assessment of the optic nerve head: a paradigm change,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 31(10), 1900–1911 (2012).

Comp. Vis. Graph. Imag. Proc. (1)

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. T. H. Romeny, and J. B. Zimmerman, “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Comp. Vis. Graph. Imag. Proc. 39(3), 355–368 (1987).
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EURASIP J. Imag. Vid. Proc. (1)

Z. Ghassabi, J. Shanbehzadeh, A. Sedaghat, and E. Fatemizadeh, “An efficient approach for robust multimodal retinal image registration based on UR-SIFT features and PIIFD descriptors,” EURASIP J. Imag. Vid. Proc. 25, 1–16 (2013).

IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal imaging and image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. Chen, J. Tian, N. Lee, J. Zheng, R. T. Smith, and A. F. Laine, “A partial intensity invariant feature descriptor for multimodal retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(7), 1707–1718 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Tech. Biomed. (1)

J. Zheng, J. Tian, K. Deng, X. Dai, X. Zhang, and M. Xu, “Salient feature region: a new method for retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Tech. Biomed. 15(2), 221–232 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (8)

H. Bogunović, M. Sonka, Y. H. Kwon, P. Kemp, M. D. Abràmoff, and X. Wu, “Multi-surface and multi-field co-segmentation of 3-D retinal optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 33(12), 2242–2253 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Li, G. Yang, and K.-S. Lin, “The edge-driven dual-bootstrap iterative closest point algorithm for registration of multimodal fluorescein angiogram sequence,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(3), 636–649 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Peli, R. A. Augliere, and G. T. Timberlake, “Feature-based registration of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. MI-6(2), 272–278 (1987).
[Crossref]

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Multimodal retinal vessel segmentation from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus photography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 156(2), 218–227 (2014).

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J.-K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from SD-OCT and color fundus photographs using a machine-learning graph-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

G. Yang, C. V. Stewart, M. Sofka, and C.-L. Tsai, “Registration of challenging image pairs: initialization, estimation, and decision,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 29(11), 1973–1989 (2007).
[Crossref]

IET Imag. Proc. (1)

M. Golabbakhsh and H. Rabbani, “Vessel-based registration of fundus and optical coherence tomography projection images of retina using a quadratic registration model,” IET Imag. Proc. 7(8), 768–776 (2013).
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W. L. M. Alward, S. Q. Longmuir, M. S. Miri, M. K. Garvin, and Y. H. Kwon, “Movement of retinal vessels to optic nerve head with intraocular pressure elevation in a child,” Ophthalmol. 122(7), 1532–1534 (2015).
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Opt. Exp. (1)

Y. Li, G. Gregori, R. W. Knighton, B. J. Lujan, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Registration of OCT fundus images with color fundus photographs based on blood vessel ridges,” Opt. Exp. 19(1), 7–16 (2011).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (5)

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3-D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images,” Proc. SPIE 8669, 86690O (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, B. van Ginneken, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3D spectral OCT volumes using 3D SIFT feature point matching,” Proc. SPIE 7259, 72591I (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Registration of 3-D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach,” Proc. SPIE 8314, 83141A (2012).
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J. S. Schuman, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography for glaucoma (an AOS thesis),” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 106, 426–458 (2008).

Other (11)

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmentation of the internal limiting membrane at the optic nerve head,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Second International Workshop, OMIA 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015 (2015), pp. 57–64.

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Incorporation of gradient vector flow field in a multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmenting the internal limiting membrane from glaucomatous optic nerve head-centered SD-OCT volumes,” Comp. Med. Imag. Graph., (to be published).

H. M. Taha, N. El-Bendary, A. E. Hassanien, Y. Badr, and V. Snase, “Retinal feature-based registration schema,” in Proceedings of Informatics Engineering and Information Science (2011), pp. 26–36.
[Crossref]

Y. Lin and G. Medioni, “Retinal image registration from 2D to 3D,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–8.

P. C. Cattin, H. Bay, L. Van Gool, and G. Székely, “Retina mosaicing using local features,” in Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2006 (2006), LNCS 4191, pp. 185–192.
[Crossref]

E. Rosten and T. Drummond, “Fusing points and lines for high performance tracking,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1508–1511.

E. Rosten and T. Drummond, “Machine learning for high-speed corner detection,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Computer Vision (2006), pp. 430–443.

N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 886–893.

R. Hartley and A. Zisserman, Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision (Cambridge University, 2003), Chap. 4.

S. Niu, Q. Chen, H. Shen, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Registration of SD-OCT en-face images with color fundus photographs based on local patch matching,” in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis First International Workshop, OMIA 2014, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2014 (2014), pp. 25–32.

R. Kolar and P. Tasevsky, “Registration of 3D retinal optical coherence tomography data and 2D fundus images,” in Proceedings of Biomedical Image Registration (2010), pp. 72–82.
[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Flowchart of the proposed method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 An example of intraretinal surface segmentation. (a) The central OCT B-scan and the segmented surfaces: blue is the IS/OS junction, yellow is the BM surface, and pink is the thin-plate spline fitted to the BM surface. (b) The 3D view of the segmented surfaces. (c) The flattened OCT B-scan. (d) The corresponding OCT projection image.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Example preprocessing steps on two types of fundus photographs in the dataset. The interfering details included on the images are shown with green arrows. Dates are covered for privacy. (a) Stereo fundus photographs containing large imaging artifact. The left-side photo was selected for further processing in (c). (b) A low-contrast regular fundus photograph. (c) The binary masks that remove the interfering details, the selected fundus image, the green channel, and the enhanced-contrast images corresponding to the examples shown in (a) and (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 An example of optic disc localization using circular Hough transform. (a) From left to right are the enhanced OCT projection image, the blue circle representing the optic disc overlaid on top of the closed image, and the Hough map from which the dominant circle is identified, respectively. (b) The same sequence of images as in (a) showing identifying the optic disc from the fundus photograph.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Illustration of Bresenham circle containing 16 pixels (the red boxes) around the query point p. An example of N contiguous pixels (for N = 9) is shown with the cyan dashed line [28].
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 An example of control point (corner) detection from (a) OCT projection and (b) fundus images using FAST corner detection method.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 An example of HOG descriptor computation from (a) OCT projection and (b) fundus images for a block size of 4 × 4 and a cell size of 4 × 4. The four strongest control points and their corresponding HOG blocks are shown on the left and for better visualization a zoomed-in illustration of one of the blocks with its corresponding CP (in blue) is shown on the right.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Illustration of feature vector matching using approximate nearest neighbor method in forward (blue) and backward (red) modes. The final matching feature vectors set (green) only includes the common pairs between forward and backward modes.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 An example of incorrect pair removal. (a) Shows the yellow lines connecting the corresponding matching pairs between images identified using the approximate nearest neighbor described in Sec. 2.4. The incorrect pairs are eliminated in (b).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Examples of successful registration results using ICP [7], the manual, and the proposed methods. The green frame in (A) indicates the left image was selected for the registration. The orange box in (B) indicates which part of the images are shown in the checkerboards which are provided for qualitative comparison of the registration results. The corresponding RMS errors of the methods are also shown in the green boxes.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Examples of failed registration (RMS error > 4.43 pixels) using ICP method where the manual and proposed methods did not fail. Low imaging quality in (A) and the motion artifacts (located inside the red ovals) in (B) and (C) also caused a larger registration errors for the proposed methods. The corresponding RMS errors of the methods are also shown in the green boxes.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Examples of ONH-centered and macula-centered OCT stitching with the aim of obtaining a larger field of view using the proposed feature-based registration method. Note that the common area between each pair is around 20% of the size of each image.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Quantitative evaluation of the registration using RMS error. All cases are included.

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Table 2 The success rate and running time (s) computation.

Equations (2)

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D FO ( 1 , i ) = j = 1 128 [ h f , 1 ( j ) h o , i ( j ) ] 2 , i = 1 , 2 , , M .
RMS = 1 5 i = 1 5 p o , i p ^ f , i 2 ,

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