Abstract

DNA sequencing by microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) enables cheap, high-speed analysis of low reagent volumes. One of its potential applications is the identification of genomic deletions or insertions associated with genetic illnesses. Detecting single base-pair insertions or deletions from DNA fragments in the diagnostically relevant size range of 150−1000 base-pairs requires a variance of σ2 < 10−3. In a microfluidic chip post-processed by femtosecond-laser writing of an optical waveguide we CE-separated 12 blue-labeled and 23 red-labeled DNA fragments in size. Each set was excited by either of two lasers power-modulated at different frequencies, their fluorescence detected by a photomultiplier, and blue and red signals distinguished by Fourier analysis. We tested different calibration strategies. Choice of the fluorescent label as well as the applied fit function strongly influence the obtained variance, whereas fluctuations between two consecutive experiments are less detrimental in a laboratory environment. We demonstrate a variance of σ2 ≈4 × 10−4, lower than required for the detection of single base-pair insertion or deletion in an optofluidic chip.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

A. Minucci, G. Canu, M. De Bonis, E. Delibato, and E. Capoluongo, “Is capillary electrophoresis on microchip devices able to genotype uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 TATA-box polymorphisms?” J. Sep. Sci. 37(12), 1521–1523 (2014).
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A. M. Schrell and M. G. Roper, “Frequency-encoded laser-induced fluorescence for multiplexed detection in infrared-mediated quantitative PCR,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(11), 2695–2701 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. Besselink, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11(4), 679–683 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “All-numerical noise filtering of fluorescence signals for achieving ultra-low limit of detection in biomedical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(6), 1248–1251 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. Besselink, R. van Weeghel, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, M. Cretich, M. Chiari, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “High-resolution electrophoretic separation and integrated-waveguide excitation of fluorescent DNA molecules in a lab on a chip,” Electrophoresis 31(15), 2584–2588 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pile, “Eavesdropping on DNA replication,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 79–80 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

D. Altshuler, M. J. Daly, and E. S. Lander, “Genetic mapping in human disease,” Science 322(5903), 881–888 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Fredlake, D. G. Hert, C. W. Kan, T. N. Chiesl, B. E. Root, R. E. Forster, and A. E. Barron, “Ultrafast DNA sequencing on a microchip by a hybrid separation mechanism that gives 600 bases in 6.5 minutes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(2), 476–481 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Hunt and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optofluidic integration for microanalysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 4(1-2), 53–79 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. B. Myers and L. P. Lee, “Innovations in optical microfluidic technologies for point-of-care diagnostics,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2015–2031 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. Yin, E. J. Lunt, M. I. Rudenko, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Planar optofluidic chip for single particle detection, manipulation, and analysis,” Lab Chip 7(9), 1171–1175 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

C. J. Easley, J. M. Karlinsey, J. M. Bienvenue, L. A. Legendre, M. G. Roper, S. H. Feldman, M. A. Hughes, E. L. Hewlett, T. J. Merkel, J. P. Ferrance, and J. P. Landers, “A fully integrated microfluidic genetic analysis system with sample-in-answer-out capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(51), 19272–19277 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Götz and U. Karst, “Recent developments in optical detection methods for microchip separations,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(1), 183–192 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. B. Wolfe, D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, “Diffusion controlled optical elements for optofluidics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181105 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Cretich, M. Chiari, G. Pirri, and A. Crippa, “Electroosmotic flow suppression in capillary electrophoresis: chemisorption of trimethoxy silane-modified polydimethylacrylamide,” Electrophoresis 26(10), 1913–1919 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Kataoka, S. Inoue, K. Kajimoto, Y. Sinohara, and Y. Baba, “Usefulness of microchip electrophoresis for reliable analyses of nonstandard DNA samples and subsequent on-chip enzymatic digestion,” Eur. J. Biochem. 271(11), 2241–2247 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. T. Lagally and R. A. Mathies, “Integrated genetic analysis Microsystems,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(23), 245–261 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (5)

G. W. Slater, M. Kenward, L. C. McCormick, and M. G. Gauthier, “The theory of DNA separation by capillary electrophoresis,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 14(1), 58–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Verpoorte, “Chip vision-optics for microchips,” Lab Chip 3(3), 42N–52N (2003).
[PubMed]

J. P. Landers, “Molecular diagnostics on electrophoretic microchips,” Anal. Chem. 75(12), 2919–2927 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. de Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond laser writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (5)

H. Tian and J. P. Landers, “Hydroxyethylcellulose as an effective polymer network for DNA analysis in uncoated glass microchips: optimization and application to mutation detection via heteroduplex analysis,” Anal. Biochem. 309(2), 212–223 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Alaverdian, S. Alaverdian, O. Bilenko, I. Bogdanov, E. Filippova, D. Gavrilov, B. Gorbovitski, M. Gouzman, G. Gudkov, S. Domratchev, O. Kosobokova, N. Lifshitz, S. Luryi, V. Ruskovoloshin, A. Stepoukhovitch, M. Tcherevishnick, G. Tyshko, and V. Gorfinkel, “A family of novel DNA sequencing instruments based on single-photon detection,” Electrophoresis 23(16), 2804–2817 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Paegel, C. A. Emrich, G. J. Wedemayer, J. R. Scherer, and R. A. Mathies, “High throughput DNA sequencing with a microfabricated 96-lane capillary array electrophoresis bioprocessor,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(2), 574–579 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Reyes, D. Iossifidis, P. A. Auroux, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. 1. Introduction, theory, and technology,” Anal. Chem. 74(12), 2623–2636 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Auroux, D. Iossifidis, D. R. Reyes, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. 2. Analytical standard operations and applications,” Anal. Chem. 74(12), 2637–2652 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium, “Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome,” Nature 409(6822), 860–921 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

G. J. M. Bruin, “Recent developments in electrokinetically driven analysis on microfabricated devices,” Electrophoresis 21(18), 3931–3951 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

B. B. Rosenblum, F. Oaks, S. Menchen, and B. Johnson, “Improved single-strand DNA sizing accuracy in capillary electrophoresis,” Nucleic Acids Res. 25(19), 3925–3929 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

D. J. Harrison, K. Fluri, K. Seiler, Z. Fan, C. S. Effenhauser, and A. Manz, “Micromachining a miniaturized capillary electrophoresis-based chemical analysis system on a chip,” Science 261(5123), 895–897 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, “Miniaturized total chemical analysis systems: a novel concept for chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 1(1-6), 244–248 (1990).
[Crossref]

Alaverdian, L.

L. Alaverdian, S. Alaverdian, O. Bilenko, I. Bogdanov, E. Filippova, D. Gavrilov, B. Gorbovitski, M. Gouzman, G. Gudkov, S. Domratchev, O. Kosobokova, N. Lifshitz, S. Luryi, V. Ruskovoloshin, A. Stepoukhovitch, M. Tcherevishnick, G. Tyshko, and V. Gorfinkel, “A family of novel DNA sequencing instruments based on single-photon detection,” Electrophoresis 23(16), 2804–2817 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alaverdian, S.

L. Alaverdian, S. Alaverdian, O. Bilenko, I. Bogdanov, E. Filippova, D. Gavrilov, B. Gorbovitski, M. Gouzman, G. Gudkov, S. Domratchev, O. Kosobokova, N. Lifshitz, S. Luryi, V. Ruskovoloshin, A. Stepoukhovitch, M. Tcherevishnick, G. Tyshko, and V. Gorfinkel, “A family of novel DNA sequencing instruments based on single-photon detection,” Electrophoresis 23(16), 2804–2817 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altshuler, D.

D. Altshuler, M. J. Daly, and E. S. Lander, “Genetic mapping in human disease,” Science 322(5903), 881–888 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. W.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auroux, P. A.

D. R. Reyes, D. Iossifidis, P. A. Auroux, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. 1. Introduction, theory, and technology,” Anal. Chem. 74(12), 2623–2636 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Auroux, D. Iossifidis, D. R. Reyes, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. 2. Analytical standard operations and applications,” Anal. Chem. 74(12), 2637–2652 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baba, Y.

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Barron, A. E.

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Baybayan, P.

J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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Besselink, G. A.

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. Besselink, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11(4), 679–683 (2011).
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C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. Besselink, R. van Weeghel, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, M. Cretich, M. Chiari, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “High-resolution electrophoretic separation and integrated-waveguide excitation of fluorescent DNA molecules in a lab on a chip,” Electrophoresis 31(15), 2584–2588 (2010).
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Bettman, B.

J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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C. J. Easley, J. M. Karlinsey, J. M. Bienvenue, L. A. Legendre, M. G. Roper, S. H. Feldman, M. A. Hughes, E. L. Hewlett, T. J. Merkel, J. P. Ferrance, and J. P. Landers, “A fully integrated microfluidic genetic analysis system with sample-in-answer-out capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(51), 19272–19277 (2006).
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J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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G. J. M. Bruin, “Recent developments in electrokinetically driven analysis on microfabricated devices,” Electrophoresis 21(18), 3931–3951 (2000).
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A. Minucci, G. Canu, M. De Bonis, E. Delibato, and E. Capoluongo, “Is capillary electrophoresis on microchip devices able to genotype uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 TATA-box polymorphisms?” J. Sep. Sci. 37(12), 1521–1523 (2014).
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Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
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C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. Besselink, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11(4), 679–683 (2011).
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C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. Besselink, R. van Weeghel, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, M. Cretich, M. Chiari, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “High-resolution electrophoretic separation and integrated-waveguide excitation of fluorescent DNA molecules in a lab on a chip,” Electrophoresis 31(15), 2584–2588 (2010).
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A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
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R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
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R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. de Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond laser writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
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C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. Besselink, R. van Weeghel, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, M. Cretich, M. Chiari, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “High-resolution electrophoretic separation and integrated-waveguide excitation of fluorescent DNA molecules in a lab on a chip,” Electrophoresis 31(15), 2584–2588 (2010).
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C. P. Fredlake, D. G. Hert, C. W. Kan, T. N. Chiesl, B. E. Root, R. E. Forster, and A. E. Barron, “Ultrafast DNA sequencing on a microchip by a hybrid separation mechanism that gives 600 bases in 6.5 minutes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(2), 476–481 (2008).
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A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
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Cretich, M.

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. Besselink, R. van Weeghel, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, M. Cretich, M. Chiari, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “High-resolution electrophoretic separation and integrated-waveguide excitation of fluorescent DNA molecules in a lab on a chip,” Electrophoresis 31(15), 2584–2588 (2010).
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M. Cretich, M. Chiari, G. Pirri, and A. Crippa, “Electroosmotic flow suppression in capillary electrophoresis: chemisorption of trimethoxy silane-modified polydimethylacrylamide,” Electrophoresis 26(10), 1913–1919 (2005).
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Crippa, A.

M. Cretich, M. Chiari, G. Pirri, and A. Crippa, “Electroosmotic flow suppression in capillary electrophoresis: chemisorption of trimethoxy silane-modified polydimethylacrylamide,” Electrophoresis 26(10), 1913–1919 (2005).
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Dalal, R.

J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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de Silvestri, S.

Deamer, D. W.

D. Yin, E. J. Lunt, M. I. Rudenko, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Planar optofluidic chip for single particle detection, manipulation, and analysis,” Lab Chip 7(9), 1171–1175 (2007).
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Delibato, E.

A. Minucci, G. Canu, M. De Bonis, E. Delibato, and E. Capoluongo, “Is capillary electrophoresis on microchip devices able to genotype uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 TATA-box polymorphisms?” J. Sep. Sci. 37(12), 1521–1523 (2014).
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Dewinter, A.

J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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Dixon, J.

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C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. Besselink, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11(4), 679–683 (2011).
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C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “All-numerical noise filtering of fluorescence signals for achieving ultra-low limit of detection in biomedical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(6), 1248–1251 (2011).
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C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. Besselink, R. van Weeghel, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, M. Cretich, M. Chiari, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “High-resolution electrophoretic separation and integrated-waveguide excitation of fluorescent DNA molecules in a lab on a chip,” Electrophoresis 31(15), 2584–2588 (2010).
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R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
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J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
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Forster, R. E.

C. P. Fredlake, D. G. Hert, C. W. Kan, T. N. Chiesl, B. E. Root, R. E. Forster, and A. E. Barron, “Ultrafast DNA sequencing on a microchip by a hybrid separation mechanism that gives 600 bases in 6.5 minutes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(2), 476–481 (2008).
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G. W. Slater, M. Kenward, L. C. McCormick, and M. G. Gauthier, “The theory of DNA separation by capillary electrophoresis,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 14(1), 58–64 (2003).
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Gorbovitski, B.

L. Alaverdian, S. Alaverdian, O. Bilenko, I. Bogdanov, E. Filippova, D. Gavrilov, B. Gorbovitski, M. Gouzman, G. Gudkov, S. Domratchev, O. Kosobokova, N. Lifshitz, S. Luryi, V. Ruskovoloshin, A. Stepoukhovitch, M. Tcherevishnick, G. Tyshko, and V. Gorfinkel, “A family of novel DNA sequencing instruments based on single-photon detection,” Electrophoresis 23(16), 2804–2817 (2002).
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Gorfinkel, V.

L. Alaverdian, S. Alaverdian, O. Bilenko, I. Bogdanov, E. Filippova, D. Gavrilov, B. Gorbovitski, M. Gouzman, G. Gudkov, S. Domratchev, O. Kosobokova, N. Lifshitz, S. Luryi, V. Ruskovoloshin, A. Stepoukhovitch, M. Tcherevishnick, G. Tyshko, and V. Gorfinkel, “A family of novel DNA sequencing instruments based on single-photon detection,” Electrophoresis 23(16), 2804–2817 (2002).
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S. Götz and U. Karst, “Recent developments in optical detection methods for microchip separations,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(1), 183–192 (2006).
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Gouzman, M.

L. Alaverdian, S. Alaverdian, O. Bilenko, I. Bogdanov, E. Filippova, D. Gavrilov, B. Gorbovitski, M. Gouzman, G. Gudkov, S. Domratchev, O. Kosobokova, N. Lifshitz, S. Luryi, V. Ruskovoloshin, A. Stepoukhovitch, M. Tcherevishnick, G. Tyshko, and V. Gorfinkel, “A family of novel DNA sequencing instruments based on single-photon detection,” Electrophoresis 23(16), 2804–2817 (2002).
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Hardenbol, P.

J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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D. J. Harrison, K. Fluri, K. Seiler, Z. Fan, C. S. Effenhauser, and A. Manz, “Micromachining a miniaturized capillary electrophoresis-based chemical analysis system on a chip,” Science 261(5123), 895–897 (1993).
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C. P. Fredlake, D. G. Hert, C. W. Kan, T. N. Chiesl, B. E. Root, R. E. Forster, and A. E. Barron, “Ultrafast DNA sequencing on a microchip by a hybrid separation mechanism that gives 600 bases in 6.5 minutes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(2), 476–481 (2008).
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J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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C. J. Easley, J. M. Karlinsey, J. M. Bienvenue, L. A. Legendre, M. G. Roper, S. H. Feldman, M. A. Hughes, E. L. Hewlett, T. J. Merkel, J. P. Ferrance, and J. P. Landers, “A fully integrated microfluidic genetic analysis system with sample-in-answer-out capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(51), 19272–19277 (2006).
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R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
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J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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M. Kataoka, S. Inoue, K. Kajimoto, Y. Sinohara, and Y. Baba, “Usefulness of microchip electrophoresis for reliable analyses of nonstandard DNA samples and subsequent on-chip enzymatic digestion,” Eur. J. Biochem. 271(11), 2241–2247 (2004).
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Kan, C. W.

C. P. Fredlake, D. G. Hert, C. W. Kan, T. N. Chiesl, B. E. Root, R. E. Forster, and A. E. Barron, “Ultrafast DNA sequencing on a microchip by a hybrid separation mechanism that gives 600 bases in 6.5 minutes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(2), 476–481 (2008).
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Karlinsey, J. M.

C. J. Easley, J. M. Karlinsey, J. M. Bienvenue, L. A. Legendre, M. G. Roper, S. H. Feldman, M. A. Hughes, E. L. Hewlett, T. J. Merkel, J. P. Ferrance, and J. P. Landers, “A fully integrated microfluidic genetic analysis system with sample-in-answer-out capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(51), 19272–19277 (2006).
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Karst, U.

S. Götz and U. Karst, “Recent developments in optical detection methods for microchip separations,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(1), 183–192 (2006).
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Kataoka, M.

M. Kataoka, S. Inoue, K. Kajimoto, Y. Sinohara, and Y. Baba, “Usefulness of microchip electrophoresis for reliable analyses of nonstandard DNA samples and subsequent on-chip enzymatic digestion,” Eur. J. Biochem. 271(11), 2241–2247 (2004).
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Kearns, G.

J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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Kenward, M.

G. W. Slater, M. Kenward, L. C. McCormick, and M. G. Gauthier, “The theory of DNA separation by capillary electrophoresis,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 14(1), 58–64 (2003).
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Kong, X.

J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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Korlach, J.

J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
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Kosobokova, O.

L. Alaverdian, S. Alaverdian, O. Bilenko, I. Bogdanov, E. Filippova, D. Gavrilov, B. Gorbovitski, M. Gouzman, G. Gudkov, S. Domratchev, O. Kosobokova, N. Lifshitz, S. Luryi, V. Ruskovoloshin, A. Stepoukhovitch, M. Tcherevishnick, G. Tyshko, and V. Gorfinkel, “A family of novel DNA sequencing instruments based on single-photon detection,” Electrophoresis 23(16), 2804–2817 (2002).
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J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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Watts, P.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
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Webb, W. W.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
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Wedemayer, G. J.

B. M. Paegel, C. A. Emrich, G. J. Wedemayer, J. R. Scherer, and R. A. Mathies, “High throughput DNA sequencing with a microfabricated 96-lane capillary array electrophoresis bioprocessor,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(2), 574–579 (2002).
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J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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Zaccarin, D.

J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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Zhao, P.

J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, F.

J. Eid, A. Fehr, J. Gray, K. Luong, J. Lyle, G. Otto, P. Peluso, D. Rank, P. Baybayan, B. Bettman, A. Bibillo, K. Bjornson, B. Chaudhuri, F. Christians, R. Cicero, S. Clark, R. Dalal, A. Dewinter, J. Dixon, M. Foquet, A. Gaertner, P. Hardenbol, C. Heiner, K. Hester, D. Holden, G. Kearns, X. Kong, R. Kuse, Y. Lacroix, S. Lin, P. Lundquist, C. Ma, P. Marks, M. Maxham, D. Murphy, I. Park, T. Pham, M. Phillips, J. Roy, R. Sebra, G. Shen, J. Sorenson, A. Tomaney, K. Travers, M. Trulson, J. Vieceli, J. Wegener, D. Wu, A. Yang, D. Zaccarin, P. Zhao, F. Zhong, J. Korlach, and S. Turner, “Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules,” Science 323(5910), 133–138 (2009).
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C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “All-numerical noise filtering of fluorescence signals for achieving ultra-low limit of detection in biomedical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(6), 1248–1251 (2011).
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A. M. Schrell and M. G. Roper, “Frequency-encoded laser-induced fluorescence for multiplexed detection in infrared-mediated quantitative PCR,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(11), 2695–2701 (2014).
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D. B. Wolfe, D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, “Diffusion controlled optical elements for optofluidics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181105 (2005).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optofluidic chip showing reservoirs 1−4, sample injection channel (reservoir 1 → reservoir 2) and CE separation channel (reservoir 3 → reservoir 4), as well as the integrated optical waveguide and detection window.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Migration time (linear scale) versus base-pair size (logarithmic scale) of 12 blue-labeled (light and dark blue) and 23 red-labeled (orange and red) DNA molecules simultaneously migrated and separated in (a) experiment 1 (“exp. 1”, circles) and (b) experiment 2 (“exp. 2”, squares). The same data of (c) 12 blue-labeled and (d) 23 red-labeled DNA molecules. Linear and quadratic fits (solid lines) are shown only for the data of experiment 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variance σ2 of sample data measured in experiment (“exp.”) 1 or 2 from (a) the linear fit function of Eq. (1) and (b) the quadratic fit function of Eq. (2), which were obtained from the measured reference (“ref.”) data from the same or the different (“diff.”) experiment.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the least-squares fits of the experimental data of Fig. 2(c) and 2(d) using the linear Eq. (1) or the quadratic Eq. (2).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Variance σ2 [10-3] using the linear Eq. (1) (italic numbers) or the quadratic Eq. (2) (bold numbers).

Equations (2)

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ln( S bp )=at+b,
ln( S bp )=c t 2 +dt+e,

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