Abstract

Assessment of the cardiovascular parameters using noncontact video-based or imaging photoplethysmography (IPPG) is usually considered as inaccurate because of strong influence of motion artefacts. To optimize this technique we performed a simultaneous recording of electrocardiogram and video frames of the face for 36 healthy volunteers. We found that signal disturbances originate mainly from the stochastically enhanced dichroic notch caused by endogenous cardiovascular mechanisms, with smaller contribution of the motion artefacts. Our properly designed algorithm allowed us to increase accuracy of the pulse-transit-time measurement and visualize propagation of the pulse wave in the facial region. Thus, the accurate measurement of the pulse wave parameters with this technique suggests a sensitive approach to assess local regulation of microcirculation in various physiological and pathological states.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C.-C. Chuang, J.-J. Ye, W.-C. Lin, K.-T. Lee, and Y.-T. Tai, “Photoplethysmography variability as an alternative approach to obtain heart rate variability information in chronic pain patient,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 29(6), 801–806 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. L. Woolam, P. L. Schnur, C. Vallbona, and H. E. Hoff, “The pulse wave velocity as an early indicator of atherosclerosis in diabetic subjects,” Circulation 25(3), 533–539 (1962).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. J. Toto-Moukouo, A. Achimastos, R. G. Asmar, C. J. Hugues, and M. E. Safar, “Pulse wave velocity in patients with obesity and hypertension,” Am. Heart J. 112(1), 136–140 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Y. C. Chiu, P. W. Arand, S. G. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. D. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. A. Laogun, D. L. Newman, and R. G. Gosling, “Comparison of pulse wave velocity measured by Doppler shifted ultrasound and electromagnetic flowmetry,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 3(4), 367–371 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. I. Rabben, N. Stergiopulos, L. R. Hellevik, O. A. Smiseth, S. Slørdahl, S. Urheim, and B. Angelsen, “An ultrasound-based method for determining pulse wave velocity in superficial arteries,” J. Biomech. 37(10), 1615–1622 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Nitzan, B. Khanokh, and Y. Slovik, “The difference in pulse transit time to the toe and finger measured by photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 23(1), 85–93 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. N. Selvaraj, A. Jaryal, J. Santhosh, K. K. Deepak, and S. Anand, “Assessment of heart rate variability derived from finger-tip photoplethysmography as compared to electrocardiography,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 32(6), 479–484 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. R. Jago and A. Murray, “Repeatability of peripheral pulse measurements on ears, fingers and toes using photoelectric plethysmography,” Clin. Phys. Physiol. Meas. 9(4), 319–329 (1988).
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  13. Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  17. B. D. Holton, K. Mannapperuma, P. J. Lesniewski, and J. C. Thomas, “Signal recovery in imaging photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 34(11), 1499–1511 (2013).
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  27. J. Allen, “Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement,” Physiol. Meas. 28(3), R1–R39 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. R. Sahni, “Noninvasive monitoring by photoplethysmography,” Clin. Perinatol. 39(3), 573–583 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. A. Ruha, S. Sallinen, and S. Nissilä, “A real-time microprocessor QRS detector system with a 1-ms timing accuracy for the measurement of ambulatory HRV,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44(3), 159–167 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. H. F. Posada-Quintero, D. Delisle-Rodríguez, M. B. Cuadra-Sanz, and R. R. Fernández de la Vara-Prieto, “Evaluation of pulse rate variability obtained by the pulse onsets of the photoplethysmographic signal,” Physiol. Meas. 34(2), 179–187 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. V. Kupaev, O. Borisov, E. Marutina, Y.-X. Yan, and W. Wang, “Integration of suboptimal health status and endothelial dysfunction as a new aspect for risk evaluation of cardiovascular disease,” EPMA J. 7(1), 19 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. S. A. A. P. Hoeksel, J. R. C. Jansen, J. A. Blom, and J. J. Schreuder, “Detection of dicrotic notch in arterial pressure signals,” J. Clin. Monit. 13(5), 309–316 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. P. J. Chowienczyk, R. P. Kelly, H. MacCallum, S. C. Millasseau, T. L. G. Andersson, R. G. Gosling, J. M. Ritter, and E. E. Anggård, “Photoplethysmographic assessment of pulse wave reflection: blunted response to endothelium-dependent beta2-adrenergic vasodilation in type II diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 34(7), 2007–2014 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

M. C. Hemon and J. P. Phillips, “Comparison of foot finding methods for deriving instantaneous pulse rates from photoplethysmographic signals,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 30(2), 157–168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. I. Tiftikcioglu, S. Bilgin, T. Duksal, S. Kose, and Y. Zorlu, “Autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(14), e3340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Kupaev, O. Borisov, E. Marutina, Y.-X. Yan, and W. Wang, “Integration of suboptimal health status and endothelial dysfunction as a new aspect for risk evaluation of cardiovascular disease,” EPMA J. 7(1), 19 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. V. Mamontov, L. Babayan, A. V. Amelin, R. Giniatullin, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Autonomous control of cardiovascular reactivity in patients with episodic and chronic forms of migraine,” J. Headache Pain 17(1), 52 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. S. Sidorov, M. A. Volynsky, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Influence of polarization filtration on the information readout from pulsating blood vessels,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2469–2474 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (8)

J. Moreno, J. Ramos-Castro, J. Movellan, E. Parrado, G. Rodas, and L. Capdevila, “Facial video-based photoplethysmography to detect HRV at rest,” Int. J. Sports Med. 36(6), 474–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kamshilin, E. Nippolainen, I. S. Sidorov, P. V. Vasilev, N. P. Erofeev, N. P. Podolian, and R. V. Romashko, “A new look at the essence of the imaging photoplethysmography,” Sci. Rep. 5(5), 10494 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Bal, “Non-contact estimation of heart rate and oxygen saturation using ambient light,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(1), 86–97 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kumar, A. Veeraraghavan, and A. Sabharwal, “DistancePPG: Robust non-contact vital signs monitoring using a camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1565–1588 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Yu, P. Raveendran, and C.-L. Lim, “Dynamic heart rate measurements from video sequences,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2466–2480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Yu, P. Raveendran, C.-L. Lim, and B.-H. Kwan, “Dynamic heart rate estimation using principal component analysis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4610–4618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Silva, T. Loureiro, A. Teixeira, I. Almeida, A. Mansilha, C. Vasconcelos, and R. Almeida, “Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: role of flow-mediated dilatation and capillaroscopy as risk assessment tools,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 25(5), 444–451 (2015).
[PubMed]

C.-C. Chuang, J.-J. Ye, W.-C. Lin, K.-T. Lee, and Y.-T. Tai, “Photoplethysmography variability as an alternative approach to obtain heart rate variability information in chronic pain patient,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 29(6), 801–806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shao, Y. Yang, C. Liu, F. Tsow, H. Yu, and N. Tao, “Noncontact monitoring breathing pattern, exhalation flow rate and pulse transit time,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61(11), 2760–2767 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

B. D. Holton, K. Mannapperuma, P. J. Lesniewski, and J. C. Thomas, “Signal recovery in imaging photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 34(11), 1499–1511 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zaproudina, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, J. A. Lipponen, A. A. Kamshilin, M. Närhi, P. A. Karjalainen, and R. Giniatullin, “Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine,” PLoS One 8(12), e80189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schäfer and J. Vagedes, “How accurate is pulse rate variability as an estimate of heart rate variability? A review on studies comparing photoplethysmographic technology with an electrocardiogram,” Int. J. Cardiol. 166(1), 15–29 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kamshilin, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, S. Miridonov, and R. Giniatullin, “Variability of microcirculation detected by blood pulsation imaging,” PLoS One 8(2), e57117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Posada-Quintero, D. Delisle-Rodríguez, M. B. Cuadra-Sanz, and R. R. Fernández de la Vara-Prieto, “Evaluation of pulse rate variability obtained by the pulse onsets of the photoplethysmographic signal,” Physiol. Meas. 34(2), 179–187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sahni, “Noninvasive monitoring by photoplethysmography,” Clin. Perinatol. 39(3), 573–583 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A. H. Khandoker, C. K. Karmakar, and M. Palaniswami, “Comparison of pulse rate variability with heart rate variability during obstructive sleep apnea,” Med. Eng. Phys. 33(2), 204–209 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in noncontact, multiparameter physiological measurements using a webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. Selvaraj, A. Jaryal, J. Santhosh, K. K. Deepak, and S. Anand, “Assessment of heart rate variability derived from finger-tip photoplethysmography as compared to electrocardiography,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 32(6), 479–484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Allen, “Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement,” Physiol. Meas. 28(3), R1–R39 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. I. Rabben, N. Stergiopulos, L. R. Hellevik, O. A. Smiseth, S. Slørdahl, S. Urheim, and B. Angelsen, “An ultrasound-based method for determining pulse wave velocity in superficial arteries,” J. Biomech. 37(10), 1615–1622 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Nitzan, B. Khanokh, and Y. Slovik, “The difference in pulse transit time to the toe and finger measured by photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 23(1), 85–93 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

P. J. Chowienczyk, R. P. Kelly, H. MacCallum, S. C. Millasseau, T. L. G. Andersson, R. G. Gosling, J. M. Ritter, and E. E. Anggård, “Photoplethysmographic assessment of pulse wave reflection: blunted response to endothelium-dependent beta2-adrenergic vasodilation in type II diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 34(7), 2007–2014 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

S. A. A. P. Hoeksel, J. R. C. Jansen, J. A. Blom, and J. J. Schreuder, “Detection of dicrotic notch in arterial pressure signals,” J. Clin. Monit. 13(5), 309–316 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ruha, S. Sallinen, and S. Nissilä, “A real-time microprocessor QRS detector system with a 1-ms timing accuracy for the measurement of ambulatory HRV,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44(3), 159–167 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Y. C. Chiu, P. W. Arand, S. G. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. D. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

D. Mehta and A. J. Camm, “Signal-averaged electrocardiography and the significance of late potentials in patients with “idiopathic” ventricular tachycardia: a review,” Clin. Cardiol. 12(6), 307–312 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. R. Jago and A. Murray, “Repeatability of peripheral pulse measurements on ears, fingers and toes using photoelectric plethysmography,” Clin. Phys. Physiol. Meas. 9(4), 319–329 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. J. Toto-Moukouo, A. Achimastos, R. G. Asmar, C. J. Hugues, and M. E. Safar, “Pulse wave velocity in patients with obesity and hypertension,” Am. Heart J. 112(1), 136–140 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

A. A. Laogun, D. L. Newman, and R. G. Gosling, “Comparison of pulse wave velocity measured by Doppler shifted ultrasound and electromagnetic flowmetry,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 3(4), 367–371 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

G. L. Woolam, P. L. Schnur, C. Vallbona, and H. E. Hoff, “The pulse wave velocity as an early indicator of atherosclerosis in diabetic subjects,” Circulation 25(3), 533–539 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Achimastos, A.

J. J. Toto-Moukouo, A. Achimastos, R. G. Asmar, C. J. Hugues, and M. E. Safar, “Pulse wave velocity in patients with obesity and hypertension,” Am. Heart J. 112(1), 136–140 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, J.

J. Allen, “Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement,” Physiol. Meas. 28(3), R1–R39 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, I.

I. Silva, T. Loureiro, A. Teixeira, I. Almeida, A. Mansilha, C. Vasconcelos, and R. Almeida, “Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: role of flow-mediated dilatation and capillaroscopy as risk assessment tools,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 25(5), 444–451 (2015).
[PubMed]

Almeida, R.

I. Silva, T. Loureiro, A. Teixeira, I. Almeida, A. Mansilha, C. Vasconcelos, and R. Almeida, “Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: role of flow-mediated dilatation and capillaroscopy as risk assessment tools,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 25(5), 444–451 (2015).
[PubMed]

Amelin, A. V.

O. V. Mamontov, L. Babayan, A. V. Amelin, R. Giniatullin, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Autonomous control of cardiovascular reactivity in patients with episodic and chronic forms of migraine,” J. Headache Pain 17(1), 52 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anand, S.

N. Selvaraj, A. Jaryal, J. Santhosh, K. K. Deepak, and S. Anand, “Assessment of heart rate variability derived from finger-tip photoplethysmography as compared to electrocardiography,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 32(6), 479–484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson, T. L. G.

P. J. Chowienczyk, R. P. Kelly, H. MacCallum, S. C. Millasseau, T. L. G. Andersson, R. G. Gosling, J. M. Ritter, and E. E. Anggård, “Photoplethysmographic assessment of pulse wave reflection: blunted response to endothelium-dependent beta2-adrenergic vasodilation in type II diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 34(7), 2007–2014 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angelsen, B.

S. I. Rabben, N. Stergiopulos, L. R. Hellevik, O. A. Smiseth, S. Slørdahl, S. Urheim, and B. Angelsen, “An ultrasound-based method for determining pulse wave velocity in superficial arteries,” J. Biomech. 37(10), 1615–1622 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anggård, E. E.

P. J. Chowienczyk, R. P. Kelly, H. MacCallum, S. C. Millasseau, T. L. G. Andersson, R. G. Gosling, J. M. Ritter, and E. E. Anggård, “Photoplethysmographic assessment of pulse wave reflection: blunted response to endothelium-dependent beta2-adrenergic vasodilation in type II diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 34(7), 2007–2014 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arand, P. W.

Y. C. Chiu, P. W. Arand, S. G. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. D. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asmar, R. G.

J. J. Toto-Moukouo, A. Achimastos, R. G. Asmar, C. J. Hugues, and M. E. Safar, “Pulse wave velocity in patients with obesity and hypertension,” Am. Heart J. 112(1), 136–140 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azorin-Peris, V.

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babayan, L.

O. V. Mamontov, L. Babayan, A. V. Amelin, R. Giniatullin, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Autonomous control of cardiovascular reactivity in patients with episodic and chronic forms of migraine,” J. Headache Pain 17(1), 52 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bal, U.

Bilgin, S.

B. I. Tiftikcioglu, S. Bilgin, T. Duksal, S. Kose, and Y. Zorlu, “Autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(14), e3340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blom, J. A.

S. A. A. P. Hoeksel, J. R. C. Jansen, J. A. Blom, and J. J. Schreuder, “Detection of dicrotic notch in arterial pressure signals,” J. Clin. Monit. 13(5), 309–316 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borisov, O.

V. Kupaev, O. Borisov, E. Marutina, Y.-X. Yan, and W. Wang, “Integration of suboptimal health status and endothelial dysfunction as a new aspect for risk evaluation of cardiovascular disease,” EPMA J. 7(1), 19 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camm, A. J.

D. Mehta and A. J. Camm, “Signal-averaged electrocardiography and the significance of late potentials in patients with “idiopathic” ventricular tachycardia: a review,” Clin. Cardiol. 12(6), 307–312 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capdevila, L.

J. Moreno, J. Ramos-Castro, J. Movellan, E. Parrado, G. Rodas, and L. Capdevila, “Facial video-based photoplethysmography to detect HRV at rest,” Int. J. Sports Med. 36(6), 474–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carroll, J. D.

Y. C. Chiu, P. W. Arand, S. G. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. D. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
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Chiu, Y. C.

Y. C. Chiu, P. W. Arand, S. G. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. D. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chowienczyk, P. J.

P. J. Chowienczyk, R. P. Kelly, H. MacCallum, S. C. Millasseau, T. L. G. Andersson, R. G. Gosling, J. M. Ritter, and E. E. Anggård, “Photoplethysmographic assessment of pulse wave reflection: blunted response to endothelium-dependent beta2-adrenergic vasodilation in type II diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 34(7), 2007–2014 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, C.-C.

C.-C. Chuang, J.-J. Ye, W.-C. Lin, K.-T. Lee, and Y.-T. Tai, “Photoplethysmography variability as an alternative approach to obtain heart rate variability information in chronic pain patient,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 29(6), 801–806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clifton, D. A.

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuadra-Sanz, M. B.

H. F. Posada-Quintero, D. Delisle-Rodríguez, M. B. Cuadra-Sanz, and R. R. Fernández de la Vara-Prieto, “Evaluation of pulse rate variability obtained by the pulse onsets of the photoplethysmographic signal,” Physiol. Meas. 34(2), 179–187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deepak, K. K.

N. Selvaraj, A. Jaryal, J. Santhosh, K. K. Deepak, and S. Anand, “Assessment of heart rate variability derived from finger-tip photoplethysmography as compared to electrocardiography,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 32(6), 479–484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. F. Posada-Quintero, D. Delisle-Rodríguez, M. B. Cuadra-Sanz, and R. R. Fernández de la Vara-Prieto, “Evaluation of pulse rate variability obtained by the pulse onsets of the photoplethysmographic signal,” Physiol. Meas. 34(2), 179–187 (2013).
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Duksal, T.

B. I. Tiftikcioglu, S. Bilgin, T. Duksal, S. Kose, and Y. Zorlu, “Autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(14), e3340 (2016).
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Erofeev, N. P.

A. A. Kamshilin, E. Nippolainen, I. S. Sidorov, P. V. Vasilev, N. P. Erofeev, N. P. Podolian, and R. V. Romashko, “A new look at the essence of the imaging photoplethysmography,” Sci. Rep. 5(5), 10494 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, T.

Y. C. Chiu, P. W. Arand, S. G. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. D. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
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H. F. Posada-Quintero, D. Delisle-Rodríguez, M. B. Cuadra-Sanz, and R. R. Fernández de la Vara-Prieto, “Evaluation of pulse rate variability obtained by the pulse onsets of the photoplethysmographic signal,” Physiol. Meas. 34(2), 179–187 (2013).
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O. V. Mamontov, L. Babayan, A. V. Amelin, R. Giniatullin, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Autonomous control of cardiovascular reactivity in patients with episodic and chronic forms of migraine,” J. Headache Pain 17(1), 52 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zaproudina, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, J. A. Lipponen, A. A. Kamshilin, M. Närhi, P. A. Karjalainen, and R. Giniatullin, “Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine,” PLoS One 8(12), e80189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kamshilin, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, S. Miridonov, and R. Giniatullin, “Variability of microcirculation detected by blood pulsation imaging,” PLoS One 8(2), e57117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gosling, R. G.

P. J. Chowienczyk, R. P. Kelly, H. MacCallum, S. C. Millasseau, T. L. G. Andersson, R. G. Gosling, J. M. Ritter, and E. E. Anggård, “Photoplethysmographic assessment of pulse wave reflection: blunted response to endothelium-dependent beta2-adrenergic vasodilation in type II diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 34(7), 2007–2014 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Laogun, D. L. Newman, and R. G. Gosling, “Comparison of pulse wave velocity measured by Doppler shifted ultrasound and electromagnetic flowmetry,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 3(4), 367–371 (1978).
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Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2012).
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L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
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S. I. Rabben, N. Stergiopulos, L. R. Hellevik, O. A. Smiseth, S. Slørdahl, S. Urheim, and B. Angelsen, “An ultrasound-based method for determining pulse wave velocity in superficial arteries,” J. Biomech. 37(10), 1615–1622 (2004).
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Hemon, M. C.

M. C. Hemon and J. P. Phillips, “Comparison of foot finding methods for deriving instantaneous pulse rates from photoplethysmographic signals,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 30(2), 157–168 (2016).
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G. L. Woolam, P. L. Schnur, C. Vallbona, and H. E. Hoff, “The pulse wave velocity as an early indicator of atherosclerosis in diabetic subjects,” Circulation 25(3), 533–539 (1962).
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B. D. Holton, K. Mannapperuma, P. J. Lesniewski, and J. C. Thomas, “Signal recovery in imaging photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 34(11), 1499–1511 (2013).
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Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2012).
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J. J. Toto-Moukouo, A. Achimastos, R. G. Asmar, C. J. Hugues, and M. E. Safar, “Pulse wave velocity in patients with obesity and hypertension,” Am. Heart J. 112(1), 136–140 (1986).
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J. R. Jago and A. Murray, “Repeatability of peripheral pulse measurements on ears, fingers and toes using photoelectric plethysmography,” Clin. Phys. Physiol. Meas. 9(4), 319–329 (1988).
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S. A. A. P. Hoeksel, J. R. C. Jansen, J. A. Blom, and J. J. Schreuder, “Detection of dicrotic notch in arterial pressure signals,” J. Clin. Monit. 13(5), 309–316 (1997).
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Jaryal, A.

N. Selvaraj, A. Jaryal, J. Santhosh, K. K. Deepak, and S. Anand, “Assessment of heart rate variability derived from finger-tip photoplethysmography as compared to electrocardiography,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 32(6), 479–484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jorge, J.

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalawsky, R.

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2012).
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Kamshilin, A. A.

I. S. Sidorov, M. A. Volynsky, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Influence of polarization filtration on the information readout from pulsating blood vessels,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2469–2474 (2016).
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O. V. Mamontov, L. Babayan, A. V. Amelin, R. Giniatullin, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Autonomous control of cardiovascular reactivity in patients with episodic and chronic forms of migraine,” J. Headache Pain 17(1), 52 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kamshilin, E. Nippolainen, I. S. Sidorov, P. V. Vasilev, N. P. Erofeev, N. P. Podolian, and R. V. Romashko, “A new look at the essence of the imaging photoplethysmography,” Sci. Rep. 5(5), 10494 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kamshilin, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, S. Miridonov, and R. Giniatullin, “Variability of microcirculation detected by blood pulsation imaging,” PLoS One 8(2), e57117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zaproudina, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, J. A. Lipponen, A. A. Kamshilin, M. Närhi, P. A. Karjalainen, and R. Giniatullin, “Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine,” PLoS One 8(12), e80189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kannathal, N.

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
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Karjalainen, P. A.

N. Zaproudina, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, J. A. Lipponen, A. A. Kamshilin, M. Närhi, P. A. Karjalainen, and R. Giniatullin, “Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine,” PLoS One 8(12), e80189 (2013).
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Karmakar, C. K.

A. H. Khandoker, C. K. Karmakar, and M. Palaniswami, “Comparison of pulse rate variability with heart rate variability during obstructive sleep apnea,” Med. Eng. Phys. 33(2), 204–209 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, R. P.

P. J. Chowienczyk, R. P. Kelly, H. MacCallum, S. C. Millasseau, T. L. G. Andersson, R. G. Gosling, J. M. Ritter, and E. E. Anggård, “Photoplethysmographic assessment of pulse wave reflection: blunted response to endothelium-dependent beta2-adrenergic vasodilation in type II diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 34(7), 2007–2014 (1999).
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Khandoker, A. H.

A. H. Khandoker, C. K. Karmakar, and M. Palaniswami, “Comparison of pulse rate variability with heart rate variability during obstructive sleep apnea,” Med. Eng. Phys. 33(2), 204–209 (2011).
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Khanokh, B.

M. Nitzan, B. Khanokh, and Y. Slovik, “The difference in pulse transit time to the toe and finger measured by photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 23(1), 85–93 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kose, S.

B. I. Tiftikcioglu, S. Bilgin, T. Duksal, S. Kose, and Y. Zorlu, “Autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(14), e3340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, M.

Kupaev, V.

V. Kupaev, O. Borisov, E. Marutina, Y.-X. Yan, and W. Wang, “Integration of suboptimal health status and endothelial dysfunction as a new aspect for risk evaluation of cardiovascular disease,” EPMA J. 7(1), 19 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwan, B.-H.

Laogun, A. A.

A. A. Laogun, D. L. Newman, and R. G. Gosling, “Comparison of pulse wave velocity measured by Doppler shifted ultrasound and electromagnetic flowmetry,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 3(4), 367–371 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.-T.

C.-C. Chuang, J.-J. Ye, W.-C. Lin, K.-T. Lee, and Y.-T. Tai, “Photoplethysmography variability as an alternative approach to obtain heart rate variability information in chronic pain patient,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 29(6), 801–806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lesniewski, P. J.

B. D. Holton, K. Mannapperuma, P. J. Lesniewski, and J. C. Thomas, “Signal recovery in imaging photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 34(11), 1499–1511 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, C. M.

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, C.-L.

Lin, W.-C.

C.-C. Chuang, J.-J. Ye, W.-C. Lin, K.-T. Lee, and Y.-T. Tai, “Photoplethysmography variability as an alternative approach to obtain heart rate variability information in chronic pain patient,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 29(6), 801–806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipponen, J. A.

N. Zaproudina, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, J. A. Lipponen, A. A. Kamshilin, M. Närhi, P. A. Karjalainen, and R. Giniatullin, “Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine,” PLoS One 8(12), e80189 (2013).
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D. Shao, Y. Yang, C. Liu, F. Tsow, H. Yu, and N. Tao, “Noncontact monitoring breathing pattern, exhalation flow rate and pulse transit time,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61(11), 2760–2767 (2014).
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I. Silva, T. Loureiro, A. Teixeira, I. Almeida, A. Mansilha, C. Vasconcelos, and R. Almeida, “Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: role of flow-mediated dilatation and capillaroscopy as risk assessment tools,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 25(5), 444–451 (2015).
[PubMed]

MacCallum, H.

P. J. Chowienczyk, R. P. Kelly, H. MacCallum, S. C. Millasseau, T. L. G. Andersson, R. G. Gosling, J. M. Ritter, and E. E. Anggård, “Photoplethysmographic assessment of pulse wave reflection: blunted response to endothelium-dependent beta2-adrenergic vasodilation in type II diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 34(7), 2007–2014 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mamontov, O. V.

O. V. Mamontov, L. Babayan, A. V. Amelin, R. Giniatullin, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Autonomous control of cardiovascular reactivity in patients with episodic and chronic forms of migraine,” J. Headache Pain 17(1), 52 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mannapperuma, K.

B. D. Holton, K. Mannapperuma, P. J. Lesniewski, and J. C. Thomas, “Signal recovery in imaging photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 34(11), 1499–1511 (2013).
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Mansilha, A.

I. Silva, T. Loureiro, A. Teixeira, I. Almeida, A. Mansilha, C. Vasconcelos, and R. Almeida, “Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: role of flow-mediated dilatation and capillaroscopy as risk assessment tools,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 25(5), 444–451 (2015).
[PubMed]

Marutina, E.

V. Kupaev, O. Borisov, E. Marutina, Y.-X. Yan, and W. Wang, “Integration of suboptimal health status and endothelial dysfunction as a new aspect for risk evaluation of cardiovascular disease,” EPMA J. 7(1), 19 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDuff, D. J.

M.-Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in noncontact, multiparameter physiological measurements using a webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
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D. Mehta and A. J. Camm, “Signal-averaged electrocardiography and the significance of late potentials in patients with “idiopathic” ventricular tachycardia: a review,” Clin. Cardiol. 12(6), 307–312 (1989).
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P. J. Chowienczyk, R. P. Kelly, H. MacCallum, S. C. Millasseau, T. L. G. Andersson, R. G. Gosling, J. M. Ritter, and E. E. Anggård, “Photoplethysmographic assessment of pulse wave reflection: blunted response to endothelium-dependent beta2-adrenergic vasodilation in type II diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 34(7), 2007–2014 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miridonov, S.

A. A. Kamshilin, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, S. Miridonov, and R. Giniatullin, “Variability of microcirculation detected by blood pulsation imaging,” PLoS One 8(2), e57117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreno, J.

J. Moreno, J. Ramos-Castro, J. Movellan, E. Parrado, G. Rodas, and L. Capdevila, “Facial video-based photoplethysmography to detect HRV at rest,” Int. J. Sports Med. 36(6), 474–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Movellan, J.

J. Moreno, J. Ramos-Castro, J. Movellan, E. Parrado, G. Rodas, and L. Capdevila, “Facial video-based photoplethysmography to detect HRV at rest,” Int. J. Sports Med. 36(6), 474–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murray, A.

J. R. Jago and A. Murray, “Repeatability of peripheral pulse measurements on ears, fingers and toes using photoelectric plethysmography,” Clin. Phys. Physiol. Meas. 9(4), 319–329 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Närhi, M.

N. Zaproudina, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, J. A. Lipponen, A. A. Kamshilin, M. Närhi, P. A. Karjalainen, and R. Giniatullin, “Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine,” PLoS One 8(12), e80189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newman, D. L.

A. A. Laogun, D. L. Newman, and R. G. Gosling, “Comparison of pulse wave velocity measured by Doppler shifted ultrasound and electromagnetic flowmetry,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 3(4), 367–371 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nippolainen, E.

A. A. Kamshilin, E. Nippolainen, I. S. Sidorov, P. V. Vasilev, N. P. Erofeev, N. P. Podolian, and R. V. Romashko, “A new look at the essence of the imaging photoplethysmography,” Sci. Rep. 5(5), 10494 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zaproudina, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, J. A. Lipponen, A. A. Kamshilin, M. Närhi, P. A. Karjalainen, and R. Giniatullin, “Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine,” PLoS One 8(12), e80189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kamshilin, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, S. Miridonov, and R. Giniatullin, “Variability of microcirculation detected by blood pulsation imaging,” PLoS One 8(2), e57117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Ruha, S. Sallinen, and S. Nissilä, “A real-time microprocessor QRS detector system with a 1-ms timing accuracy for the measurement of ambulatory HRV,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44(3), 159–167 (1997).
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Nitzan, M.

M. Nitzan, B. Khanokh, and Y. Slovik, “The difference in pulse transit time to the toe and finger measured by photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 23(1), 85–93 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palaniswami, M.

A. H. Khandoker, C. K. Karmakar, and M. Palaniswami, “Comparison of pulse rate variability with heart rate variability during obstructive sleep apnea,” Med. Eng. Phys. 33(2), 204–209 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parrado, E.

J. Moreno, J. Ramos-Castro, J. Movellan, E. Parrado, G. Rodas, and L. Capdevila, “Facial video-based photoplethysmography to detect HRV at rest,” Int. J. Sports Med. 36(6), 474–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paul Joseph, K.

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, J. P.

M. C. Hemon and J. P. Phillips, “Comparison of foot finding methods for deriving instantaneous pulse rates from photoplethysmographic signals,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 30(2), 157–168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Picard, R. W.

M.-Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in noncontact, multiparameter physiological measurements using a webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podolian, N. P.

A. A. Kamshilin, E. Nippolainen, I. S. Sidorov, P. V. Vasilev, N. P. Erofeev, N. P. Podolian, and R. V. Romashko, “A new look at the essence of the imaging photoplethysmography,” Sci. Rep. 5(5), 10494 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poh, M.-Z.

M.-Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in noncontact, multiparameter physiological measurements using a webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Posada-Quintero, H. F.

H. F. Posada-Quintero, D. Delisle-Rodríguez, M. B. Cuadra-Sanz, and R. R. Fernández de la Vara-Prieto, “Evaluation of pulse rate variability obtained by the pulse onsets of the photoplethysmographic signal,” Physiol. Meas. 34(2), 179–187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pugh, C.

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabben, S. I.

S. I. Rabben, N. Stergiopulos, L. R. Hellevik, O. A. Smiseth, S. Slørdahl, S. Urheim, and B. Angelsen, “An ultrasound-based method for determining pulse wave velocity in superficial arteries,” J. Biomech. 37(10), 1615–1622 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajendra Acharya, U.

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramos-Castro, J.

J. Moreno, J. Ramos-Castro, J. Movellan, E. Parrado, G. Rodas, and L. Capdevila, “Facial video-based photoplethysmography to detect HRV at rest,” Int. J. Sports Med. 36(6), 474–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raveendran, P.

Ritter, J. M.

P. J. Chowienczyk, R. P. Kelly, H. MacCallum, S. C. Millasseau, T. L. G. Andersson, R. G. Gosling, J. M. Ritter, and E. E. Anggård, “Photoplethysmographic assessment of pulse wave reflection: blunted response to endothelium-dependent beta2-adrenergic vasodilation in type II diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 34(7), 2007–2014 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodas, G.

J. Moreno, J. Ramos-Castro, J. Movellan, E. Parrado, G. Rodas, and L. Capdevila, “Facial video-based photoplethysmography to detect HRV at rest,” Int. J. Sports Med. 36(6), 474–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romashko, R. V.

A. A. Kamshilin, E. Nippolainen, I. S. Sidorov, P. V. Vasilev, N. P. Erofeev, N. P. Podolian, and R. V. Romashko, “A new look at the essence of the imaging photoplethysmography,” Sci. Rep. 5(5), 10494 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruha, A.

A. Ruha, S. Sallinen, and S. Nissilä, “A real-time microprocessor QRS detector system with a 1-ms timing accuracy for the measurement of ambulatory HRV,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44(3), 159–167 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabharwal, A.

Safar, M. E.

J. J. Toto-Moukouo, A. Achimastos, R. G. Asmar, C. J. Hugues, and M. E. Safar, “Pulse wave velocity in patients with obesity and hypertension,” Am. Heart J. 112(1), 136–140 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahni, R.

R. Sahni, “Noninvasive monitoring by photoplethysmography,” Clin. Perinatol. 39(3), 573–583 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sallinen, S.

A. Ruha, S. Sallinen, and S. Nissilä, “A real-time microprocessor QRS detector system with a 1-ms timing accuracy for the measurement of ambulatory HRV,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44(3), 159–167 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santhosh, J.

N. Selvaraj, A. Jaryal, J. Santhosh, K. K. Deepak, and S. Anand, “Assessment of heart rate variability derived from finger-tip photoplethysmography as compared to electrocardiography,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 32(6), 479–484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schäfer, A.

A. Schäfer and J. Vagedes, “How accurate is pulse rate variability as an estimate of heart rate variability? A review on studies comparing photoplethysmographic technology with an electrocardiogram,” Int. J. Cardiol. 166(1), 15–29 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnur, P. L.

G. L. Woolam, P. L. Schnur, C. Vallbona, and H. E. Hoff, “The pulse wave velocity as an early indicator of atherosclerosis in diabetic subjects,” Circulation 25(3), 533–539 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schreuder, J. J.

S. A. A. P. Hoeksel, J. R. C. Jansen, J. A. Blom, and J. J. Schreuder, “Detection of dicrotic notch in arterial pressure signals,” J. Clin. Monit. 13(5), 309–316 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selvaraj, N.

N. Selvaraj, A. Jaryal, J. Santhosh, K. K. Deepak, and S. Anand, “Assessment of heart rate variability derived from finger-tip photoplethysmography as compared to electrocardiography,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 32(6), 479–484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, D.

D. Shao, Y. Yang, C. Liu, F. Tsow, H. Yu, and N. Tao, “Noncontact monitoring breathing pattern, exhalation flow rate and pulse transit time,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61(11), 2760–2767 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shroff, S. G.

Y. C. Chiu, P. W. Arand, S. G. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. D. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sidorov, I. S.

I. S. Sidorov, M. A. Volynsky, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Influence of polarization filtration on the information readout from pulsating blood vessels,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2469–2474 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kamshilin, E. Nippolainen, I. S. Sidorov, P. V. Vasilev, N. P. Erofeev, N. P. Podolian, and R. V. Romashko, “A new look at the essence of the imaging photoplethysmography,” Sci. Rep. 5(5), 10494 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silva, I.

I. Silva, T. Loureiro, A. Teixeira, I. Almeida, A. Mansilha, C. Vasconcelos, and R. Almeida, “Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: role of flow-mediated dilatation and capillaroscopy as risk assessment tools,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 25(5), 444–451 (2015).
[PubMed]

Slørdahl, S.

S. I. Rabben, N. Stergiopulos, L. R. Hellevik, O. A. Smiseth, S. Slørdahl, S. Urheim, and B. Angelsen, “An ultrasound-based method for determining pulse wave velocity in superficial arteries,” J. Biomech. 37(10), 1615–1622 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slovik, Y.

M. Nitzan, B. Khanokh, and Y. Slovik, “The difference in pulse transit time to the toe and finger measured by photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 23(1), 85–93 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smiseth, O. A.

S. I. Rabben, N. Stergiopulos, L. R. Hellevik, O. A. Smiseth, S. Slørdahl, S. Urheim, and B. Angelsen, “An ultrasound-based method for determining pulse wave velocity in superficial arteries,” J. Biomech. 37(10), 1615–1622 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stergiopulos, N.

S. I. Rabben, N. Stergiopulos, L. R. Hellevik, O. A. Smiseth, S. Slørdahl, S. Urheim, and B. Angelsen, “An ultrasound-based method for determining pulse wave velocity in superficial arteries,” J. Biomech. 37(10), 1615–1622 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suri, J. S.

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tai, Y.-T.

C.-C. Chuang, J.-J. Ye, W.-C. Lin, K.-T. Lee, and Y.-T. Tai, “Photoplethysmography variability as an alternative approach to obtain heart rate variability information in chronic pain patient,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 29(6), 801–806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, N.

D. Shao, Y. Yang, C. Liu, F. Tsow, H. Yu, and N. Tao, “Noncontact monitoring breathing pattern, exhalation flow rate and pulse transit time,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61(11), 2760–2767 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tarassenko, L.

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teixeira, A.

I. Silva, T. Loureiro, A. Teixeira, I. Almeida, A. Mansilha, C. Vasconcelos, and R. Almeida, “Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: role of flow-mediated dilatation and capillaroscopy as risk assessment tools,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 25(5), 444–451 (2015).
[PubMed]

Teplov, V.

A. A. Kamshilin, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, S. Miridonov, and R. Giniatullin, “Variability of microcirculation detected by blood pulsation imaging,” PLoS One 8(2), e57117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zaproudina, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, J. A. Lipponen, A. A. Kamshilin, M. Närhi, P. A. Karjalainen, and R. Giniatullin, “Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine,” PLoS One 8(12), e80189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, J. C.

B. D. Holton, K. Mannapperuma, P. J. Lesniewski, and J. C. Thomas, “Signal recovery in imaging photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 34(11), 1499–1511 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiftikcioglu, B. I.

B. I. Tiftikcioglu, S. Bilgin, T. Duksal, S. Kose, and Y. Zorlu, “Autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(14), e3340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toto-Moukouo, J. J.

J. J. Toto-Moukouo, A. Achimastos, R. G. Asmar, C. J. Hugues, and M. E. Safar, “Pulse wave velocity in patients with obesity and hypertension,” Am. Heart J. 112(1), 136–140 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsow, F.

D. Shao, Y. Yang, C. Liu, F. Tsow, H. Yu, and N. Tao, “Noncontact monitoring breathing pattern, exhalation flow rate and pulse transit time,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61(11), 2760–2767 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urheim, S.

S. I. Rabben, N. Stergiopulos, L. R. Hellevik, O. A. Smiseth, S. Slørdahl, S. Urheim, and B. Angelsen, “An ultrasound-based method for determining pulse wave velocity in superficial arteries,” J. Biomech. 37(10), 1615–1622 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vagedes, J.

A. Schäfer and J. Vagedes, “How accurate is pulse rate variability as an estimate of heart rate variability? A review on studies comparing photoplethysmographic technology with an electrocardiogram,” Int. J. Cardiol. 166(1), 15–29 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vallbona, C.

G. L. Woolam, P. L. Schnur, C. Vallbona, and H. E. Hoff, “The pulse wave velocity as an early indicator of atherosclerosis in diabetic subjects,” Circulation 25(3), 533–539 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasconcelos, C.

I. Silva, T. Loureiro, A. Teixeira, I. Almeida, A. Mansilha, C. Vasconcelos, and R. Almeida, “Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: role of flow-mediated dilatation and capillaroscopy as risk assessment tools,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 25(5), 444–451 (2015).
[PubMed]

Vasilev, P. V.

A. A. Kamshilin, E. Nippolainen, I. S. Sidorov, P. V. Vasilev, N. P. Erofeev, N. P. Podolian, and R. V. Romashko, “A new look at the essence of the imaging photoplethysmography,” Sci. Rep. 5(5), 10494 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veeraraghavan, A.

Villarroel, M.

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volynsky, M. A.

Wang, W.

V. Kupaev, O. Borisov, E. Marutina, Y.-X. Yan, and W. Wang, “Integration of suboptimal health status and endothelial dysfunction as a new aspect for risk evaluation of cardiovascular disease,” EPMA J. 7(1), 19 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woolam, G. L.

G. L. Woolam, P. L. Schnur, C. Vallbona, and H. E. Hoff, “The pulse wave velocity as an early indicator of atherosclerosis in diabetic subjects,” Circulation 25(3), 533–539 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.-X.

V. Kupaev, O. Borisov, E. Marutina, Y.-X. Yan, and W. Wang, “Integration of suboptimal health status and endothelial dysfunction as a new aspect for risk evaluation of cardiovascular disease,” EPMA J. 7(1), 19 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

D. Shao, Y. Yang, C. Liu, F. Tsow, H. Yu, and N. Tao, “Noncontact monitoring breathing pattern, exhalation flow rate and pulse transit time,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61(11), 2760–2767 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J.-J.

C.-C. Chuang, J.-J. Ye, W.-C. Lin, K.-T. Lee, and Y.-T. Tai, “Photoplethysmography variability as an alternative approach to obtain heart rate variability information in chronic pain patient,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 29(6), 801–806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

D. Shao, Y. Yang, C. Liu, F. Tsow, H. Yu, and N. Tao, “Noncontact monitoring breathing pattern, exhalation flow rate and pulse transit time,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61(11), 2760–2767 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.-P.

Zaproudina, N.

N. Zaproudina, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, J. A. Lipponen, A. A. Kamshilin, M. Närhi, P. A. Karjalainen, and R. Giniatullin, “Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine,” PLoS One 8(12), e80189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zorlu, Y.

B. I. Tiftikcioglu, S. Bilgin, T. Duksal, S. Kose, and Y. Zorlu, “Autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(14), e3340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. Heart J. (2)

J. J. Toto-Moukouo, A. Achimastos, R. G. Asmar, C. J. Hugues, and M. E. Safar, “Pulse wave velocity in patients with obesity and hypertension,” Am. Heart J. 112(1), 136–140 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chiu, P. W. Arand, S. G. Shroff, T. Feldman, and J. D. Carroll, “Determination of pulse wave velocities with computerized algorithms,” Am. Heart J. 121(5), 1460–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Circulation (1)

G. L. Woolam, P. L. Schnur, C. Vallbona, and H. E. Hoff, “The pulse wave velocity as an early indicator of atherosclerosis in diabetic subjects,” Circulation 25(3), 533–539 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Cardiol. (1)

D. Mehta and A. J. Camm, “Signal-averaged electrocardiography and the significance of late potentials in patients with “idiopathic” ventricular tachycardia: a review,” Clin. Cardiol. 12(6), 307–312 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Perinatol. (1)

R. Sahni, “Noninvasive monitoring by photoplethysmography,” Clin. Perinatol. 39(3), 573–583 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Phys. Physiol. Meas. (1)

J. R. Jago and A. Murray, “Repeatability of peripheral pulse measurements on ears, fingers and toes using photoelectric plethysmography,” Clin. Phys. Physiol. Meas. 9(4), 319–329 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

EPMA J. (1)

V. Kupaev, O. Borisov, E. Marutina, Y.-X. Yan, and W. Wang, “Integration of suboptimal health status and endothelial dysfunction as a new aspect for risk evaluation of cardiovascular disease,” EPMA J. 7(1), 19 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Dermatol. (1)

I. Silva, T. Loureiro, A. Teixeira, I. Almeida, A. Mansilha, C. Vasconcelos, and R. Almeida, “Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: role of flow-mediated dilatation and capillaroscopy as risk assessment tools,” Eur. J. Dermatol. 25(5), 444–451 (2015).
[PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (3)

A. Ruha, S. Sallinen, and S. Nissilä, “A real-time microprocessor QRS detector system with a 1-ms timing accuracy for the measurement of ambulatory HRV,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44(3), 159–167 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shao, Y. Yang, C. Liu, F. Tsow, H. Yu, and N. Tao, “Noncontact monitoring breathing pattern, exhalation flow rate and pulse transit time,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61(11), 2760–2767 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in noncontact, multiparameter physiological measurements using a webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cardiol. (1)

A. Schäfer and J. Vagedes, “How accurate is pulse rate variability as an estimate of heart rate variability? A review on studies comparing photoplethysmographic technology with an electrocardiogram,” Int. J. Cardiol. 166(1), 15–29 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Sports Med. (1)

J. Moreno, J. Ramos-Castro, J. Movellan, E. Parrado, G. Rodas, and L. Capdevila, “Facial video-based photoplethysmography to detect HRV at rest,” Int. J. Sports Med. 36(6), 474–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1)

P. J. Chowienczyk, R. P. Kelly, H. MacCallum, S. C. Millasseau, T. L. G. Andersson, R. G. Gosling, J. M. Ritter, and E. E. Anggård, “Photoplethysmographic assessment of pulse wave reflection: blunted response to endothelium-dependent beta2-adrenergic vasodilation in type II diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 34(7), 2007–2014 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomech. (1)

S. I. Rabben, N. Stergiopulos, L. R. Hellevik, O. A. Smiseth, S. Slørdahl, S. Urheim, and B. Angelsen, “An ultrasound-based method for determining pulse wave velocity in superficial arteries,” J. Biomech. 37(10), 1615–1622 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Monit. (1)

S. A. A. P. Hoeksel, J. R. C. Jansen, J. A. Blom, and J. J. Schreuder, “Detection of dicrotic notch in arterial pressure signals,” J. Clin. Monit. 13(5), 309–316 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Monit. Comput. (2)

M. C. Hemon and J. P. Phillips, “Comparison of foot finding methods for deriving instantaneous pulse rates from photoplethysmographic signals,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 30(2), 157–168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-C. Chuang, J.-J. Ye, W.-C. Lin, K.-T. Lee, and Y.-T. Tai, “Photoplethysmography variability as an alternative approach to obtain heart rate variability information in chronic pain patient,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 29(6), 801–806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Headache Pain (1)

O. V. Mamontov, L. Babayan, A. V. Amelin, R. Giniatullin, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Autonomous control of cardiovascular reactivity in patients with episodic and chronic forms of migraine,” J. Headache Pain 17(1), 52 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Med. Eng. Technol. (1)

N. Selvaraj, A. Jaryal, J. Santhosh, K. K. Deepak, and S. Anand, “Assessment of heart rate variability derived from finger-tip photoplethysmography as compared to electrocardiography,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 32(6), 479–484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

A. H. Khandoker, C. K. Karmakar, and M. Palaniswami, “Comparison of pulse rate variability with heart rate variability during obstructive sleep apnea,” Med. Eng. Phys. 33(2), 204–209 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Medicine (Baltimore) (1)

B. I. Tiftikcioglu, S. Bilgin, T. Duksal, S. Kose, and Y. Zorlu, “Autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(14), e3340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas. (5)

H. F. Posada-Quintero, D. Delisle-Rodríguez, M. B. Cuadra-Sanz, and R. R. Fernández de la Vara-Prieto, “Evaluation of pulse rate variability obtained by the pulse onsets of the photoplethysmographic signal,” Physiol. Meas. 34(2), 179–187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nitzan, B. Khanokh, and Y. Slovik, “The difference in pulse transit time to the toe and finger measured by photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 23(1), 85–93 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Holton, K. Mannapperuma, P. J. Lesniewski, and J. C. Thomas, “Signal recovery in imaging photoplethysmography,” Physiol. Meas. 34(11), 1499–1511 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Allen, “Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement,” Physiol. Meas. 28(3), R1–R39 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS One (2)

N. Zaproudina, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, J. A. Lipponen, A. A. Kamshilin, M. Närhi, P. A. Karjalainen, and R. Giniatullin, “Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine,” PLoS One 8(12), e80189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kamshilin, V. Teplov, E. Nippolainen, S. Miridonov, and R. Giniatullin, “Variability of microcirculation detected by blood pulsation imaging,” PLoS One 8(2), e57117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. A. Kamshilin, E. Nippolainen, I. S. Sidorov, P. V. Vasilev, N. P. Erofeev, N. P. Podolian, and R. V. Romashko, “A new look at the essence of the imaging photoplethysmography,” Sci. Rep. 5(5), 10494 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

A. A. Laogun, D. L. Newman, and R. G. Gosling, “Comparison of pulse wave velocity measured by Doppler shifted ultrasound and electromagnetic flowmetry,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 3(4), 367–371 (1978).
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Other (1)

K. Saladin, Anatomy & physiology: The unity of form and function, (McGraw-Hill Education, New York, 2015).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment layout for simultaneous recording of imaging PPG and ECG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Selection of the set of ROIs in the recorded video frame, and (b) an example of the raw PPG waveform obtained from one of the selected ROIs sizing 7 × 7 pixels (2.1 × 2.1 mm2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fragments of the filtered PPG waveform overlaid with synchronously recorded ECG signal. (a) PPG waveform from the ROI selected as reliable, and (b) a waveform unsatisfying both criteria of reliable ROI selection. Both ROIs were in the same cheek with the distance between their centers of 4 mm. Small squares show position of the defined minima of the PPG waveforms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of the PPG waveform distortion by the stochastically enhanced notch. Fragment of the waveform without distortion (a), and with two notches appeared near the anacrotic wave (b). Black curves shows simultaneously recorded ECG. Both PPG waveforms were calculated from the ROIs spaced by 4.2 mm. Small blue squares show position of the found minima. Green square in the cardiac cycle II shows the position of the second local minimum defined by our algorithm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Standard deviation from the mean PTT calculated for all studied subjects. Red bars show mean STD calculated for all reliable ROI in the case of direct application of the minimal-value method when all cardiac cycles were taken into account. Green bars are STD calculated by new algorithm, which is finding PPG minima associated with the beginning of anacrotic wave in cardiac cycles distorted by dicrotic notch.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PTT mapping in the facial area of two subjects (a, c) and fragments of PPG waveforms (b, d) calculated in the ROIs situated in the regions with faster (blue) and slower (red) transit time, respectively. Black curves in the graphs (b, d) are ECG simultaneously recorded with videos. The color scales on the left show PTT in seconds. Green arrow in the graph (d) points the position of the PPG minimum defined by our algorithm in the distorted cardiac cycle. The ratio of the reliable/selected ROIs was 1113/1160 and 899/900 for subjects shown in panels (a) and (c), respectively.

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