Abstract

An inorganic scintillating material plastic optical fiber (POF) dosimeter for measuring ionizing radiation during radiotherapy applications is reported. It is necessary that an ideal dosimeter exhibits many desirable qualities, including water equivalence, energy independence, reproducibility, dose linearity. There has been much recent research concerning inorganic dosimeters. However, little reference has been made to date of the depth-dose characteristics of dosimeter materials. In the case of inorganic scintillating materials, they are predominantly non water-equivalent, with their effective atomic weight (Zeff) being typically much greater than that of water. This has been a barrier in preventing inorganic scintillating material dosimeter from being used in actual clinical applications. In this paper, we propose a parallel-paired fiber light guide structure to solve this problem. Two different inorganic scintillating materials are embedded separately in the parallel-paired fiber. It is shown that the information of water depth and absorbed dose at the point of measurement can be extracted by utilizing their different depth-dose properties.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  18. M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(8), 1421–1433 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  23. A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Avino, V. D’Avino, A. Giorgini, R. Pacelli, R. Liuzzi, L. Cella, P. De Natale, and G. Gagliardi, “Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 184102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. S. Beddar, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry and its application to radiotherapy,” Radiat. Meas. 41, S124–S133 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  26. Q. Zhuang, H. Yaosheng, M. Yu, Z. Wenhui, S. Weimin, Z. Daxin, C. Ziyin, and L. Elfed, “Embedded structure fiber-optic radiation dosimeter for radiotherapy applications,” Opt. Express 24(5), 5172–5185 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  27. D. Mcarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sensors Journal 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

S. O’Keeffe, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, M. W. D. Grattan, A. R. Hounsell, D. Sporea, L. Mihai, I. Vata, G. Leen, and E. Lewis, “A review of recent advances in optical fibre sensors for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 88(1050), 20140702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

D. Mcarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sensors Journal 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

S. Avino, V. D’Avino, A. Giorgini, R. Pacelli, R. Liuzzi, L. Cella, P. De Natale, and G. Gagliardi, “Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 184102 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, A. R. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Mijnheer, S. Beddar, J. Izewska, and C. Reft, “In vivo dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 40(7), 070903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Tanderup, S. Beddar, C. E. Andersen, G. Kertzscher, and J. E. Cygler, “In vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 40(7), 070902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. Shafiq, M. Barton, D. Noble, C. Lemer, and L. J. Donaldson, “An international review of patient safety measures in radiotherapy practice,” Radiother. Oncol. 92(1), 15–21 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Boadu and M. M. Rehani, “Unintended exposure in radiotherapy: identification of prominent causes,” Radiother. Oncol. 93(3), 609–617 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Hyer, R. F. Fisher, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a water-equivalent fiber-optic coupled dosimeter for use in diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1711–1716 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. K. Jones and D. Hintenlang, “Potential clinical utility of a fibre optic-coupled dosemeter for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 132(1), 80–87 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. S. Beddar, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry and its application to radiotherapy,” Radiat. Meas. 41, S124–S133 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

T. Aoyama, S. Koyama, and C. Kawaura, “An in-phantom dosimetry system using pin silicon photodiode radiation sensors for measuring organ doses in x-ray CT and other diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1504–1510 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(8), 1421–1433 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. A. Clift, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Dealing with Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(5), 1165–1182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. Létourneau, J. Pouliot, and R. Roy, “Miniature scintillating detector for small field radiation therapy,” Med. Phys. 26(12), 2555–2561 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

K. J. Jordan, “Evaluation of ruby as a fluorescent sensor for optical fiber-based radiation dosimetry,” Proc. SPIE 2079, 170–178 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: I. Physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, C. E.

K. Tanderup, S. Beddar, C. E. Andersen, G. Kertzscher, and J. E. Cygler, “In vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 40(7), 070902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoyama, T.

T. Aoyama, S. Koyama, and C. Kawaura, “An in-phantom dosimetry system using pin silicon photodiode radiation sensors for measuring organ doses in x-ray CT and other diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1504–1510 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aruna, P.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attix, F. H.

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: I. Physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avino, S.

S. Avino, V. D’Avino, A. Giorgini, R. Pacelli, R. Liuzzi, L. Cella, P. De Natale, and G. Gagliardi, “Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 184102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barton, M.

J. Shafiq, M. Barton, D. Noble, C. Lemer, and L. J. Donaldson, “An international review of patient safety measures in radiotherapy practice,” Radiother. Oncol. 92(1), 15–21 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beddar, A. S.

A. S. Beddar, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry and its application to radiotherapy,” Radiat. Meas. 41, S124–S133 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: I. Physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beddar, S.

B. Mijnheer, S. Beddar, J. Izewska, and C. Reft, “In vivo dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 40(7), 070903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Tanderup, S. Beddar, C. E. Andersen, G. Kertzscher, and J. E. Cygler, “In vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 40(7), 070902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benevides, L. A.

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bharanidharan, G.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bielajew, A. F.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binns, W. R.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boadu, M.

M. Boadu and M. M. Rehani, “Unintended exposure in radiotherapy: identification of prominent causes,” Radiother. Oncol. 93(3), 609–617 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brateman, L. F.

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cella, L.

S. Avino, V. D’Avino, A. Giorgini, R. Pacelli, R. Liuzzi, L. Cella, P. De Natale, and G. Gagliardi, “Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 184102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clift, M. A.

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(8), 1421–1433 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Clift, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Dealing with Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(5), 1165–1182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cronin, J.

D. Mcarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sensors Journal 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, A. R. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cygler, J.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cygler, J. E.

K. Tanderup, S. Beddar, C. E. Andersen, G. Kertzscher, and J. E. Cygler, “In vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 40(7), 070902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Avino, V.

S. Avino, V. D’Avino, A. Giorgini, R. Pacelli, R. Liuzzi, L. Cella, P. De Natale, and G. Gagliardi, “Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 184102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Daxin, Z.

De Natale, P.

S. Avino, V. D’Avino, A. Giorgini, R. Pacelli, R. Liuzzi, L. Cella, P. De Natale, and G. Gagliardi, “Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 184102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Devan, K.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donaldson, L. J.

J. Shafiq, M. Barton, D. Noble, C. Lemer, and L. J. Donaldson, “An international review of patient safety measures in radiotherapy practice,” Radiother. Oncol. 92(1), 15–21 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elangovan, D.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elfed, L.

Elsey, J.

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falkenstein, P.

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, R. F.

D. E. Hyer, R. F. Fisher, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a water-equivalent fiber-optic coupled dosimeter for use in diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1711–1716 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuller, G. L.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gagliardi, G.

S. Avino, V. D’Avino, A. Giorgini, R. Pacelli, R. Liuzzi, L. Cella, P. De Natale, and G. Gagliardi, “Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 184102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ganesan, S.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giorgini, A.

S. Avino, V. D’Avino, A. Giorgini, R. Pacelli, R. Liuzzi, L. Cella, P. De Natale, and G. Gagliardi, “Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 184102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grattan, A. R.

S. O’Keeffe, A. R. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grattan, M. W. D.

S. O’Keeffe, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, M. W. D. Grattan, A. R. Hounsell, D. Sporea, L. Mihai, I. Vata, G. Leen, and E. Lewis, “A review of recent advances in optical fibre sensors for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 88(1050), 20140702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hintenlang, D.

A. K. Jones and D. Hintenlang, “Potential clinical utility of a fibre optic-coupled dosemeter for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 132(1), 80–87 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hintenlang, D. E.

D. E. Hyer, R. F. Fisher, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a water-equivalent fiber-optic coupled dosimeter for use in diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1711–1716 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holmes, M. A.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hounsell, A.

S. O’Keeffe, A. R. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hounsell, A. R.

S. O’Keeffe, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, M. W. D. Grattan, A. R. Hounsell, D. Sporea, L. Mihai, I. Vata, G. Leen, and E. Lewis, “A review of recent advances in optical fibre sensors for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 88(1050), 20140702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huston, A. L.

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hyer, D. E.

D. E. Hyer, R. F. Fisher, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a water-equivalent fiber-optic coupled dosimeter for use in diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1711–1716 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikhlef, A.

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[Crossref]

Izewska, J.

B. Mijnheer, S. Beddar, J. Izewska, and C. Reft, “In vivo dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 40(7), 070903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnston, P. N.

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(8), 1421–1433 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, A. K.

A. K. Jones and D. Hintenlang, “Potential clinical utility of a fibre optic-coupled dosemeter for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 132(1), 80–87 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jordan, K. J.

K. J. Jordan, “Evaluation of ruby as a fluorescent sensor for optical fiber-based radiation dosimetry,” Proc. SPIE 2079, 170–178 (1996).
[Crossref]

Justus, B. L.

L. A. Benevides, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, L. F. Brateman, and D. E. Hintenlang, “Characterization of a fiber-optic-coupled radioluminescent detector for application in the mammography energy range,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2220–2227 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawaura, C.

T. Aoyama, S. Koyama, and C. Kawaura, “An in-phantom dosimetry system using pin silicon photodiode radiation sensors for measuring organ doses in x-ray CT and other diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1504–1510 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kertzscher, G.

K. Tanderup, S. Beddar, C. E. Andersen, G. Kertzscher, and J. E. Cygler, “In vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 40(7), 070902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinsella, T. J.

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[Crossref]

Klarmann, J.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koyama, S.

T. Aoyama, S. Koyama, and C. Kawaura, “An in-phantom dosimetry system using pin silicon photodiode radiation sensors for measuring organ doses in x-ray CT and other diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1504–1510 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lambert, J.

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Law, S.

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leen, G.

S. O’Keeffe, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, M. W. D. Grattan, A. R. Hounsell, D. Sporea, L. Mihai, I. Vata, G. Leen, and E. Lewis, “A review of recent advances in optical fibre sensors for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 88(1050), 20140702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemer, C.

J. Shafiq, M. Barton, D. Noble, C. Lemer, and L. J. Donaldson, “An international review of patient safety measures in radiotherapy practice,” Radiother. Oncol. 92(1), 15–21 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Létourneau, D.

D. Létourneau, J. Pouliot, and R. Roy, “Miniature scintillating detector for small field radiation therapy,” Med. Phys. 26(12), 2555–2561 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, E.

S. O’Keeffe, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, M. W. D. Grattan, A. R. Hounsell, D. Sporea, L. Mihai, I. Vata, G. Leen, and E. Lewis, “A review of recent advances in optical fibre sensors for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 88(1050), 20140702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mcarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sensors Journal 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, A. R. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, and E. Lewis, “Plastic optical fibre X-Ray dosimeter for real-time clinical dosimetry applications,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium, (IEEE Computer Society, 2010), pp. 158–161.
[Crossref]

Liuzzi, R.

S. Avino, V. D’Avino, A. Giorgini, R. Pacelli, R. Liuzzi, L. Cella, P. De Natale, and G. Gagliardi, “Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 184102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mackie, T. R.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: I. Physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manigandan, D.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mcarthy, D.

D. Mcarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sensors Journal 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, D.

S. O’Keeffe, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, M. W. D. Grattan, A. R. Hounsell, D. Sporea, L. Mihai, I. Vata, G. Leen, and E. Lewis, “A review of recent advances in optical fibre sensors for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 88(1050), 20140702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O’Keeffe, A. R. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, and E. Lewis, “Plastic optical fibre X-Ray dosimeter for real-time clinical dosimetry applications,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium, (IEEE Computer Society, 2010), pp. 158–161.
[Crossref]

McKenzie, D. R.

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mihai, L.

S. O’Keeffe, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, M. W. D. Grattan, A. R. Hounsell, D. Sporea, L. Mihai, I. Vata, G. Leen, and E. Lewis, “A review of recent advances in optical fibre sensors for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 88(1050), 20140702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mijnheer, B.

B. Mijnheer, S. Beddar, J. Izewska, and C. Reft, “In vivo dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 40(7), 070903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monthofer, S. P.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muehlenkamp, J. K.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakano, T.

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noble, D.

J. Shafiq, M. Barton, D. Noble, C. Lemer, and L. J. Donaldson, “An international review of patient safety measures in radiotherapy practice,” Radiother. Oncol. 92(1), 15–21 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Keeffe, S.

S. O’Keeffe, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, M. W. D. Grattan, A. R. Hounsell, D. Sporea, L. Mihai, I. Vata, G. Leen, and E. Lewis, “A review of recent advances in optical fibre sensors for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 88(1050), 20140702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mcarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sensors Journal 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, A. R. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. McCarthy, S. O’Keeffe, and E. Lewis, “Plastic optical fibre X-Ray dosimeter for real-time clinical dosimetry applications,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium, (IEEE Computer Society, 2010), pp. 158–161.
[Crossref]

Pacelli, R.

S. Avino, V. D’Avino, A. Giorgini, R. Pacelli, R. Liuzzi, L. Cella, P. De Natale, and G. Gagliardi, “Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 184102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Papanikolaou, N.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patil, V.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perera, H.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podgorsak, M. B.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pouliot, J.

D. Létourneau, J. Pouliot, and R. Roy, “Miniature scintillating detector for small field radiation therapy,” Med. Phys. 26(12), 2555–2561 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reckwerdt, P. J.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reft, C.

B. Mijnheer, S. Beddar, J. Izewska, and C. Reft, “In vivo dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 40(7), 070903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rehani, M. M.

M. Boadu and M. M. Rehani, “Unintended exposure in radiotherapy: identification of prominent causes,” Radiother. Oncol. 93(3), 609–617 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, D. W.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, R.

D. Létourneau, J. Pouliot, and R. Roy, “Miniature scintillating detector for small field radiation therapy,” Med. Phys. 26(12), 2555–2561 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, D. G.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shafiq, J.

J. Shafiq, M. Barton, D. Noble, C. Lemer, and L. J. Donaldson, “An international review of patient safety measures in radiotherapy practice,” Radiother. Oncol. 92(1), 15–21 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sibata, C. H.

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sporea, A.

D. Mcarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sensors Journal 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sporea, D.

S. O’Keeffe, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, M. W. D. Grattan, A. R. Hounsell, D. Sporea, L. Mihai, I. Vata, G. Leen, and E. Lewis, “A review of recent advances in optical fibre sensors for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 88(1050), 20140702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sporea, D. G.

D. Mcarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sensors Journal 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

Suchowerska, N.

J. Lambert, T. Nakano, S. Law, J. Elsey, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1759–1765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutton, R. A.

M. A. Clift, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Dealing with Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(5), 1165–1182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamilarasan, R.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanderup, K.

K. Tanderup, S. Beddar, C. E. Andersen, G. Kertzscher, and J. E. Cygler, “In vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 40(7), 070902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiseanu, I.

D. Mcarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sensors Journal 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vasanthan, S.

D. Manigandan, G. Bharanidharan, P. Aruna, K. Devan, D. Elangovan, V. Patil, R. Tamilarasan, S. Vasanthan, and S. Ganesan, “Dosimetric characteristics of a MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams,” Phys. Med. 25(3), 141–147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vata, I.

S. O’Keeffe, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, M. W. D. Grattan, A. R. Hounsell, D. Sporea, L. Mihai, I. Vata, G. Leen, and E. Lewis, “A review of recent advances in optical fibre sensors for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 88(1050), 20140702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, D. V.

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(8), 1421–1433 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Clift, R. A. Sutton, and D. V. Webb, “Dealing with Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by bremsstrahlung beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(5), 1165–1182 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weimin, S.

Wells, C. M. M.

C. M. M. Wells, T. R. Mackie, M. B. Podgorsak, M. A. Holmes, N. Papanikolaou, P. J. Reckwerdt, J. Cygler, D. W. Rogers, A. F. Bielajew, D. G. Schmidt, and J. K. Muehlenkamp, “Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29(5), 1157–1165 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenhui, Z.

Williamson, J. F.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, J. W.

H. Perera, J. F. Williamson, S. P. Monthofer, W. R. Binns, J. Klarmann, G. L. Fuller, and J. W. Wong, “Rapid two-dimensional dose measurement in brachytherapy using plastic scintillator sheet: linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy response characteristics,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 23(5), 1059–1069 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woulfe, P.

S. O’Keeffe, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, M. W. D. Grattan, A. R. Hounsell, D. Sporea, L. Mihai, I. Vata, G. Leen, and E. Lewis, “A review of recent advances in optical fibre sensors for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 88(1050), 20140702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mcarthy, S. O’Keeffe, E. Lewis, D. G. Sporea, A. Sporea, I. Tiseanu, P. Woulfe, and J. Cronin, “Radiation dosimeter using an extrinsic fiber optic sensor,” IEEE Sensors Journal 14(3), 673–685 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, A. R. Grattan, A. Hounsell, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, “Radiotherapy dosimetry based on plastic optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yaosheng, H.

Yu, M.

Zhuang, Q.

Ziyin, C.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Avino, V. D’Avino, A. Giorgini, R. Pacelli, R. Liuzzi, L. Cella, P. De Natale, and G. Gagliardi, “Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 184102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Br. J. Radiol. (1)

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IEEE Sensors Journal (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The experimental test facility at the Harbin Hospital Oncology Clinic: (a) Schematic layout.(b) The dosimeter immersed in the test water tank.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sectional view of the special optical fiber, (b) the photograph of the fiber, (c) the photograph of the dosimeter with the jacket removed and (d) Sectional view of the tip of the dosimeter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The dose versus depth: (a) measured on the dosimeter, (b) measured on IC, and (c) the normalized data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The correction coefficient (DIC/Ddosi) vs. the depth of the water.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The flow chart of the process of absorbed-dose measurement.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The Integral Sum of the Optical Intensity Received by Two Materials in Different Depth

Tables Icon

Table 2 The Calculated Depth and the Correction Coefficient

Tables Icon

Table 3 The Calculated Absorbed-dose and the Error

Equations (3)

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y Gd2O2S:Tb =2.1065× 10 7 +1.62984× 10 6 x2.856× 10 5 x 2 +1.21× 10 4 x 3 ( 0.5x10 )
y CsI:Tl ={ 7658× 10 6 +2.3326× 10 6 x6.181× 10 5 x 2 1.0096× 10 7 1.5888× 10 5 x+2.032× 10 3 x 2 1.182× 10 3 x 3 (0.5x2.5) ( 2.5<x10 )
y ratio =9.5719× 10 -6 -7.1969× 10 -7 x6.5438× 10 -8 x 2 -2.5429× 10 -9 x 3 ( 0.5x10 )

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