Abstract

In diabetes, pancreatic β-cells play a key role. These cells are clustered within structures called islets of Langerhans inside the pancreas and produce insulin, which is directly secreted into the blood stream. The dense vascularization of islets of Langerhans is critical for maintaining a proper regulation of blood glucose homeostasis and is known to be affected from the early stage of diabetes. The deep localization of these islets inside the pancreas in the abdominal cavity renders their in vivo visualization a challenging task. A fast label-free imaging method with high spatial resolution is required to study the vascular network of islets of Langerhans. Based on these requirements, we developed a label-free and three-dimensional imaging method for observing islets of Langerhans using extended-focus Fourier domain Optical Coherence Microscopy (xfOCM). In addition to structural imaging, this system provides three-dimensional vascular network imaging and dynamic blood flow information within islets of Langerhans. We propose our method to deepen the understanding of the interconnection between diabetes and the evolution of the islet vascular network.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, S. R. Jahn, J. Stertmann, I. Uphues, and S. Speier, “Alterations in beta-cell calcium dynamics and efficacy outweigh islet mass adaptation in compensation of insulin resistance and prediabetes onset,” Diabetes 651718 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, C. Petzold, M. Kuhn, C. G. Chen, I. Roeder, K. Kretschmer, and S. Speier, “Distinct roles of beta-cell mass and function during type 1 diabetes onset and remission,” Diabetes 64(6), 2148–2160 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Berclaz, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, A. Lopez, L. Joosten, S. Ekim, M. Brom, M. Gotthardt, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Combined optical coherence and fluorescence microscopy to assess dynamics and specificity of pancreatic beta-cell tracers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10385 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ilegems, P. P. Van Krieken, P. K. Edlund, A. Dicker, T. Alanentalo, M. Eriksson, S. Mandic, U. Ahlgren, and P. O. Berggren, “Light scattering as an intrinsic indicator for pancreatic islet cell mass and secretion,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10740 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

A. Bouwens, T. Bolmont, D. Szlag, C. Berclaz, and T. Lasser, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow imaging with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 37–40 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Almaca, J. Molina, R. A. E. Drigo, M. H. Abdulreda, W. B. Jeon, P. O. Berggren, A. Caicedo, and H. G. Nam, “Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(49), 17612–17617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

C. H. Dai, M. Brissova, R. B. Reinert, L. Nyman, E. H. Liu, C. Thompson, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, T. Takahashi, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet vasculature adapts to insulin resistance through dilation and not angiogenesis,” Diabetes 62(12), 4144–4153 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt-Christensen, L. Hansen, E. Ilegems, N. Fransen-Pettersson, U. Dahl, S. Gupta, A. Larefalk, T. D. Hannibal, A. Schulz, P. O. Berggren, and D. Holmberg, “Imaging dynamics of cd11c(+) cells and foxp3(+) cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the nod mouse model of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia 56(12), 2669–2678 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ilegems, A. Dicker, S. Speier, A. Sharma, A. Bahow, P. K. Edlund, I. B. Leibiger, and P. O. Berggren, “Reporter islets in the eye reveal the plasticity of the endocrine pancreas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(51), 20581–20586 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bolmont, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Lasser, “Quantitative lateral and axial flow imaging with optical coherence microscopy and tomography,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17711–17729 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. A. Villalta, J. Lang, S. Kubeck, B. Kabre, G. L. Szot, B. Calderon, C. Wasserfall, M. A. Atkinson, R. A. Brekken, N. Pullen, R. H. Arch, and J. A. Bluestone, “Inhibition of vegfr-2 reverses type 1 diabetes in nod mice by abrogating insulitis and restoring islet function,” Diabetes 62(8), 2870–2878 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

C. Berclaz, J. Goulley, M. Villiger, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, E. Martin-Williams, D. Van de Ville, A. C. Davison, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Diabetes imaging-quantitative assessment of islets of langerhans distribution in murine pancreas using extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1365–1380 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Agudo, E. Ayuso, V. Jimenez, A. Casellas, C. Mallol, A. Salavert, S. Tafuro, M. Obach, A. Ruzo, M. Moya, A. Pujol, and F. Bosch, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of beta-cell mass,” Diabetes 61(11), 2851–2861 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. El-Gohary, S. Sims-Lucas, N. Lath, S. Tulachan, P. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Welsh, J. Paredes, J. Wiersch, K. Prasadan, C. Shiota, and G. K. Gittes, “Three-dimensional analysis of the islet vasculature,” Anat. Rec. 295(9), 1473–1481 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Z. Medarova, D. L. Greiner, M. Ifediba, G. P. Dai, E. Bolotin, G. Castillo, A. Bogdanov, M. Kumar, and A. Moore, “Imaging the pancreatic vasculature in diabetes models,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 27(8), 767–772 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Gaglia, A. R. Guimaraes, M. Harisinghani, S. E. Turvey, R. Jackson, C. Benoist, D. Mathis, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive imaging of pancreatic islet inflammation in type 1a diabetes patients,” J. Clin. Invest. 121(1), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

O. Sabek, M. W. Gaber, C. M. Wilson, J. A. Zawaski, D. W. Fraga, and O. Gaber, “Imaging of human islet vascularization using a dorsal window model,” Transplant. Proc. 42(6), 2112–2114 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. C. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 43–45 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Fu, C. H. Lu, C. W. Lin, J. H. Juang, G. Enikolopov, E. Sibley, A. S. Chiang, and S. C. Tang, “Three-dimensional optical method for integrated visualization of mouse islet microstructure and vascular network with subcellular-level resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046018 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. R. Nyman, E. Ford, A. C. Powers, and D. W. Piston, “Glucose-dependent blood flow dynamics in murine pancreatic islets in vivo,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 298(4), E807–E814 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzic, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. C. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1251 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, J. Goulley, M. Friedrich, A. Grapin-Botton, P. Meda, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo imaging of murine endocrine islets of langerhans with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Diabetologia 52(8), 1599–1607 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Speier, D. Nyqvist, O. Cabrera, J. Yu, R. D. Molano, A. Pileggi, T. Moede, M. Kohler, J. Wilbertz, B. Leibiger, C. Ricordi, I. B. Leibiger, A. Caicedo, and P. O. Berggren., “Noninvasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic islet cell biology,” Nat. Med. 14(5), 574–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. R. Nyman, K. S. Wells, W. S. Head, M. McCaughey, E. Ford, M. Brissova, D. W. Piston, and A. C. Powers, “Real-time, multidimensional in vivo imaging used to investigate blood flow in mouse pancreatic islets,” J. Clin. Invest. 118(11), 3790–3797 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

N. Ballian and F. C. Brunicardi, “Islet vasculature as a regulator of endocrine pancreas function,” World J. Surg. 31(4), 705–714 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

R. A. Leitgeb, M. Villiger, A. H. Bachmann, L. Steinmann, and T. Lasser, “Extended focus depth for fourier domain optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(16), 2450–2452 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Brissova, M. J. Fowler, W. E. Nicholson, A. Chu, B. Hirshberg, D. M. Harlan, and A. C. Powers, “Assessment of human pancreatic islet architecture and composition by laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 53(9), 1087–1097 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. J. A. Janssen, T. De Celle, J. J. M. Debets, A. E. Brouns, M. F. Callahan, and T. L. Smith, “Effects of anesthetics on systemic hemodynamics in mice,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 287(4), H1618–H1624 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. M. Svensson, C. G. Ostenson, and L. Jansson, “Age-induced changes in pancreatic islet blood flow: evidence for an impaired regulation in diabetic gk rats,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 279(5), E1139–E1144 (2000).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. Murakami, T. Miyake, M. Tsubouchi, Y. Tsubouchi, A. Ohtsuka, and T. Fujita, “Blood flow patterns in the rat pancreas: A simulative demonstration by injection replication and scanning electron microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 37(5–6), 497–508 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. D. Menger, P. Vajkoczy, C. Beger, and K. Messmer, “Orientation of microvascular blood flow in pancreatic islet isografts,” J. Clin. Invest. 93(5), 2280–2285 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. D. Menger, P. Vajkoczy, R. Leiderer, S. Jager, and K. Messmer, “Influence of experimental hyperglycemia on microvascular blood perfusion of pancreatic islet isografts,” J. Clin. Invest. 90(4), 1361–1369 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

M. D. Menger, S. Jaeger, P. Walter, G. Feifel, F. Hammersen, and K. Messmer, “Angiogenesis and hemodynamics of microvasculature of transplanted islets of langerhans,” Diabetes 38(Suppl 1), 199–201 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

N. Lifson, C. V. Lassa, and P. K. Dixit, “Relation between blood-flow and morphology in islet organ of rat pancreas,” Am. J. Physiol. 249(1), E43–E48 (1985).
[PubMed]

J. R. Henderson and M. C. Moss., “A morphometric study of the endocrine and exocrine capillaries of the pancreas,” Q. J. Exp. Physiol. Cogn. Med. Sci. 70(3), 347–356 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

L. Jansson and C. Hellerstrom, “Stimulation by glucose of the blood-flow to the pancreatic-islets of the rat,” Diabetologia 25(1), 45–50 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

S. Bonner-Weir and L. Orci, “New perspectives on the microvasculature of the islets of langerhans in the rat,” Diabetes 31(10), 883–889 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aamodt, K.

R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdulreda, M. H.

J. Almaca, J. Molina, R. A. E. Drigo, M. H. Abdulreda, W. B. Jeon, P. O. Berggren, A. Caicedo, and H. G. Nam, “Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(49), 17612–17617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agudo, J.

J. Agudo, E. Ayuso, V. Jimenez, A. Casellas, C. Mallol, A. Salavert, S. Tafuro, M. Obach, A. Ruzo, M. Moya, A. Pujol, and F. Bosch, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of beta-cell mass,” Diabetes 61(11), 2851–2861 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlgren, U.

E. Ilegems, P. P. Van Krieken, P. K. Edlund, A. Dicker, T. Alanentalo, M. Eriksson, S. Mandic, U. Ahlgren, and P. O. Berggren, “Light scattering as an intrinsic indicator for pancreatic islet cell mass and secretion,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10740 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alanentalo, T.

E. Ilegems, P. P. Van Krieken, P. K. Edlund, A. Dicker, T. Alanentalo, M. Eriksson, S. Mandic, U. Ahlgren, and P. O. Berggren, “Light scattering as an intrinsic indicator for pancreatic islet cell mass and secretion,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10740 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almaca, J.

J. Almaca, J. Molina, R. A. E. Drigo, M. H. Abdulreda, W. B. Jeon, P. O. Berggren, A. Caicedo, and H. G. Nam, “Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(49), 17612–17617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aramandla, R.

R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch, R. H.

S. A. Villalta, J. Lang, S. Kubeck, B. Kabre, G. L. Szot, B. Calderon, C. Wasserfall, M. A. Atkinson, R. A. Brekken, N. Pullen, R. H. Arch, and J. A. Bluestone, “Inhibition of vegfr-2 reverses type 1 diabetes in nod mice by abrogating insulitis and restoring islet function,” Diabetes 62(8), 2870–2878 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, M. A.

S. A. Villalta, J. Lang, S. Kubeck, B. Kabre, G. L. Szot, B. Calderon, C. Wasserfall, M. A. Atkinson, R. A. Brekken, N. Pullen, R. H. Arch, and J. A. Bluestone, “Inhibition of vegfr-2 reverses type 1 diabetes in nod mice by abrogating insulitis and restoring islet function,” Diabetes 62(8), 2870–2878 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayuso, E.

J. Agudo, E. Ayuso, V. Jimenez, A. Casellas, C. Mallol, A. Salavert, S. Tafuro, M. Obach, A. Ruzo, M. Moya, A. Pujol, and F. Bosch, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of beta-cell mass,” Diabetes 61(11), 2851–2861 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachmann, A. H.

Bader, D. M.

M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baeyens, L.

J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bahow, A.

E. Ilegems, A. Dicker, S. Speier, A. Sharma, A. Bahow, P. K. Edlund, I. B. Leibiger, and P. O. Berggren, “Reporter islets in the eye reveal the plasticity of the endocrine pancreas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(51), 20581–20586 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Baldwin, H. S.

M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballian, N.

N. Ballian and F. C. Brunicardi, “Islet vasculature as a regulator of endocrine pancreas function,” World J. Surg. 31(4), 705–714 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbu, A.

L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, S.

Bartlett, L. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1251 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beger, C.

M. D. Menger, P. Vajkoczy, C. Beger, and K. Messmer, “Orientation of microvascular blood flow in pancreatic islet isografts,” J. Clin. Invest. 93(5), 2280–2285 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benoist, C.

J. L. Gaglia, A. R. Guimaraes, M. Harisinghani, S. E. Turvey, R. Jackson, C. Benoist, D. Mathis, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive imaging of pancreatic islet inflammation in type 1a diabetes patients,” J. Clin. Invest. 121(1), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berclaz, C.

C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Berclaz, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, A. Lopez, L. Joosten, S. Ekim, M. Brom, M. Gotthardt, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Combined optical coherence and fluorescence microscopy to assess dynamics and specificity of pancreatic beta-cell tracers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10385 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bouwens, T. Bolmont, D. Szlag, C. Berclaz, and T. Lasser, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow imaging with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 37–40 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Berclaz, J. Goulley, M. Villiger, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, E. Martin-Williams, D. Van de Ville, A. C. Davison, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Diabetes imaging-quantitative assessment of islets of langerhans distribution in murine pancreas using extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1365–1380 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berggren, P. O.

E. Ilegems, P. P. Van Krieken, P. K. Edlund, A. Dicker, T. Alanentalo, M. Eriksson, S. Mandic, U. Ahlgren, and P. O. Berggren, “Light scattering as an intrinsic indicator for pancreatic islet cell mass and secretion,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10740 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Almaca, J. Molina, R. A. E. Drigo, M. H. Abdulreda, W. B. Jeon, P. O. Berggren, A. Caicedo, and H. G. Nam, “Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(49), 17612–17617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ilegems, A. Dicker, S. Speier, A. Sharma, A. Bahow, P. K. Edlund, I. B. Leibiger, and P. O. Berggren, “Reporter islets in the eye reveal the plasticity of the endocrine pancreas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(51), 20581–20586 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt-Christensen, L. Hansen, E. Ilegems, N. Fransen-Pettersson, U. Dahl, S. Gupta, A. Larefalk, T. D. Hannibal, A. Schulz, P. O. Berggren, and D. Holmberg, “Imaging dynamics of cd11c(+) cells and foxp3(+) cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the nod mouse model of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia 56(12), 2669–2678 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berggren., P. O.

S. Speier, D. Nyqvist, O. Cabrera, J. Yu, R. D. Molano, A. Pileggi, T. Moede, M. Kohler, J. Wilbertz, B. Leibiger, C. Ricordi, I. B. Leibiger, A. Caicedo, and P. O. Berggren., “Noninvasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic islet cell biology,” Nat. Med. 14(5), 574–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bluestone, J. A.

S. A. Villalta, J. Lang, S. Kubeck, B. Kabre, G. L. Szot, B. Calderon, C. Wasserfall, M. A. Atkinson, R. A. Brekken, N. Pullen, R. H. Arch, and J. A. Bluestone, “Inhibition of vegfr-2 reverses type 1 diabetes in nod mice by abrogating insulitis and restoring islet function,” Diabetes 62(8), 2870–2878 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Bodin, B.

L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogdanov, A.

Z. Medarova, D. L. Greiner, M. Ifediba, G. P. Dai, E. Bolotin, G. Castillo, A. Bogdanov, M. Kumar, and A. Moore, “Imaging the pancreatic vasculature in diabetes models,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 27(8), 767–772 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolmont, T.

Bolotin, E.

Z. Medarova, D. L. Greiner, M. Ifediba, G. P. Dai, E. Bolotin, G. Castillo, A. Bogdanov, M. Kumar, and A. Moore, “Imaging the pancreatic vasculature in diabetes models,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 27(8), 767–772 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonner-Weir, S.

S. Bonner-Weir and L. Orci, “New perspectives on the microvasculature of the islets of langerhans in the rat,” Diabetes 31(10), 883–889 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosch, F.

J. Agudo, E. Ayuso, V. Jimenez, A. Casellas, C. Mallol, A. Salavert, S. Tafuro, M. Obach, A. Ruzo, M. Moya, A. Pujol, and F. Bosch, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of beta-cell mass,” Diabetes 61(11), 2851–2861 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1251 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwens, A.

C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Berclaz, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, A. Lopez, L. Joosten, S. Ekim, M. Brom, M. Gotthardt, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Combined optical coherence and fluorescence microscopy to assess dynamics and specificity of pancreatic beta-cell tracers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10385 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bouwens, T. Bolmont, D. Szlag, C. Berclaz, and T. Lasser, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow imaging with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 37–40 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bolmont, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Lasser, “Quantitative lateral and axial flow imaging with optical coherence microscopy and tomography,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17711–17729 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Berclaz, J. Goulley, M. Villiger, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, E. Martin-Williams, D. Van de Ville, A. C. Davison, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Diabetes imaging-quantitative assessment of islets of langerhans distribution in murine pancreas using extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1365–1380 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brekken, R. A.

S. A. Villalta, J. Lang, S. Kubeck, B. Kabre, G. L. Szot, B. Calderon, C. Wasserfall, M. A. Atkinson, R. A. Brekken, N. Pullen, R. H. Arch, and J. A. Bluestone, “Inhibition of vegfr-2 reverses type 1 diabetes in nod mice by abrogating insulitis and restoring islet function,” Diabetes 62(8), 2870–2878 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brissova, M.

R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Dai, M. Brissova, R. B. Reinert, L. Nyman, E. H. Liu, C. Thompson, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, T. Takahashi, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet vasculature adapts to insulin resistance through dilation and not angiogenesis,” Diabetes 62(12), 4144–4153 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. R. Nyman, K. S. Wells, W. S. Head, M. McCaughey, E. Ford, M. Brissova, D. W. Piston, and A. C. Powers, “Real-time, multidimensional in vivo imaging used to investigate blood flow in mouse pancreatic islets,” J. Clin. Invest. 118(11), 3790–3797 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brissova, M. J. Fowler, W. E. Nicholson, A. Chu, B. Hirshberg, D. M. Harlan, and A. C. Powers, “Assessment of human pancreatic islet architecture and composition by laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 53(9), 1087–1097 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brom, M.

C. Berclaz, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, A. Lopez, L. Joosten, S. Ekim, M. Brom, M. Gotthardt, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Combined optical coherence and fluorescence microscopy to assess dynamics and specificity of pancreatic beta-cell tracers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10385 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brouns, A. E.

B. J. A. Janssen, T. De Celle, J. J. M. Debets, A. E. Brouns, M. F. Callahan, and T. L. Smith, “Effects of anesthetics on systemic hemodynamics in mice,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 287(4), H1618–H1624 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brunicardi, F. C.

N. Ballian and F. C. Brunicardi, “Islet vasculature as a regulator of endocrine pancreas function,” World J. Surg. 31(4), 705–714 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

Cabrera, O.

S. Speier, D. Nyqvist, O. Cabrera, J. Yu, R. D. Molano, A. Pileggi, T. Moede, M. Kohler, J. Wilbertz, B. Leibiger, C. Ricordi, I. B. Leibiger, A. Caicedo, and P. O. Berggren., “Noninvasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic islet cell biology,” Nat. Med. 14(5), 574–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, Q.

R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caicedo, A.

J. Almaca, J. Molina, R. A. E. Drigo, M. H. Abdulreda, W. B. Jeon, P. O. Berggren, A. Caicedo, and H. G. Nam, “Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(49), 17612–17617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. J. A. Janssen, T. De Celle, J. J. M. Debets, A. E. Brouns, M. F. Callahan, and T. L. Smith, “Effects of anesthetics on systemic hemodynamics in mice,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 287(4), H1618–H1624 (2004).
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L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
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M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
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J. Agudo, E. Ayuso, V. Jimenez, A. Casellas, C. Mallol, A. Salavert, S. Tafuro, M. Obach, A. Ruzo, M. Moya, A. Pujol, and F. Bosch, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of beta-cell mass,” Diabetes 61(11), 2851–2861 (2012).
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Z. Medarova, D. L. Greiner, M. Ifediba, G. P. Dai, E. Bolotin, G. Castillo, A. Bogdanov, M. Kumar, and A. Moore, “Imaging the pancreatic vasculature in diabetes models,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 27(8), 767–772 (2011).
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C. Chen, H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, S. R. Jahn, J. Stertmann, I. Uphues, and S. Speier, “Alterations in beta-cell calcium dynamics and efficacy outweigh islet mass adaptation in compensation of insulin resistance and prediabetes onset,” Diabetes 651718 (2016).
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H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, C. Petzold, M. Kuhn, C. G. Chen, I. Roeder, K. Kretschmer, and S. Speier, “Distinct roles of beta-cell mass and function during type 1 diabetes onset and remission,” Diabetes 64(6), 2148–2160 (2015).
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M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
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M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
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Chiang, A. S.

Y. Y. Fu, C. H. Lu, C. W. Lin, J. H. Juang, G. Enikolopov, E. Sibley, A. S. Chiang, and S. C. Tang, “Three-dimensional optical method for integrated visualization of mouse islet microstructure and vascular network with subcellular-level resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046018 (2010).
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J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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C. Chen, H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, S. R. Jahn, J. Stertmann, I. Uphues, and S. Speier, “Alterations in beta-cell calcium dynamics and efficacy outweigh islet mass adaptation in compensation of insulin resistance and prediabetes onset,” Diabetes 651718 (2016).
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H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, C. Petzold, M. Kuhn, C. G. Chen, I. Roeder, K. Kretschmer, and S. Speier, “Distinct roles of beta-cell mass and function during type 1 diabetes onset and remission,” Diabetes 64(6), 2148–2160 (2015).
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Chouinard, J. A.

C. Chen, H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, S. R. Jahn, J. Stertmann, I. Uphues, and S. Speier, “Alterations in beta-cell calcium dynamics and efficacy outweigh islet mass adaptation in compensation of insulin resistance and prediabetes onset,” Diabetes 651718 (2016).
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H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, C. Petzold, M. Kuhn, C. G. Chen, I. Roeder, K. Kretschmer, and S. Speier, “Distinct roles of beta-cell mass and function during type 1 diabetes onset and remission,” Diabetes 64(6), 2148–2160 (2015).
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Chu, A.

M. Brissova, M. J. Fowler, W. E. Nicholson, A. Chu, B. Hirshberg, D. M. Harlan, and A. C. Powers, “Assessment of human pancreatic islet architecture and composition by laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 53(9), 1087–1097 (2005).
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C. Chen, H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, S. R. Jahn, J. Stertmann, I. Uphues, and S. Speier, “Alterations in beta-cell calcium dynamics and efficacy outweigh islet mass adaptation in compensation of insulin resistance and prediabetes onset,” Diabetes 651718 (2016).
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H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, C. Petzold, M. Kuhn, C. G. Chen, I. Roeder, K. Kretschmer, and S. Speier, “Distinct roles of beta-cell mass and function during type 1 diabetes onset and remission,” Diabetes 64(6), 2148–2160 (2015).
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J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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A. Schmidt-Christensen, L. Hansen, E. Ilegems, N. Fransen-Pettersson, U. Dahl, S. Gupta, A. Larefalk, T. D. Hannibal, A. Schulz, P. O. Berggren, and D. Holmberg, “Imaging dynamics of cd11c(+) cells and foxp3(+) cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the nod mouse model of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia 56(12), 2669–2678 (2013).
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R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
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C. H. Dai, M. Brissova, R. B. Reinert, L. Nyman, E. H. Liu, C. Thompson, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, T. Takahashi, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet vasculature adapts to insulin resistance through dilation and not angiogenesis,” Diabetes 62(12), 4144–4153 (2013).
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Dai, G. P.

Z. Medarova, D. L. Greiner, M. Ifediba, G. P. Dai, E. Bolotin, G. Castillo, A. Bogdanov, M. Kumar, and A. Moore, “Imaging the pancreatic vasculature in diabetes models,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 27(8), 767–772 (2011).
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Davison, A. C.

De Celle, T.

B. J. A. Janssen, T. De Celle, J. J. M. Debets, A. E. Brouns, M. F. Callahan, and T. L. Smith, “Effects of anesthetics on systemic hemodynamics in mice,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 287(4), H1618–H1624 (2004).
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J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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B. J. A. Janssen, T. De Celle, J. J. M. Debets, A. E. Brouns, M. F. Callahan, and T. L. Smith, “Effects of anesthetics on systemic hemodynamics in mice,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 287(4), H1618–H1624 (2004).
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E. Ilegems, P. P. Van Krieken, P. K. Edlund, A. Dicker, T. Alanentalo, M. Eriksson, S. Mandic, U. Ahlgren, and P. O. Berggren, “Light scattering as an intrinsic indicator for pancreatic islet cell mass and secretion,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10740 (2015).
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E. Ilegems, A. Dicker, S. Speier, A. Sharma, A. Bahow, P. K. Edlund, I. B. Leibiger, and P. O. Berggren, “Reporter islets in the eye reveal the plasticity of the endocrine pancreas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(51), 20581–20586 (2013).
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D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
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N. Lifson, C. V. Lassa, and P. K. Dixit, “Relation between blood-flow and morphology in islet organ of rat pancreas,” Am. J. Physiol. 249(1), E43–E48 (1985).
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J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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Drigo, R. A. E.

J. Almaca, J. Molina, R. A. E. Drigo, M. H. Abdulreda, W. B. Jeon, P. O. Berggren, A. Caicedo, and H. G. Nam, “Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(49), 17612–17617 (2014).
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Drott, C. J.

L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
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E. Ilegems, P. P. Van Krieken, P. K. Edlund, A. Dicker, T. Alanentalo, M. Eriksson, S. Mandic, U. Ahlgren, and P. O. Berggren, “Light scattering as an intrinsic indicator for pancreatic islet cell mass and secretion,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10740 (2015).
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E. Ilegems, A. Dicker, S. Speier, A. Sharma, A. Bahow, P. K. Edlund, I. B. Leibiger, and P. O. Berggren, “Reporter islets in the eye reveal the plasticity of the endocrine pancreas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(51), 20581–20586 (2013).
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C. Berclaz, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, A. Lopez, L. Joosten, S. Ekim, M. Brom, M. Gotthardt, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Combined optical coherence and fluorescence microscopy to assess dynamics and specificity of pancreatic beta-cell tracers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10385 (2015).
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Y. El-Gohary, S. Sims-Lucas, N. Lath, S. Tulachan, P. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Welsh, J. Paredes, J. Wiersch, K. Prasadan, C. Shiota, and G. K. Gittes, “Three-dimensional analysis of the islet vasculature,” Anat. Rec. 295(9), 1473–1481 (2012).
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Y. Y. Fu, C. H. Lu, C. W. Lin, J. H. Juang, G. Enikolopov, E. Sibley, A. S. Chiang, and S. C. Tang, “Three-dimensional optical method for integrated visualization of mouse islet microstructure and vascular network with subcellular-level resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046018 (2010).
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E. Ilegems, P. P. Van Krieken, P. K. Edlund, A. Dicker, T. Alanentalo, M. Eriksson, S. Mandic, U. Ahlgren, and P. O. Berggren, “Light scattering as an intrinsic indicator for pancreatic islet cell mass and secretion,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10740 (2015).
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C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
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L. R. Nyman, E. Ford, A. C. Powers, and D. W. Piston, “Glucose-dependent blood flow dynamics in murine pancreatic islets in vivo,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 298(4), E807–E814 (2010).
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M. Brissova, M. J. Fowler, W. E. Nicholson, A. Chu, B. Hirshberg, D. M. Harlan, and A. C. Powers, “Assessment of human pancreatic islet architecture and composition by laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 53(9), 1087–1097 (2005).
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O. Sabek, M. W. Gaber, C. M. Wilson, J. A. Zawaski, D. W. Fraga, and O. Gaber, “Imaging of human islet vascularization using a dorsal window model,” Transplant. Proc. 42(6), 2112–2114 (2010).
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A. Schmidt-Christensen, L. Hansen, E. Ilegems, N. Fransen-Pettersson, U. Dahl, S. Gupta, A. Larefalk, T. D. Hannibal, A. Schulz, P. O. Berggren, and D. Holmberg, “Imaging dynamics of cd11c(+) cells and foxp3(+) cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the nod mouse model of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia 56(12), 2669–2678 (2013).
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Friedrich, M.

M. Villiger, J. Goulley, M. Friedrich, A. Grapin-Botton, P. Meda, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo imaging of murine endocrine islets of langerhans with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Diabetologia 52(8), 1599–1607 (2009).
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Y. Y. Fu, C. H. Lu, C. W. Lin, J. H. Juang, G. Enikolopov, E. Sibley, A. S. Chiang, and S. C. Tang, “Three-dimensional optical method for integrated visualization of mouse islet microstructure and vascular network with subcellular-level resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046018 (2010).
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Fujita, T.

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O. Sabek, M. W. Gaber, C. M. Wilson, J. A. Zawaski, D. W. Fraga, and O. Gaber, “Imaging of human islet vascularization using a dorsal window model,” Transplant. Proc. 42(6), 2112–2114 (2010).
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Gaber, O.

O. Sabek, M. W. Gaber, C. M. Wilson, J. A. Zawaski, D. W. Fraga, and O. Gaber, “Imaging of human islet vascularization using a dorsal window model,” Transplant. Proc. 42(6), 2112–2114 (2010).
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J. L. Gaglia, A. R. Guimaraes, M. Harisinghani, S. E. Turvey, R. Jackson, C. Benoist, D. Mathis, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive imaging of pancreatic islet inflammation in type 1a diabetes patients,” J. Clin. Invest. 121(1), 442–445 (2011).
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M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
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Gao, X.

L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
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Gittes, G. K.

Y. El-Gohary, S. Sims-Lucas, N. Lath, S. Tulachan, P. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Welsh, J. Paredes, J. Wiersch, K. Prasadan, C. Shiota, and G. K. Gittes, “Three-dimensional analysis of the islet vasculature,” Anat. Rec. 295(9), 1473–1481 (2012).
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Gorczynska, I.

Gotthardt, M.

C. Berclaz, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, A. Lopez, L. Joosten, S. Ekim, M. Brom, M. Gotthardt, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Combined optical coherence and fluorescence microscopy to assess dynamics and specificity of pancreatic beta-cell tracers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10385 (2015).
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Goulley, J.

C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
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C. Berclaz, J. Goulley, M. Villiger, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, E. Martin-Williams, D. Van de Ville, A. C. Davison, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Diabetes imaging-quantitative assessment of islets of langerhans distribution in murine pancreas using extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1365–1380 (2012).
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M. Villiger, J. Goulley, M. Friedrich, A. Grapin-Botton, P. Meda, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo imaging of murine endocrine islets of langerhans with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Diabetologia 52(8), 1599–1607 (2009).
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Grapensparr, L.

L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
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Grapin-Botton, A.

C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Berclaz, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, A. Lopez, L. Joosten, S. Ekim, M. Brom, M. Gotthardt, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Combined optical coherence and fluorescence microscopy to assess dynamics and specificity of pancreatic beta-cell tracers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10385 (2015).
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C. Berclaz, J. Goulley, M. Villiger, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, E. Martin-Williams, D. Van de Ville, A. C. Davison, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Diabetes imaging-quantitative assessment of islets of langerhans distribution in murine pancreas using extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1365–1380 (2012).
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M. Villiger, J. Goulley, M. Friedrich, A. Grapin-Botton, P. Meda, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo imaging of murine endocrine islets of langerhans with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Diabetologia 52(8), 1599–1607 (2009).
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Greiner, D. L.

Z. Medarova, D. L. Greiner, M. Ifediba, G. P. Dai, E. Bolotin, G. Castillo, A. Bogdanov, M. Kumar, and A. Moore, “Imaging the pancreatic vasculature in diabetes models,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 27(8), 767–772 (2011).
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Guimaraes, A. R.

J. L. Gaglia, A. R. Guimaraes, M. Harisinghani, S. E. Turvey, R. Jackson, C. Benoist, D. Mathis, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive imaging of pancreatic islet inflammation in type 1a diabetes patients,” J. Clin. Invest. 121(1), 442–445 (2011).
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Y. El-Gohary, S. Sims-Lucas, N. Lath, S. Tulachan, P. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Welsh, J. Paredes, J. Wiersch, K. Prasadan, C. Shiota, and G. K. Gittes, “Three-dimensional analysis of the islet vasculature,” Anat. Rec. 295(9), 1473–1481 (2012).
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A. Schmidt-Christensen, L. Hansen, E. Ilegems, N. Fransen-Pettersson, U. Dahl, S. Gupta, A. Larefalk, T. D. Hannibal, A. Schulz, P. O. Berggren, and D. Holmberg, “Imaging dynamics of cd11c(+) cells and foxp3(+) cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the nod mouse model of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia 56(12), 2669–2678 (2013).
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M. D. Menger, S. Jaeger, P. Walter, G. Feifel, F. Hammersen, and K. Messmer, “Angiogenesis and hemodynamics of microvasculature of transplanted islets of langerhans,” Diabetes 38(Suppl 1), 199–201 (1989).
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A. Schmidt-Christensen, L. Hansen, E. Ilegems, N. Fransen-Pettersson, U. Dahl, S. Gupta, A. Larefalk, T. D. Hannibal, A. Schulz, P. O. Berggren, and D. Holmberg, “Imaging dynamics of cd11c(+) cells and foxp3(+) cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the nod mouse model of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia 56(12), 2669–2678 (2013).
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C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
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A. Schmidt-Christensen, L. Hansen, E. Ilegems, N. Fransen-Pettersson, U. Dahl, S. Gupta, A. Larefalk, T. D. Hannibal, A. Schulz, P. O. Berggren, and D. Holmberg, “Imaging dynamics of cd11c(+) cells and foxp3(+) cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the nod mouse model of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia 56(12), 2669–2678 (2013).
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J. L. Gaglia, A. R. Guimaraes, M. Harisinghani, S. E. Turvey, R. Jackson, C. Benoist, D. Mathis, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive imaging of pancreatic islet inflammation in type 1a diabetes patients,” J. Clin. Invest. 121(1), 442–445 (2011).
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M. Brissova, M. J. Fowler, W. E. Nicholson, A. Chu, B. Hirshberg, D. M. Harlan, and A. C. Powers, “Assessment of human pancreatic islet architecture and composition by laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 53(9), 1087–1097 (2005).
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L. R. Nyman, K. S. Wells, W. S. Head, M. McCaughey, E. Ford, M. Brissova, D. W. Piston, and A. C. Powers, “Real-time, multidimensional in vivo imaging used to investigate blood flow in mouse pancreatic islets,” J. Clin. Invest. 118(11), 3790–3797 (2008).
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J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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L. Jansson and C. Hellerstrom, “Stimulation by glucose of the blood-flow to the pancreatic-islets of the rat,” Diabetologia 25(1), 45–50 (1983).
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J. R. Henderson and M. C. Moss., “A morphometric study of the endocrine and exocrine capillaries of the pancreas,” Q. J. Exp. Physiol. Cogn. Med. Sci. 70(3), 347–356 (1985).
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J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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Hirshberg, B.

M. Brissova, M. J. Fowler, W. E. Nicholson, A. Chu, B. Hirshberg, D. M. Harlan, and A. C. Powers, “Assessment of human pancreatic islet architecture and composition by laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 53(9), 1087–1097 (2005).
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Holmberg, D.

C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Schmidt-Christensen, L. Hansen, E. Ilegems, N. Fransen-Pettersson, U. Dahl, S. Gupta, A. Larefalk, T. D. Hannibal, A. Schulz, P. O. Berggren, and D. Holmberg, “Imaging dynamics of cd11c(+) cells and foxp3(+) cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the nod mouse model of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia 56(12), 2669–2678 (2013).
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R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
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Z. Medarova, D. L. Greiner, M. Ifediba, G. P. Dai, E. Bolotin, G. Castillo, A. Bogdanov, M. Kumar, and A. Moore, “Imaging the pancreatic vasculature in diabetes models,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 27(8), 767–772 (2011).
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E. Ilegems, P. P. Van Krieken, P. K. Edlund, A. Dicker, T. Alanentalo, M. Eriksson, S. Mandic, U. Ahlgren, and P. O. Berggren, “Light scattering as an intrinsic indicator for pancreatic islet cell mass and secretion,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10740 (2015).
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E. Ilegems, A. Dicker, S. Speier, A. Sharma, A. Bahow, P. K. Edlund, I. B. Leibiger, and P. O. Berggren, “Reporter islets in the eye reveal the plasticity of the endocrine pancreas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(51), 20581–20586 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt-Christensen, L. Hansen, E. Ilegems, N. Fransen-Pettersson, U. Dahl, S. Gupta, A. Larefalk, T. D. Hannibal, A. Schulz, P. O. Berggren, and D. Holmberg, “Imaging dynamics of cd11c(+) cells and foxp3(+) cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the nod mouse model of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia 56(12), 2669–2678 (2013).
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D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
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Jackson, R.

J. L. Gaglia, A. R. Guimaraes, M. Harisinghani, S. E. Turvey, R. Jackson, C. Benoist, D. Mathis, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive imaging of pancreatic islet inflammation in type 1a diabetes patients,” J. Clin. Invest. 121(1), 442–445 (2011).
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M. D. Menger, S. Jaeger, P. Walter, G. Feifel, F. Hammersen, and K. Messmer, “Angiogenesis and hemodynamics of microvasculature of transplanted islets of langerhans,” Diabetes 38(Suppl 1), 199–201 (1989).
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Jager, S.

M. D. Menger, P. Vajkoczy, R. Leiderer, S. Jager, and K. Messmer, “Influence of experimental hyperglycemia on microvascular blood perfusion of pancreatic islet isografts,” J. Clin. Invest. 90(4), 1361–1369 (1992).
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C. Chen, H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, S. R. Jahn, J. Stertmann, I. Uphues, and S. Speier, “Alterations in beta-cell calcium dynamics and efficacy outweigh islet mass adaptation in compensation of insulin resistance and prediabetes onset,” Diabetes 651718 (2016).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1251 (2009).
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B. J. A. Janssen, T. De Celle, J. J. M. Debets, A. E. Brouns, M. F. Callahan, and T. L. Smith, “Effects of anesthetics on systemic hemodynamics in mice,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 287(4), H1618–H1624 (2004).
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L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
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A. M. Svensson, C. G. Ostenson, and L. Jansson, “Age-induced changes in pancreatic islet blood flow: evidence for an impaired regulation in diabetic gk rats,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 279(5), E1139–E1144 (2000).
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L. Jansson and C. Hellerstrom, “Stimulation by glucose of the blood-flow to the pancreatic-islets of the rat,” Diabetologia 25(1), 45–50 (1983).
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J. Almaca, J. Molina, R. A. E. Drigo, M. H. Abdulreda, W. B. Jeon, P. O. Berggren, A. Caicedo, and H. G. Nam, “Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(49), 17612–17617 (2014).
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M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
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Jetton, T.

M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
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Jimenez, V.

J. Agudo, E. Ayuso, V. Jimenez, A. Casellas, C. Mallol, A. Salavert, S. Tafuro, M. Obach, A. Ruzo, M. Moya, A. Pujol, and F. Bosch, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of beta-cell mass,” Diabetes 61(11), 2851–2861 (2012).
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C. Berclaz, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, A. Lopez, L. Joosten, S. Ekim, M. Brom, M. Gotthardt, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Combined optical coherence and fluorescence microscopy to assess dynamics and specificity of pancreatic beta-cell tracers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10385 (2015).
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Y. Y. Fu, C. H. Lu, C. W. Lin, J. H. Juang, G. Enikolopov, E. Sibley, A. S. Chiang, and S. C. Tang, “Three-dimensional optical method for integrated visualization of mouse islet microstructure and vascular network with subcellular-level resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046018 (2010).
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S. A. Villalta, J. Lang, S. Kubeck, B. Kabre, G. L. Szot, B. Calderon, C. Wasserfall, M. A. Atkinson, R. A. Brekken, N. Pullen, R. H. Arch, and J. A. Bluestone, “Inhibition of vegfr-2 reverses type 1 diabetes in nod mice by abrogating insulitis and restoring islet function,” Diabetes 62(8), 2870–2878 (2013).
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Kallskog, O.

L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
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Kantz, J.

M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
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Keshet, E.

J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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Kohler, M.

S. Speier, D. Nyqvist, O. Cabrera, J. Yu, R. D. Molano, A. Pileggi, T. Moede, M. Kohler, J. Wilbertz, B. Leibiger, C. Ricordi, I. B. Leibiger, A. Caicedo, and P. O. Berggren., “Noninvasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic islet cell biology,” Nat. Med. 14(5), 574–578 (2008).
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Kretschmer, K.

H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, C. Petzold, M. Kuhn, C. G. Chen, I. Roeder, K. Kretschmer, and S. Speier, “Distinct roles of beta-cell mass and function during type 1 diabetes onset and remission,” Diabetes 64(6), 2148–2160 (2015).
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S. A. Villalta, J. Lang, S. Kubeck, B. Kabre, G. L. Szot, B. Calderon, C. Wasserfall, M. A. Atkinson, R. A. Brekken, N. Pullen, R. H. Arch, and J. A. Bluestone, “Inhibition of vegfr-2 reverses type 1 diabetes in nod mice by abrogating insulitis and restoring islet function,” Diabetes 62(8), 2870–2878 (2013).
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H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, C. Petzold, M. Kuhn, C. G. Chen, I. Roeder, K. Kretschmer, and S. Speier, “Distinct roles of beta-cell mass and function during type 1 diabetes onset and remission,” Diabetes 64(6), 2148–2160 (2015).
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Kumar, M.

Z. Medarova, D. L. Greiner, M. Ifediba, G. P. Dai, E. Bolotin, G. Castillo, A. Bogdanov, M. Kumar, and A. Moore, “Imaging the pancreatic vasculature in diabetes models,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 27(8), 767–772 (2011).
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R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
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S. A. Villalta, J. Lang, S. Kubeck, B. Kabre, G. L. Szot, B. Calderon, C. Wasserfall, M. A. Atkinson, R. A. Brekken, N. Pullen, R. H. Arch, and J. A. Bluestone, “Inhibition of vegfr-2 reverses type 1 diabetes in nod mice by abrogating insulitis and restoring islet function,” Diabetes 62(8), 2870–2878 (2013).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1251 (2009).
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A. Schmidt-Christensen, L. Hansen, E. Ilegems, N. Fransen-Pettersson, U. Dahl, S. Gupta, A. Larefalk, T. D. Hannibal, A. Schulz, P. O. Berggren, and D. Holmberg, “Imaging dynamics of cd11c(+) cells and foxp3(+) cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the nod mouse model of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia 56(12), 2669–2678 (2013).
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N. Lifson, C. V. Lassa, and P. K. Dixit, “Relation between blood-flow and morphology in islet organ of rat pancreas,” Am. J. Physiol. 249(1), E43–E48 (1985).
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Lasser, T.

C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Berclaz, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, A. Lopez, L. Joosten, S. Ekim, M. Brom, M. Gotthardt, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Combined optical coherence and fluorescence microscopy to assess dynamics and specificity of pancreatic beta-cell tracers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10385 (2015).
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A. Bouwens, T. Bolmont, D. Szlag, C. Berclaz, and T. Lasser, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow imaging with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 37–40 (2014).
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A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bolmont, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Lasser, “Quantitative lateral and axial flow imaging with optical coherence microscopy and tomography,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17711–17729 (2013).
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C. Berclaz, J. Goulley, M. Villiger, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, E. Martin-Williams, D. Van de Ville, A. C. Davison, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Diabetes imaging-quantitative assessment of islets of langerhans distribution in murine pancreas using extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1365–1380 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, J. Goulley, M. Friedrich, A. Grapin-Botton, P. Meda, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo imaging of murine endocrine islets of langerhans with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Diabetologia 52(8), 1599–1607 (2009).
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R. A. Leitgeb, M. Villiger, A. H. Bachmann, L. Steinmann, and T. Lasser, “Extended focus depth for fourier domain optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(16), 2450–2452 (2006).
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Lath, N.

Y. El-Gohary, S. Sims-Lucas, N. Lath, S. Tulachan, P. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Welsh, J. Paredes, J. Wiersch, K. Prasadan, C. Shiota, and G. K. Gittes, “Three-dimensional analysis of the islet vasculature,” Anat. Rec. 295(9), 1473–1481 (2012).
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Lau, J.

L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavens, A.

J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leibiger, B.

S. Speier, D. Nyqvist, O. Cabrera, J. Yu, R. D. Molano, A. Pileggi, T. Moede, M. Kohler, J. Wilbertz, B. Leibiger, C. Ricordi, I. B. Leibiger, A. Caicedo, and P. O. Berggren., “Noninvasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic islet cell biology,” Nat. Med. 14(5), 574–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leibiger, I. B.

E. Ilegems, A. Dicker, S. Speier, A. Sharma, A. Bahow, P. K. Edlund, I. B. Leibiger, and P. O. Berggren, “Reporter islets in the eye reveal the plasticity of the endocrine pancreas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(51), 20581–20586 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Speier, D. Nyqvist, O. Cabrera, J. Yu, R. D. Molano, A. Pileggi, T. Moede, M. Kohler, J. Wilbertz, B. Leibiger, C. Ricordi, I. B. Leibiger, A. Caicedo, and P. O. Berggren., “Noninvasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic islet cell biology,” Nat. Med. 14(5), 574–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leiderer, R.

M. D. Menger, P. Vajkoczy, R. Leiderer, S. Jager, and K. Messmer, “Influence of experimental hyperglycemia on microvascular blood perfusion of pancreatic islet isografts,” J. Clin. Invest. 90(4), 1361–1369 (1992).
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Leitgeb, R. A.

M. Villiger, J. Goulley, M. Friedrich, A. Grapin-Botton, P. Meda, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo imaging of murine endocrine islets of langerhans with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Diabetologia 52(8), 1599–1607 (2009).
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R. A. Leitgeb, M. Villiger, A. H. Bachmann, L. Steinmann, and T. Lasser, “Extended focus depth for fourier domain optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(16), 2450–2452 (2006).
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R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
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N. Lifson, C. V. Lassa, and P. K. Dixit, “Relation between blood-flow and morphology in islet organ of rat pancreas,” Am. J. Physiol. 249(1), E43–E48 (1985).
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L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
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Lin, C. W.

Y. Y. Fu, C. H. Lu, C. W. Lin, J. H. Juang, G. Enikolopov, E. Sibley, A. S. Chiang, and S. C. Tang, “Three-dimensional optical method for integrated visualization of mouse islet microstructure and vascular network with subcellular-level resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046018 (2010).
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Lipovsek, S.

D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, E. H.

C. H. Dai, M. Brissova, R. B. Reinert, L. Nyman, E. H. Liu, C. Thompson, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, T. Takahashi, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet vasculature adapts to insulin resistance through dilation and not angiogenesis,” Diabetes 62(12), 4144–4153 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez, A.

C. Berclaz, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, A. Lopez, L. Joosten, S. Ekim, M. Brom, M. Gotthardt, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Combined optical coherence and fluorescence microscopy to assess dynamics and specificity of pancreatic beta-cell tracers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10385 (2015).
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Lopez-Cabeza, M.

D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
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Lu, C. H.

Y. Y. Fu, C. H. Lu, C. W. Lin, J. H. Juang, G. Enikolopov, E. Sibley, A. S. Chiang, and S. C. Tang, “Three-dimensional optical method for integrated visualization of mouse islet microstructure and vascular network with subcellular-level resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046018 (2010).
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Magenheim, J.

J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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Mallol, C.

J. Agudo, E. Ayuso, V. Jimenez, A. Casellas, C. Mallol, A. Salavert, S. Tafuro, M. Obach, A. Ruzo, M. Moya, A. Pujol, and F. Bosch, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of beta-cell mass,” Diabetes 61(11), 2851–2861 (2012).
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Mandic, S.

E. Ilegems, P. P. Van Krieken, P. K. Edlund, A. Dicker, T. Alanentalo, M. Eriksson, S. Mandic, U. Ahlgren, and P. O. Berggren, “Light scattering as an intrinsic indicator for pancreatic islet cell mass and secretion,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10740 (2015).
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Martens, G.

J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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Martin-Williams, E.

Mathis, D.

J. L. Gaglia, A. R. Guimaraes, M. Harisinghani, S. E. Turvey, R. Jackson, C. Benoist, D. Mathis, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive imaging of pancreatic islet inflammation in type 1a diabetes patients,” J. Clin. Invest. 121(1), 442–445 (2011).
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L. R. Nyman, K. S. Wells, W. S. Head, M. McCaughey, E. Ford, M. Brissova, D. W. Piston, and A. C. Powers, “Real-time, multidimensional in vivo imaging used to investigate blood flow in mouse pancreatic islets,” J. Clin. Invest. 118(11), 3790–3797 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meda, P.

M. Villiger, J. Goulley, M. Friedrich, A. Grapin-Botton, P. Meda, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo imaging of murine endocrine islets of langerhans with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Diabetologia 52(8), 1599–1607 (2009).
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Medarova, Z.

Z. Medarova, D. L. Greiner, M. Ifediba, G. P. Dai, E. Bolotin, G. Castillo, A. Bogdanov, M. Kumar, and A. Moore, “Imaging the pancreatic vasculature in diabetes models,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 27(8), 767–772 (2011).
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Menger, M. D.

M. D. Menger, P. Vajkoczy, C. Beger, and K. Messmer, “Orientation of microvascular blood flow in pancreatic islet isografts,” J. Clin. Invest. 93(5), 2280–2285 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Menger, P. Vajkoczy, R. Leiderer, S. Jager, and K. Messmer, “Influence of experimental hyperglycemia on microvascular blood perfusion of pancreatic islet isografts,” J. Clin. Invest. 90(4), 1361–1369 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Menger, S. Jaeger, P. Walter, G. Feifel, F. Hammersen, and K. Messmer, “Angiogenesis and hemodynamics of microvasculature of transplanted islets of langerhans,” Diabetes 38(Suppl 1), 199–201 (1989).
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Messmer, K.

M. D. Menger, P. Vajkoczy, C. Beger, and K. Messmer, “Orientation of microvascular blood flow in pancreatic islet isografts,” J. Clin. Invest. 93(5), 2280–2285 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Menger, P. Vajkoczy, R. Leiderer, S. Jager, and K. Messmer, “Influence of experimental hyperglycemia on microvascular blood perfusion of pancreatic islet isografts,” J. Clin. Invest. 90(4), 1361–1369 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Menger, S. Jaeger, P. Walter, G. Feifel, F. Hammersen, and K. Messmer, “Angiogenesis and hemodynamics of microvasculature of transplanted islets of langerhans,” Diabetes 38(Suppl 1), 199–201 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minami, K.

J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miyake, T.

T. Murakami, T. Miyake, M. Tsubouchi, Y. Tsubouchi, A. Ohtsuka, and T. Fujita, “Blood flow patterns in the rat pancreas: A simulative demonstration by injection replication and scanning electron microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 37(5–6), 497–508 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moede, T.

S. Speier, D. Nyqvist, O. Cabrera, J. Yu, R. D. Molano, A. Pileggi, T. Moede, M. Kohler, J. Wilbertz, B. Leibiger, C. Ricordi, I. B. Leibiger, A. Caicedo, and P. O. Berggren., “Noninvasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic islet cell biology,” Nat. Med. 14(5), 574–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molano, R. D.

D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Speier, D. Nyqvist, O. Cabrera, J. Yu, R. D. Molano, A. Pileggi, T. Moede, M. Kohler, J. Wilbertz, B. Leibiger, C. Ricordi, I. B. Leibiger, A. Caicedo, and P. O. Berggren., “Noninvasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic islet cell biology,” Nat. Med. 14(5), 574–578 (2008).
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Molina, J.

J. Almaca, J. Molina, R. A. E. Drigo, M. H. Abdulreda, W. B. Jeon, P. O. Berggren, A. Caicedo, and H. G. Nam, “Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(49), 17612–17617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, A.

Z. Medarova, D. L. Greiner, M. Ifediba, G. P. Dai, E. Bolotin, G. Castillo, A. Bogdanov, M. Kumar, and A. Moore, “Imaging the pancreatic vasculature in diabetes models,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 27(8), 767–772 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moss., M. C.

J. R. Henderson and M. C. Moss., “A morphometric study of the endocrine and exocrine capillaries of the pancreas,” Q. J. Exp. Physiol. Cogn. Med. Sci. 70(3), 347–356 (1985).
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Moya, M.

J. Agudo, E. Ayuso, V. Jimenez, A. Casellas, C. Mallol, A. Salavert, S. Tafuro, M. Obach, A. Ruzo, M. Moya, A. Pujol, and F. Bosch, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of beta-cell mass,” Diabetes 61(11), 2851–2861 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munn, L. L.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1251 (2009).
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Murakami, T.

T. Murakami, T. Miyake, M. Tsubouchi, Y. Tsubouchi, A. Ohtsuka, and T. Fujita, “Blood flow patterns in the rat pancreas: A simulative demonstration by injection replication and scanning electron microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 37(5–6), 497–508 (1997).
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Nam, H. G.

J. Almaca, J. Molina, R. A. E. Drigo, M. H. Abdulreda, W. B. Jeon, P. O. Berggren, A. Caicedo, and H. G. Nam, “Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(49), 17612–17617 (2014).
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Nicholson, W.

M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicholson, W. E.

M. Brissova, M. J. Fowler, W. E. Nicholson, A. Chu, B. Hirshberg, D. M. Harlan, and A. C. Powers, “Assessment of human pancreatic islet architecture and composition by laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 53(9), 1087–1097 (2005).
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Nyman, L.

C. H. Dai, M. Brissova, R. B. Reinert, L. Nyman, E. H. Liu, C. Thompson, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, T. Takahashi, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet vasculature adapts to insulin resistance through dilation and not angiogenesis,” Diabetes 62(12), 4144–4153 (2013).
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Nyman, L. R.

L. R. Nyman, E. Ford, A. C. Powers, and D. W. Piston, “Glucose-dependent blood flow dynamics in murine pancreatic islets in vivo,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 298(4), E807–E814 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. R. Nyman, K. S. Wells, W. S. Head, M. McCaughey, E. Ford, M. Brissova, D. W. Piston, and A. C. Powers, “Real-time, multidimensional in vivo imaging used to investigate blood flow in mouse pancreatic islets,” J. Clin. Invest. 118(11), 3790–3797 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nyqvist, D.

D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Speier, D. Nyqvist, O. Cabrera, J. Yu, R. D. Molano, A. Pileggi, T. Moede, M. Kohler, J. Wilbertz, B. Leibiger, C. Ricordi, I. B. Leibiger, A. Caicedo, and P. O. Berggren., “Noninvasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic islet cell biology,” Nat. Med. 14(5), 574–578 (2008).
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Obach, M.

J. Agudo, E. Ayuso, V. Jimenez, A. Casellas, C. Mallol, A. Salavert, S. Tafuro, M. Obach, A. Ruzo, M. Moya, A. Pujol, and F. Bosch, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of beta-cell mass,” Diabetes 61(11), 2851–2861 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohtsuka, A.

T. Murakami, T. Miyake, M. Tsubouchi, Y. Tsubouchi, A. Ohtsuka, and T. Fujita, “Blood flow patterns in the rat pancreas: A simulative demonstration by injection replication and scanning electron microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 37(5–6), 497–508 (1997).
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S. Bonner-Weir and L. Orci, “New perspectives on the microvasculature of the islets of langerhans in the rat,” Diabetes 31(10), 883–889 (1982).
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A. M. Svensson, C. G. Ostenson, and L. Jansson, “Age-induced changes in pancreatic islet blood flow: evidence for an impaired regulation in diabetic gk rats,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 279(5), E1139–E1144 (2000).
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Pache, C.

C. Berclaz, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, A. Lopez, L. Joosten, S. Ekim, M. Brom, M. Gotthardt, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Combined optical coherence and fluorescence microscopy to assess dynamics and specificity of pancreatic beta-cell tracers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10385 (2015).
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C. Berclaz, J. Goulley, M. Villiger, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, E. Martin-Williams, D. Van de Ville, A. C. Davison, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Diabetes imaging-quantitative assessment of islets of langerhans distribution in murine pancreas using extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1365–1380 (2012).
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Padera, T. P.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1251 (2009).
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Palm, F.

L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paredes, J.

Y. El-Gohary, S. Sims-Lucas, N. Lath, S. Tulachan, P. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Welsh, J. Paredes, J. Wiersch, K. Prasadan, C. Shiota, and G. K. Gittes, “Three-dimensional analysis of the islet vasculature,” Anat. Rec. 295(9), 1473–1481 (2012).
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Petzold, C.

H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, C. Petzold, M. Kuhn, C. G. Chen, I. Roeder, K. Kretschmer, and S. Speier, “Distinct roles of beta-cell mass and function during type 1 diabetes onset and remission,” Diabetes 64(6), 2148–2160 (2015).
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Pileggi, A.

D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Speier, D. Nyqvist, O. Cabrera, J. Yu, R. D. Molano, A. Pileggi, T. Moede, M. Kohler, J. Wilbertz, B. Leibiger, C. Ricordi, I. B. Leibiger, A. Caicedo, and P. O. Berggren., “Noninvasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic islet cell biology,” Nat. Med. 14(5), 574–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pipeleers, D.

J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
[Crossref]

Piston, D. W.

L. R. Nyman, E. Ford, A. C. Powers, and D. W. Piston, “Glucose-dependent blood flow dynamics in murine pancreatic islets in vivo,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 298(4), E807–E814 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. R. Nyman, K. S. Wells, W. S. Head, M. McCaughey, E. Ford, M. Brissova, D. W. Piston, and A. C. Powers, “Real-time, multidimensional in vivo imaging used to investigate blood flow in mouse pancreatic islets,” J. Clin. Invest. 118(11), 3790–3797 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plank, J. L.

R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poffenberger, G.

M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Powers, A. C.

R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Dai, M. Brissova, R. B. Reinert, L. Nyman, E. H. Liu, C. Thompson, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, T. Takahashi, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet vasculature adapts to insulin resistance through dilation and not angiogenesis,” Diabetes 62(12), 4144–4153 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. R. Nyman, E. Ford, A. C. Powers, and D. W. Piston, “Glucose-dependent blood flow dynamics in murine pancreatic islets in vivo,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 298(4), E807–E814 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. R. Nyman, K. S. Wells, W. S. Head, M. McCaughey, E. Ford, M. Brissova, D. W. Piston, and A. C. Powers, “Real-time, multidimensional in vivo imaging used to investigate blood flow in mouse pancreatic islets,” J. Clin. Invest. 118(11), 3790–3797 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brissova, M. J. Fowler, W. E. Nicholson, A. Chu, B. Hirshberg, D. M. Harlan, and A. C. Powers, “Assessment of human pancreatic islet architecture and composition by laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 53(9), 1087–1097 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pozzi, A.

R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
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Prasad, N.

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Y. El-Gohary, S. Sims-Lucas, N. Lath, S. Tulachan, P. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Welsh, J. Paredes, J. Wiersch, K. Prasadan, C. Shiota, and G. K. Gittes, “Three-dimensional analysis of the islet vasculature,” Anat. Rec. 295(9), 1473–1481 (2012).
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J. Agudo, E. Ayuso, V. Jimenez, A. Casellas, C. Mallol, A. Salavert, S. Tafuro, M. Obach, A. Ruzo, M. Moya, A. Pujol, and F. Bosch, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of beta-cell mass,” Diabetes 61(11), 2851–2861 (2012).
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S. A. Villalta, J. Lang, S. Kubeck, B. Kabre, G. L. Szot, B. Calderon, C. Wasserfall, M. A. Atkinson, R. A. Brekken, N. Pullen, R. H. Arch, and J. A. Bluestone, “Inhibition of vegfr-2 reverses type 1 diabetes in nod mice by abrogating insulitis and restoring islet function,” Diabetes 62(8), 2870–2878 (2013).
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L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
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Reinert, R. B.

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C. H. Dai, M. Brissova, R. B. Reinert, L. Nyman, E. H. Liu, C. Thompson, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, T. Takahashi, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet vasculature adapts to insulin resistance through dilation and not angiogenesis,” Diabetes 62(12), 4144–4153 (2013).
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D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
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H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, C. Petzold, M. Kuhn, C. G. Chen, I. Roeder, K. Kretschmer, and S. Speier, “Distinct roles of beta-cell mass and function during type 1 diabetes onset and remission,” Diabetes 64(6), 2148–2160 (2015).
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D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
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Ruvinskaya, S.

Ruzo, A.

J. Agudo, E. Ayuso, V. Jimenez, A. Casellas, C. Mallol, A. Salavert, S. Tafuro, M. Obach, A. Ruzo, M. Moya, A. Pujol, and F. Bosch, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of beta-cell mass,” Diabetes 61(11), 2851–2861 (2012).
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L. Jansson, A. Barbu, B. Bodin, C. J. Drott, D. Espes, X. Gao, L. Grapensparr, O. Kallskog, J. Lau, H. Liljeback, F. Palm, M. Quach, M. Sandberg, V. Stromberg, S. Ullsten, and P. O. Carlsson, “Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 121(2), 81–95 (2016).
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C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
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A. Schmidt-Christensen, L. Hansen, E. Ilegems, N. Fransen-Pettersson, U. Dahl, S. Gupta, A. Larefalk, T. D. Hannibal, A. Schulz, P. O. Berggren, and D. Holmberg, “Imaging dynamics of cd11c(+) cells and foxp3(+) cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the nod mouse model of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia 56(12), 2669–2678 (2013).
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C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
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A. Schmidt-Christensen, L. Hansen, E. Ilegems, N. Fransen-Pettersson, U. Dahl, S. Gupta, A. Larefalk, T. D. Hannibal, A. Schulz, P. O. Berggren, and D. Holmberg, “Imaging dynamics of cd11c(+) cells and foxp3(+) cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the nod mouse model of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia 56(12), 2669–2678 (2013).
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J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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E. Ilegems, A. Dicker, S. Speier, A. Sharma, A. Bahow, P. K. Edlund, I. B. Leibiger, and P. O. Berggren, “Reporter islets in the eye reveal the plasticity of the endocrine pancreas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(51), 20581–20586 (2013).
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Y. El-Gohary, S. Sims-Lucas, N. Lath, S. Tulachan, P. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Welsh, J. Paredes, J. Wiersch, K. Prasadan, C. Shiota, and G. K. Gittes, “Three-dimensional analysis of the islet vasculature,” Anat. Rec. 295(9), 1473–1481 (2012).
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C. H. Dai, M. Brissova, R. B. Reinert, L. Nyman, E. H. Liu, C. Thompson, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, T. Takahashi, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet vasculature adapts to insulin resistance through dilation and not angiogenesis,” Diabetes 62(12), 4144–4153 (2013).
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H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, C. Petzold, M. Kuhn, C. G. Chen, I. Roeder, K. Kretschmer, and S. Speier, “Distinct roles of beta-cell mass and function during type 1 diabetes onset and remission,” Diabetes 64(6), 2148–2160 (2015).
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E. Ilegems, A. Dicker, S. Speier, A. Sharma, A. Bahow, P. K. Edlund, I. B. Leibiger, and P. O. Berggren, “Reporter islets in the eye reveal the plasticity of the endocrine pancreas,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(51), 20581–20586 (2013).
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D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
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Stertmann, J.

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C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
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S. A. Villalta, J. Lang, S. Kubeck, B. Kabre, G. L. Szot, B. Calderon, C. Wasserfall, M. A. Atkinson, R. A. Brekken, N. Pullen, R. H. Arch, and J. A. Bluestone, “Inhibition of vegfr-2 reverses type 1 diabetes in nod mice by abrogating insulitis and restoring islet function,” Diabetes 62(8), 2870–2878 (2013).
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J. Agudo, E. Ayuso, V. Jimenez, A. Casellas, C. Mallol, A. Salavert, S. Tafuro, M. Obach, A. Ruzo, M. Moya, A. Pujol, and F. Bosch, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of beta-cell mass,” Diabetes 61(11), 2851–2861 (2012).
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C. H. Dai, M. Brissova, R. B. Reinert, L. Nyman, E. H. Liu, C. Thompson, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, T. Takahashi, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet vasculature adapts to insulin resistance through dilation and not angiogenesis,” Diabetes 62(12), 4144–4153 (2013).
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Y. Y. Fu, C. H. Lu, C. W. Lin, J. H. Juang, G. Enikolopov, E. Sibley, A. S. Chiang, and S. C. Tang, “Three-dimensional optical method for integrated visualization of mouse islet microstructure and vascular network with subcellular-level resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046018 (2010).
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C. Chen, H. Chmelova, C. M. Cohrs, J. A. Chouinard, S. R. Jahn, J. Stertmann, I. Uphues, and S. Speier, “Alterations in beta-cell calcium dynamics and efficacy outweigh islet mass adaptation in compensation of insulin resistance and prediabetes onset,” Diabetes 651718 (2016).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1251 (2009).
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J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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Villiger, M.

C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Berclaz, J. Goulley, M. Villiger, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, E. Martin-Williams, D. Van de Ville, A. C. Davison, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Diabetes imaging-quantitative assessment of islets of langerhans distribution in murine pancreas using extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1365–1380 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, J. Goulley, M. Friedrich, A. Grapin-Botton, P. Meda, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo imaging of murine endocrine islets of langerhans with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Diabetologia 52(8), 1599–1607 (2009).
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R. A. Leitgeb, M. Villiger, A. H. Bachmann, L. Steinmann, and T. Lasser, “Extended focus depth for fourier domain optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(16), 2450–2452 (2006).
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Walter, P.

M. D. Menger, S. Jaeger, P. Walter, G. Feifel, F. Hammersen, and K. Messmer, “Angiogenesis and hemodynamics of microvasculature of transplanted islets of langerhans,” Diabetes 38(Suppl 1), 199–201 (1989).
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Wasserfall, C.

S. A. Villalta, J. Lang, S. Kubeck, B. Kabre, G. L. Szot, B. Calderon, C. Wasserfall, M. A. Atkinson, R. A. Brekken, N. Pullen, R. H. Arch, and J. A. Bluestone, “Inhibition of vegfr-2 reverses type 1 diabetes in nod mice by abrogating insulitis and restoring islet function,” Diabetes 62(8), 2870–2878 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

J. L. Gaglia, A. R. Guimaraes, M. Harisinghani, S. E. Turvey, R. Jackson, C. Benoist, D. Mathis, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive imaging of pancreatic islet inflammation in type 1a diabetes patients,” J. Clin. Invest. 121(1), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wells, K. S.

L. R. Nyman, K. S. Wells, W. S. Head, M. McCaughey, E. Ford, M. Brissova, D. W. Piston, and A. C. Powers, “Real-time, multidimensional in vivo imaging used to investigate blood flow in mouse pancreatic islets,” J. Clin. Invest. 118(11), 3790–3797 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welsh, C.

Y. El-Gohary, S. Sims-Lucas, N. Lath, S. Tulachan, P. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Welsh, J. Paredes, J. Wiersch, K. Prasadan, C. Shiota, and G. K. Gittes, “Three-dimensional analysis of the islet vasculature,” Anat. Rec. 295(9), 1473–1481 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wiebe, P. O.

M. Brissova, A. Shostak, M. Shiota, P. O. Wiebe, G. Poffenberger, J. Kantz, Z. Y. Chen, C. Carr, W. G. Jerome, J. Chen, H. S. Baldwin, W. Nicholson, D. M. Bader, T. Jetton, M. Gannon, and A. C. Powers, “Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function,” Diabetes 55(11), 2974–2985 (2006).
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Wiersch, J.

Y. El-Gohary, S. Sims-Lucas, N. Lath, S. Tulachan, P. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Welsh, J. Paredes, J. Wiersch, K. Prasadan, C. Shiota, and G. K. Gittes, “Three-dimensional analysis of the islet vasculature,” Anat. Rec. 295(9), 1473–1481 (2012).
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Wilbertz, J.

S. Speier, D. Nyqvist, O. Cabrera, J. Yu, R. D. Molano, A. Pileggi, T. Moede, M. Kohler, J. Wilbertz, B. Leibiger, C. Ricordi, I. B. Leibiger, A. Caicedo, and P. O. Berggren., “Noninvasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic islet cell biology,” Nat. Med. 14(5), 574–578 (2008).
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Wilson, C. M.

O. Sabek, M. W. Gaber, C. M. Wilson, J. A. Zawaski, D. W. Fraga, and O. Gaber, “Imaging of human islet vascularization using a dorsal window model,” Transplant. Proc. 42(6), 2112–2114 (2010).
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Wojtkowski, M.

Wright, C. V. E.

R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
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Wu, W. C.

Xiao, X.

Y. El-Gohary, S. Sims-Lucas, N. Lath, S. Tulachan, P. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Welsh, J. Paredes, J. Wiersch, K. Prasadan, C. Shiota, and G. K. Gittes, “Three-dimensional analysis of the islet vasculature,” Anat. Rec. 295(9), 1473–1481 (2012).
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Yaseen, M. A.

Ying, C.

J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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Yu, J.

S. Speier, D. Nyqvist, O. Cabrera, J. Yu, R. D. Molano, A. Pileggi, T. Moede, M. Kohler, J. Wilbertz, B. Leibiger, C. Ricordi, I. B. Leibiger, A. Caicedo, and P. O. Berggren., “Noninvasive in vivo imaging of pancreatic islet cell biology,” Nat. Med. 14(5), 574–578 (2008).
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Zahr-Akrawi, E.

D. Nyqvist, S. Speier, R. Rodriguez-Diaz, R. D. Molano, S. Lipovsek, M. Rupnik, A. Dicker, E. Ilegems, E. Zahr-Akrawi, J. Molina, M. Lopez-Cabeza, S. Villate, M. H. Abdulreda, C. Ricordi, A. Caicedo, A. Pileggi, and P. O. Berggren, “Donor islet endothelial cells in pancreatic islet revascularization,” Diabetes 60(10), 2571–2577 (2011).
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Zawaski, J. A.

O. Sabek, M. W. Gaber, C. M. Wilson, J. A. Zawaski, D. W. Fraga, and O. Gaber, “Imaging of human islet vascularization using a dorsal window model,” Transplant. Proc. 42(6), 2112–2114 (2010).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Development (1)

R. B. Reinert, Q. Cai, J. Y. Hong, J. L. Plank, K. Aamodt, N. Prasad, R. Aramandla, C. H. Dai, S. E. Levy, A. Pozzi, P. A. Labosky, C. V. E. Wright, M. Brissova, and A. C. Powers, “Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding,” Development 141(7), 1480–1491 (2014).
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J. D’Hoker, N. De Leu, Y. Heremans, L. Baeyens, K. Minami, C. Ying, A. Lavens, M. Chintinne, G. Stange, J. Magenheim, A. Swisa, G. Martens, D. Pipeleers, M. van de Casteele, S. Seino, E. Keshet, Y. Dor, and H. Heimberg, “Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult b-cell mass or function,” Diabetes 62(12), 4165–4173 (2013).
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Diabetologia (4)

C. Berclaz, A. Schmidt-Christensen, D. Szlag, J. Extermann, L. Hansen, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, J. Goulley, F. Schuit, A. Grapin-Botton, T. Lasser, and D. Holmberg, “Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging,” Diabetologia 59(3), 550–559 (2016).
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M. Villiger, J. Goulley, M. Friedrich, A. Grapin-Botton, P. Meda, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In vivo imaging of murine endocrine islets of langerhans with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy,” Diabetologia 52(8), 1599–1607 (2009).
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Y. Y. Fu, C. H. Lu, C. W. Lin, J. H. Juang, G. Enikolopov, E. Sibley, A. S. Chiang, and S. C. Tang, “Three-dimensional optical method for integrated visualization of mouse islet microstructure and vascular network with subcellular-level resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046018 (2010).
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J. L. Gaglia, A. R. Guimaraes, M. Harisinghani, S. E. Turvey, R. Jackson, C. Benoist, D. Mathis, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive imaging of pancreatic islet inflammation in type 1a diabetes patients,” J. Clin. Invest. 121(1), 442–445 (2011).
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L. R. Nyman, K. S. Wells, W. S. Head, M. McCaughey, E. Ford, M. Brissova, D. W. Piston, and A. C. Powers, “Real-time, multidimensional in vivo imaging used to investigate blood flow in mouse pancreatic islets,” J. Clin. Invest. 118(11), 3790–3797 (2008).
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M. Brissova, M. J. Fowler, W. E. Nicholson, A. Chu, B. Hirshberg, D. M. Harlan, and A. C. Powers, “Assessment of human pancreatic islet architecture and composition by laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 53(9), 1087–1097 (2005).
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Opt. Express (3)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

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C. Berclaz, C. Pache, A. Bouwens, D. Szlag, A. Lopez, L. Joosten, S. Ekim, M. Brom, M. Gotthardt, A. Grapin-Botton, and T. Lasser, “Combined optical coherence and fluorescence microscopy to assess dynamics and specificity of pancreatic beta-cell tracers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10385 (2015).
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Transplant. Proc. (1)

O. Sabek, M. W. Gaber, C. M. Wilson, J. A. Zawaski, D. W. Fraga, and O. Gaber, “Imaging of human islet vascularization using a dorsal window model,” Transplant. Proc. 42(6), 2112–2114 (2010).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 xfOCM imaging setup for pancreatic islets imaging. A broadband light source is split by a beam-splitter BS1 into a sample (red) and reference (blue) arm. The back-reflected light from the sample is recombined with the reference arm by beam-splitter BS2 and detected by a spectrometer to yield the structure in depth of in situ islets in the pancreas or in grafted islets in the anterior chamber of the eye (ACE).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic representation of the data processing. a: Structural data processing to extract vascularization. Lateral scans are taken at the same position but with a time delay Δt and the A-scans are analyzed two by two along the time axis to extract the circular phase variance. For our measurements an axial pixel window of 8 was applied. b: Dynamic data processing to extract blood velocity or blood flow. μ and σ are the weighted mean and standard deviation of the Doppler spectrum, respectively. μ and σ are used to extract the total velocity Vtot whereas only the axial velocity component Vz is used to compute the blood flow.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Structure and vascularization of islets of Langerhans in situ. Representative (a) large islet (13.7×106 μm3), (b) medium islet (7×106 μm3) and (c) small islet (2.7×106 μm3). d: Quantification of the vascular density, i.e, the vascular (vasc.) volume divided by the structural (struct.) volume in the exocrine and endocrine part. The p-value (*****) computed using a Mann-Whitney non-parametric U-test is smaller than 10−5. 9 mice imaged and 16 islets analyzed. Colorbar indicates the depth in μm. Scale bar: 200 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Maximum depth projections of the vascular network and corresponding en face views of the tissue structure for different islets. The number in the top-right corner indicates in which mouse the islets were imaged from. Colorbars indicate the depth in μm. Stability of the samples due to heartbeat, breathing and peristaltic movements in the duodenum occasionally lead to vertical lines in the scans (arrows). Acquisition frequency was therefore adapted between 20 or 50 kHz depending on pancreas stabilization. Whenever it was possible, we chose a slower acquisition frequency to enhance the contrast in the vascular network. Scale bar: 200 μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Three-dimensional rendering of the axial blood velocities inside the pancreas. Red and blue color represent opposite axial blood velocity direction. a: Overlay of both the structural and blood flow information. b: Corresponding three-dimensional image showing only the axial blood velocities. Scale bar: 100 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Heart beat frequency. a: Axial components of the blood velocity inside a pancreatic vessel. b: Vessel pulse over time of the vessel shown in a. c: Pulse amplitude of the axial blood velocity over time. d: Frequency analysis of the signal in c. Acquisition rate was 50 kHz. Scale bar: 20 μm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Longitudinal imaging over 10 months on ACE islets. a: Orthogonal views of the islet structure and corresponding maximum depth projection of the vascularization at different weeks after transplantation. Colorbar indicates the depth in μm. b: Evolution of the volume of the islet normalized by the initial volume at week 2. c: Islet vascular density in percentage. Scale bar: 200 μm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Blood flow and velocities in ACE islets. a: Blood flow for different vessel size categories. b: Total blood velocity for different vessel size categories, computed from axial and transversal velocity components. Small (3–8 μm), medium (8–16 μm) and large (>16 μm) vessel diameter sizes. Acquisition frequency: 10 kHz. 3 mice were imaged. Small: 1218 cross-sections analyzed, medium: 1441 cross-sections analyzed, large: 465 cross-sections analyzed. The diameter of the vessels were determined using the minor axis length returned by the function regionprops from Mathworks, which returns properties for each connected components in an image. The noise was computed in circular areas of matching size in vessel-free regions inside the islets. The p-value computed using a Mann-Whitney non-parametric U-test is smaller than 10−5 for all groups.

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