Abstract

The limited penetration depth of light in skin tissues is a practical bottleneck in dermatologic applications of light-induced therapies, including anti-microbial blue light therapy and photodynamic skin cancer therapy. Here, we demonstrate a novel device, termed optical microneedle array (OMNA), for percutaneous light delivery. A prototype device with a 11 by 11 array of needles at a spacing of 1 mm and a length of 1.6 mm was fabricated by press-molding poly-(lactic acid) (PLA) polymers. The device also incorporates a matched microlens array that focuses the light through the needle tips at specific points to achieve an optimal intensity profile in the tissue. In experiments done with bovine tissues, the OMNA enabled us to deliver a total of 7.5% of the input photons at a wavelength of 491 nm, compared to only 0.85% without the device. This 9-fold enhancement of light delivery was close to the prediction of 10.8 dB by ray-tracing simulation and is expected to increase the effective treatment depth of anti-microbial blue light therapy significantly from 1.3 to 2.5 mm in human skin.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
In vivo photothermal treatment with real-time monitoring by optical fiber-needle array

Taeseok Daniel Yang, Kwanjun Park, Hyung-Jin Kim, Nu-Ri Im, Byoungjae Kim, TaeHoon Kim, Sohyun Seo, Jae-Seung Lee, Beop-Min Kim, Youngwoon Choi, and Seung-Kuk Baek
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(7) 3482-3492 (2017)

Three-dimensional characterization of the light distribution from diffusing cylindrical optical-fiber tips

Rebecca L Kozodoy, Scott L. Lundahl, Duncan Bell, and James A. Harrington
Appl. Opt. 33(28) 6674-6682 (1994)

In vivo investigation of temporal effects and drug delivery induced by transdermal microneedles with optical coherence tomography

Meng-Tsan Tsai, I-Chi Lee, Zhung-Fu Lee, Hao-Li Liu, Chun-Chieh Wang, Yo-Chun Choia, Hsin-Yi Chou, and Jiann-Der Lee
Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5) 1865-1876 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7(8), 603–614 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Huang, H. Xu, A. D. Meyers, A. I. Musani, L. Wang, R. Tagg, A. B. Barqawi, and Y. K. Chen, “Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors--potential and technical challenges,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 7(4), 309–320 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. Chung, T. Dai, S. K. Sharma, Y.-Y. Huang, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 516–533 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. ICNIRP, “Guidelines on limits of exposure to laser radiation of wavelengths between 180 nm and 1,000 μm,” Health Phys. 105, 271–295 (2013).
  7. F. Zhang, V. Gradinaru, A. R. Adamantidis, R. Durand, R. D. Airan, L. de Lecea, and K. Deisseroth, “Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures,” Nat. Protoc. 5(3), 439–456 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. M. Verdaasdonk and C. F. van Swol, “Laser light delivery systems for medical applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(5), 869–894 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiber optic microneedles for transdermal light delivery: ex vivo porcine skin penetration experiments,” J. Biomech. Eng. 132(9), 091014 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 437–449 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Choi, M. Humar, S. Kim, and S.-H. Yun, “Step-index optical fiber made of biocompatible hydrogels,” Adv. Mater. 27(27), 4081–4086 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ye, R. DiSanto, W. Sun, D. Ranson, F. S. Ligler, J. B. Buse, and Z. Gu, “Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(27), 8260–8265 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. P. C. DeMuth, Y. Min, B. Huang, J. A. Kramer, A. D. Miller, D. H. Barouch, P. T. Hammond, and D. J. Irvine, “Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 367–376 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. T. C. McCrudden, E. McAlister, A. J. Courtenay, P. González-Vázquez, T. R. Singh, and R. F. Donnelly, “Microneedle applications in improving skin appearance,” Exp. Dermatol. 24(8), 561–566 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J.-H. Park, M. G. Allen, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Biodegradable polymer microneedles: fabrication, mechanics and transdermal drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 104(1), 51–66 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. H. Park, Y. K. Yoon, S. O. Choi, M. R. Prausnitz, and M. G. Allen, “Tapered conical polymer microneedles fabricated using an integrated lens technique for transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(5), 903–913 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. V. T. Valerii, “Light scattering study of tissues,” Phys. Uspekhi 40(5), 495–515 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of skin, subcutaneous, and muscle tissues: A review,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 04(01), 9–38 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

J. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ye, R. DiSanto, W. Sun, D. Ranson, F. S. Ligler, J. B. Buse, and Z. Gu, “Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(27), 8260–8265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, M. Humar, S. Kim, and S.-H. Yun, “Step-index optical fiber made of biocompatible hydrogels,” Adv. Mater. 27(27), 4081–4086 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. C. McCrudden, E. McAlister, A. J. Courtenay, P. González-Vázquez, T. R. Singh, and R. F. Donnelly, “Microneedle applications in improving skin appearance,” Exp. Dermatol. 24(8), 561–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

ICNIRP, “Guidelines on limits of exposure to laser radiation of wavelengths between 180 nm and 1,000 μm,” Health Phys. 105, 271–295 (2013).

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 437–449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. DeMuth, Y. Min, B. Huang, J. A. Kramer, A. D. Miller, D. H. Barouch, P. T. Hammond, and D. J. Irvine, “Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 367–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

H. Chung, T. Dai, S. K. Sharma, Y.-Y. Huang, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 516–533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of skin, subcutaneous, and muscle tissues: A review,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 04(01), 9–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiber optic microneedles for transdermal light delivery: ex vivo porcine skin penetration experiments,” J. Biomech. Eng. 132(9), 091014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7(8), 603–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, V. Gradinaru, A. R. Adamantidis, R. Durand, R. D. Airan, L. de Lecea, and K. Deisseroth, “Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures,” Nat. Protoc. 5(3), 439–456 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Z. Huang, H. Xu, A. D. Meyers, A. I. Musani, L. Wang, R. Tagg, A. B. Barqawi, and Y. K. Chen, “Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors--potential and technical challenges,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 7(4), 309–320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. H. Park, Y. K. Yoon, S. O. Choi, M. R. Prausnitz, and M. G. Allen, “Tapered conical polymer microneedles fabricated using an integrated lens technique for transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(5), 903–913 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J.-H. Park, M. G. Allen, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Biodegradable polymer microneedles: fabrication, mechanics and transdermal drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 104(1), 51–66 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

V. T. Valerii, “Light scattering study of tissues,” Phys. Uspekhi 40(5), 495–515 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. M. Verdaasdonk and C. F. van Swol, “Laser light delivery systems for medical applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(5), 869–894 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adamantidis, A. R.

F. Zhang, V. Gradinaru, A. R. Adamantidis, R. Durand, R. D. Airan, L. de Lecea, and K. Deisseroth, “Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures,” Nat. Protoc. 5(3), 439–456 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agostinis, P.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Airan, R. D.

F. Zhang, V. Gradinaru, A. R. Adamantidis, R. Durand, R. D. Airan, L. de Lecea, and K. Deisseroth, “Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures,” Nat. Protoc. 5(3), 439–456 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, M. G.

J. H. Park, Y. K. Yoon, S. O. Choi, M. R. Prausnitz, and M. G. Allen, “Tapered conical polymer microneedles fabricated using an integrated lens technique for transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(5), 903–913 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, M. G. Allen, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Biodegradable polymer microneedles: fabrication, mechanics and transdermal drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 104(1), 51–66 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baer, D. G.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barouch, D. H.

P. C. DeMuth, Y. Min, B. Huang, J. A. Kramer, A. D. Miller, D. H. Barouch, P. T. Hammond, and D. J. Irvine, “Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 367–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barqawi, A. B.

Z. Huang, H. Xu, A. D. Meyers, A. I. Musani, L. Wang, R. Tagg, A. B. Barqawi, and Y. K. Chen, “Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors--potential and technical challenges,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 7(4), 309–320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of skin, subcutaneous, and muscle tissues: A review,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 04(01), 9–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berg, K.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buckley, P. R.

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buse, J. B.

J. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ye, R. DiSanto, W. Sun, D. Ranson, F. S. Ligler, J. B. Buse, and Z. Gu, “Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(27), 8260–8265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carroll, J. D.

H. Chung, T. Dai, S. K. Sharma, Y.-Y. Huang, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 516–533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cengel, K. A.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiber optic microneedles for transdermal light delivery: ex vivo porcine skin penetration experiments,” J. Biomech. Eng. 132(9), 091014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. K.

Z. Huang, H. Xu, A. D. Meyers, A. I. Musani, L. Wang, R. Tagg, A. B. Barqawi, and Y. K. Chen, “Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors--potential and technical challenges,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 7(4), 309–320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. W.

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, M. Humar, S. Kim, and S.-H. Yun, “Step-index optical fiber made of biocompatible hydrogels,” Adv. Mater. 27(27), 4081–4086 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S. O.

J. H. Park, Y. K. Yoon, S. O. Choi, M. R. Prausnitz, and M. G. Allen, “Tapered conical polymer microneedles fabricated using an integrated lens technique for transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(5), 903–913 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-O.

S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, H.

H. Chung, T. Dai, S. K. Sharma, Y.-Y. Huang, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 516–533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Compans, R. W.

S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Courtenay, A. J.

M. T. C. McCrudden, E. McAlister, A. J. Courtenay, P. González-Vázquez, T. R. Singh, and R. F. Donnelly, “Microneedle applications in improving skin appearance,” Exp. Dermatol. 24(8), 561–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, T.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chung, T. Dai, S. K. Sharma, Y.-Y. Huang, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 516–533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Lecea, L.

F. Zhang, V. Gradinaru, A. R. Adamantidis, R. Durand, R. D. Airan, L. de Lecea, and K. Deisseroth, “Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures,” Nat. Protoc. 5(3), 439–456 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deisseroth, K.

F. Zhang, V. Gradinaru, A. R. Adamantidis, R. Durand, R. D. Airan, L. de Lecea, and K. Deisseroth, “Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures,” Nat. Protoc. 5(3), 439–456 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del Pilar Martin, M.

S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeMuth, P. C.

P. C. DeMuth, Y. Min, B. Huang, J. A. Kramer, A. D. Miller, D. H. Barouch, P. T. Hammond, and D. J. Irvine, “Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 367–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiSanto, R.

J. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ye, R. DiSanto, W. Sun, D. Ranson, F. S. Ligler, J. B. Buse, and Z. Gu, “Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(27), 8260–8265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donnelly, R. F.

M. T. C. McCrudden, E. McAlister, A. J. Courtenay, P. González-Vázquez, T. R. Singh, and R. F. Donnelly, “Microneedle applications in improving skin appearance,” Exp. Dermatol. 24(8), 561–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durand, R.

F. Zhang, V. Gradinaru, A. R. Adamantidis, R. Durand, R. D. Airan, L. de Lecea, and K. Deisseroth, “Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures,” Nat. Protoc. 5(3), 439–456 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foster, T. H.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gather, M. C.

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genina, E. A.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of skin, subcutaneous, and muscle tissues: A review,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 04(01), 9–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Girotti, A. W.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golab, J.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gollnick, S. O.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

González-Vázquez, P.

M. T. C. McCrudden, E. McAlister, A. J. Courtenay, P. González-Vázquez, T. R. Singh, and R. F. Donnelly, “Microneedle applications in improving skin appearance,” Exp. Dermatol. 24(8), 561–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gradinaru, V.

F. Zhang, V. Gradinaru, A. R. Adamantidis, R. Durand, R. D. Airan, L. de Lecea, and K. Deisseroth, “Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures,” Nat. Protoc. 5(3), 439–456 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grant, D. C.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, Z.

J. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ye, R. DiSanto, W. Sun, D. Ranson, F. S. Ligler, J. B. Buse, and Z. Gu, “Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(27), 8260–8265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, A.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. K.

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. M.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamblin, M. R.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chung, T. Dai, S. K. Sharma, Y.-Y. Huang, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 516–533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammond, P. T.

P. C. DeMuth, Y. Min, B. Huang, J. A. Kramer, A. D. Miller, D. H. Barouch, P. T. Hammond, and D. J. Irvine, “Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 367–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hood, R. L.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiber optic microneedles for transdermal light delivery: ex vivo porcine skin penetration experiments,” J. Biomech. Eng. 132(9), 091014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

P. C. DeMuth, Y. Min, B. Huang, J. A. Kramer, A. D. Miller, D. H. Barouch, P. T. Hammond, and D. J. Irvine, “Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 367–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-Y.

H. Chung, T. Dai, S. K. Sharma, Y.-Y. Huang, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 516–533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, H. Xu, A. D. Meyers, A. I. Musani, L. Wang, R. Tagg, A. B. Barqawi, and Y. K. Chen, “Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors--potential and technical challenges,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 7(4), 309–320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Humar, M.

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, M. Humar, S. Kim, and S.-H. Yun, “Step-index optical fiber made of biocompatible hydrogels,” Adv. Mater. 27(27), 4081–4086 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irvine, D. J.

P. C. DeMuth, Y. Min, B. Huang, J. A. Kramer, A. D. Miller, D. H. Barouch, P. T. Hammond, and D. J. Irvine, “Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 367–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juzeniene, A.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kessel, D.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

C. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 437–449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, M. Humar, S. Kim, and S.-H. Yun, “Step-index optical fiber made of biocompatible hydrogels,” Adv. Mater. 27(27), 4081–4086 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korbelik, M.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kosoglu, M. A.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiber optic microneedles for transdermal light delivery: ex vivo porcine skin penetration experiments,” J. Biomech. Eng. 132(9), 091014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koutsonanos, D. G.

S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kramer, J. A.

P. C. DeMuth, Y. Min, B. Huang, J. A. Kramer, A. D. Miller, D. H. Barouch, P. T. Hammond, and D. J. Irvine, “Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 367–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

C. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 437–449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. W.

S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ligler, F. S.

J. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ye, R. DiSanto, W. Sun, D. Ranson, F. S. Ligler, J. B. Buse, and Z. Gu, “Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(27), 8260–8265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loge, J. M.

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maitland, D. J.

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maitland, K. D.

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McAlister, E.

M. T. C. McCrudden, E. McAlister, A. J. Courtenay, P. González-Vázquez, T. R. Singh, and R. F. Donnelly, “Microneedle applications in improving skin appearance,” Exp. Dermatol. 24(8), 561–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCrudden, M. T. C.

M. T. C. McCrudden, E. McAlister, A. J. Courtenay, P. González-Vázquez, T. R. Singh, and R. F. Donnelly, “Microneedle applications in improving skin appearance,” Exp. Dermatol. 24(8), 561–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyers, A. D.

Z. Huang, H. Xu, A. D. Meyers, A. I. Musani, L. Wang, R. Tagg, A. B. Barqawi, and Y. K. Chen, “Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors--potential and technical challenges,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 7(4), 309–320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, A. D.

P. C. DeMuth, Y. Min, B. Huang, J. A. Kramer, A. D. Miller, D. H. Barouch, P. T. Hammond, and D. J. Irvine, “Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 367–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, Y.

P. C. DeMuth, Y. Min, B. Huang, J. A. Kramer, A. D. Miller, D. H. Barouch, P. T. Hammond, and D. J. Irvine, “Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 367–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moan, J.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mroz, P.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murray, C. K.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murthy, N.

S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Musani, A. I.

Z. Huang, H. Xu, A. D. Meyers, A. I. Musani, L. Wang, R. Tagg, A. B. Barqawi, and Y. K. Chen, “Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors--potential and technical challenges,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 7(4), 309–320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nizamoglu, S.

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nowis, D.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7(8), 603–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H.

C. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 437–449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park, Y. K. Yoon, S. O. Choi, M. R. Prausnitz, and M. G. Allen, “Tapered conical polymer microneedles fabricated using an integrated lens technique for transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(5), 903–913 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.-H.

J.-H. Park, M. G. Allen, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Biodegradable polymer microneedles: fabrication, mechanics and transdermal drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 104(1), 51–66 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piette, J.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prausnitz, M. R.

S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Park, Y. K. Yoon, S. O. Choi, M. R. Prausnitz, and M. G. Allen, “Tapered conical polymer microneedles fabricated using an integrated lens technique for transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(5), 903–913 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, M. G. Allen, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Biodegradable polymer microneedles: fabrication, mechanics and transdermal drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 104(1), 51–66 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Randolph, M.

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ranson, D.

J. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ye, R. DiSanto, W. Sun, D. Ranson, F. S. Ligler, J. B. Buse, and Z. Gu, “Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(27), 8260–8265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Redmond, R. W.

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robertson, J. L.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossmeisl, J. H.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rylander, C. G.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiber optic microneedles for transdermal light delivery: ex vivo porcine skin penetration experiments,” J. Biomech. Eng. 132(9), 091014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rylander, M. N.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiber optic microneedles for transdermal light delivery: ex vivo porcine skin penetration experiments,” J. Biomech. Eng. 132(9), 091014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scarcelli, G.

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, S. K.

H. Chung, T. Dai, S. K. Sharma, Y.-Y. Huang, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 516–533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherwood, M. E.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, T. R.

M. T. C. McCrudden, E. McAlister, A. J. Courtenay, P. González-Vázquez, T. R. Singh, and R. F. Donnelly, “Microneedle applications in improving skin appearance,” Exp. Dermatol. 24(8), 561–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skountzou, I.

S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small, W.

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, S. P.

S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, W.

J. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ye, R. DiSanto, W. Sun, D. Ranson, F. S. Ligler, J. B. Buse, and Z. Gu, “Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(27), 8260–8265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tagg, R.

Z. Huang, H. Xu, A. D. Meyers, A. I. Musani, L. Wang, R. Tagg, A. B. Barqawi, and Y. K. Chen, “Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors--potential and technical challenges,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 7(4), 309–320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of skin, subcutaneous, and muscle tissues: A review,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 04(01), 9–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Valerii, V. T.

V. T. Valerii, “Light scattering study of tissues,” Phys. Uspekhi 40(5), 495–515 (1997).
[Crossref]

van Swol, C. F.

R. M. Verdaasdonk and C. F. van Swol, “Laser light delivery systems for medical applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(5), 869–894 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verdaasdonk, R. M.

R. M. Verdaasdonk and C. F. van Swol, “Laser light delivery systems for medical applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(5), 869–894 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vrahas, M. S.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Z. Huang, H. Xu, A. D. Meyers, A. I. Musani, L. Wang, R. Tagg, A. B. Barqawi, and Y. K. Chen, “Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors--potential and technical challenges,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 7(4), 309–320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, T. S.

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

Z. Huang, H. Xu, A. D. Meyers, A. I. Musani, L. Wang, R. Tagg, A. B. Barqawi, and Y. K. Chen, “Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors--potential and technical challenges,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 7(4), 309–320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiber optic microneedles for transdermal light delivery: ex vivo porcine skin penetration experiments,” J. Biomech. Eng. 132(9), 091014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, Y.

J. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ye, R. DiSanto, W. Sun, D. Ranson, F. S. Ligler, J. B. Buse, and Z. Gu, “Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(27), 8260–8265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, Y. K.

J. H. Park, Y. K. Yoon, S. O. Choi, M. R. Prausnitz, and M. G. Allen, “Tapered conical polymer microneedles fabricated using an integrated lens technique for transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(5), 903–913 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ye, R. DiSanto, W. Sun, D. Ranson, F. S. Ligler, J. B. Buse, and Z. Gu, “Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(27), 8260–8265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S.-H.

M. Choi, M. Humar, S. Kim, and S.-H. Yun, “Step-index optical fiber made of biocompatible hydrogels,” Adv. Mater. 27(27), 4081–4086 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zarnitsyn, V.

S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, V. Gradinaru, A. R. Adamantidis, R. Durand, R. D. Airan, L. de Lecea, and K. Deisseroth, “Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures,” Nat. Protoc. 5(3), 439–456 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

J. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ye, R. DiSanto, W. Sun, D. Ranson, F. S. Ligler, J. B. Buse, and Z. Gu, “Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(27), 8260–8265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Choi, M. Humar, S. Kim, and S.-H. Yun, “Step-index optical fiber made of biocompatible hydrogels,” Adv. Mater. 27(27), 4081–4086 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

H. Chung, T. Dai, S. K. Sharma, Y.-Y. Huang, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 516–533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

P. Agostinis, K. Berg, K. A. Cengel, T. H. Foster, A. W. Girotti, S. O. Gollnick, S. M. Hahn, M. R. Hamblin, A. Juzeniene, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, P. Mroz, D. Nowis, J. Piette, B. C. Wilson, and J. Golab, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(4), 250–281 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Dermatol. (1)

M. T. C. McCrudden, E. McAlister, A. J. Courtenay, P. González-Vázquez, T. R. Singh, and R. F. Donnelly, “Microneedle applications in improving skin appearance,” Exp. Dermatol. 24(8), 561–566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Health Phys. (1)

ICNIRP, “Guidelines on limits of exposure to laser radiation of wavelengths between 180 nm and 1,000 μm,” Health Phys. 105, 271–295 (2013).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. H. Park, Y. K. Yoon, S. O. Choi, M. R. Prausnitz, and M. G. Allen, “Tapered conical polymer microneedles fabricated using an integrated lens technique for transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(5), 903–913 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomech. Eng. (1)

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiber optic microneedles for transdermal light delivery: ex vivo porcine skin penetration experiments,” J. Biomech. Eng. 132(9), 091014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Control. Release (1)

J.-H. Park, M. G. Allen, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Biodegradable polymer microneedles: fabrication, mechanics and transdermal drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 104(1), 51–66 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Infect. Dis. (1)

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, A. Gupta, Y. Huang, C. K. Murray, M. S. Vrahas, M. E. Sherwood, D. G. Baer, M. R. Hamblin, and T. Dai, “Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections,” J. Infect. Dis. 209(12), 1963–1971 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. (1)

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of skin, subcutaneous, and muscle tissues: A review,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 04(01), 9–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

C. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 437–449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Nizamoglu, M. C. Gather, M. Humar, M. Choi, S. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. K. Hahn, G. Scarcelli, M. Randolph, R. W. Redmond, and S. H. Yun, “Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

P. C. DeMuth, Y. Min, B. Huang, J. A. Kramer, A. D. Miller, D. H. Barouch, P. T. Hammond, and D. J. Irvine, “Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination,” Nat. Mater. 12(4), 367–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

S. P. Sullivan, D. G. Koutsonanos, M. Del Pilar Martin, J. W. Lee, V. Zarnitsyn, S.-O. Choi, N. Murthy, R. W. Compans, I. Skountzou, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for influenza vaccination,” Nat. Med. 16(8), 915–920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7(8), 603–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

F. Zhang, V. Gradinaru, A. R. Adamantidis, R. Durand, R. D. Airan, L. de Lecea, and K. Deisseroth, “Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures,” Nat. Protoc. 5(3), 439–456 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

R. M. Verdaasdonk and C. F. van Swol, “Laser light delivery systems for medical applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(5), 869–894 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Uspekhi (1)

V. T. Valerii, “Light scattering study of tissues,” Phys. Uspekhi 40(5), 495–515 (1997).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. Ye, R. DiSanto, W. Sun, D. Ranson, F. S. Ligler, J. B. Buse, and Z. Gu, “Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(27), 8260–8265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

Z. Huang, H. Xu, A. D. Meyers, A. I. Musani, L. Wang, R. Tagg, A. B. Barqawi, and Y. K. Chen, “Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors--potential and technical challenges,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 7(4), 309–320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (4010 KB)      Alignment optimization of OMNA

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design principle of the OMNA. (a) Schematics of a microneedle array and microlens array. (b) Illustration of an assembled OMNA. The microlens array focuses incident light through the microneedles. (c) Illustration of light delivery into a tissue. The design has been optimized to achieve uniform and maximal light intensity at a target depth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photographs of a fabricated prototype PLA microneedle array. (b) An optical side-view transmission image of the microneedle array. Needle length: 1.6 mm, base diameter: 500 µm, interspacing: 1 mm, number of needles: 11 by 11, and substrate size: 15 mm by 15 mm × 4 mm. (c) Photograph of a microlens array. Focal length of lens: 9.5 mm, and substrate size: 15 mm by 15 mm by 2 mm. (d) Optical transmission image of the microlens array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light transmission through an assembled OMNA. (a) A setup to align the microlens array and microneedles. Aluminium foil is used to block the beams transmitted outside the needles. (b) A transmission pattern of blue laser light (491 nm) through an optimally aligned OMNA. (Visualization 1: Optimization of alignment) (c-d) Optical images of collimated 491-nm laser light transmitted through a microneedle array without a microlens array (c) and through a lens-assisted OMNA (d). (e-f) Optical transmission images of white LED light through the microneedle array alone (e) and through the lens-assisted OMNA (f). The total amount of transmission was 11%, 43%, 7.7%, and 25% in (c), (d), (e), and (f) respectively. Color bar represents light intensity normalized to the incident light. Color bar represents the optical intensity in a log scale normalized to the input.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical simulations of light intensity in tissues. (a, b) Direct illumination of collimated light at 491 nm to the surface of a tissue in a vertical plane (a) and a cross-sectional plane at a depth of 2.5 mm (b). (c, d) Light illumination through an OMNA device in a vertical plane (c) and a cross-sectional plane at the same tissue depth (d). Light delivery efficiency at z = 2.5 mm is 0.73% in (b) and 8.7% in (d). Color bar represents light intensity normalized to the incident light. Intensity in log scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Enhancement of light penetration into tissues by OMNA. (a-c) Optical penetration through a 3.1-mm-thick bovine tissue slice: (a) Camera image of the tissue; Transmission intensity maps without (b) and with (c) the OMNA. (d-f) Optical transmission through a 2.7-mm-thick porcine tissue slice: (d) Camera image; Transmission intensity maps without (e) and with (f) the OMNA. The magnitudes of transmission are indicated in (c), (d), (e), and (f).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ray-optics simulation results of light delivery loss as a function of depths in tissues. (a) Optical intensity in the bovine tissue. (b) Optical intensity in the porcine tissue. Blue dotted lines, simulation data without OMNA. Red lines, simulation data OMNA. Blue rectangles, experimental data in Figs. 5(b) and 5(e). Red circles, experimental data in Figs. 5(c) and 5(f).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Required optical fluence at the surface of the human skin to achieve a typical antibacterial therapeutic dose of 50 J/cm2 at various depths in the tissue. Dashed lines, direct illumination without an OMNA. Solid lines, light delivery with an OMNA. MPE: maximum permissible exposure level at λ=415 nm.

Metrics