Abstract

We present and test a methodology for generating simultaneous vision with a deformable mirror that changed shape at 50 Hz between two vergences: 0 D (far vision) and −2.5 D (near vision). Different bifocal designs, including toric and combinations of spherical aberration, were simulated and assessed objectively. We found that typical corneal aberrations of a 60-year-old subject changes the shape of objective through-focus curves of a perfect bifocal lens. This methodology can be used to investigate subjective visual performance for different multifocal contact or intraocular lens designs.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Experimental validations of a tunable-lens-based visual demonstrator of multifocal corrections

Vyas Akondi, Lucie Sawides, Yassine Marrakchi, Enrique Gambra, Susana Marcos, and Carlos Dorronsoro
Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12) 6302-6317 (2018)

Temporal multiplexing to simulate multifocal intraocular lenses: theoretical considerations

Vyas Akondi, Carlos Dorronsoro, Enrique Gambra, and Susana Marcos
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(7) 3410-3425 (2017)

Pre-operative simulation of post-operative multifocal vision

Maria Vinas, Sara Aissati, Mercedes Romero, Clara Benedi-Garcia, Nuria Garzon, Francisco Poyales, Carlos Dorronsoro, and Susana Marcos
Biomed. Opt. Express 10(11) 5801-5817 (2019)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. N. Charman, “Developments in the correction of presbyopia I: spectacle and contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 34(1), 8–29 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Duane, “An attempt to determine the normal range of accommodation at various ages, being a revision of Donder’s experiments,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 11(Pt 3), 634–641 (1908).
    [PubMed]
  3. I. K. O. K. Kragha, “Amplitude of Accommodation: Population and Methodological Differences,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6(1), 75–80 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. W. N. Charman, “Developments in the correction of presbyopia II: surgical approaches,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 34(4), 397–426 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. E. S. Bennett, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 265–278 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. A. Davison and M. J. Simpson, “History and development of the apodized diffractive intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(5), 849–858 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. Alais and R. Blake, eds., Binocular Rivalry (MIT Press, 2005).
  8. H. B. Dick, F. Krummenauer, O. Schwenn, R. Krist, and N. Pfeiffer, “Objective and subjective evaluation of photic phenomena after monofocal and multifocal intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 106(10), 1878–1886 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Miller and L. Meshel, “Annular mask contact lenses,” U.S. patent US5245367 A (September 14, 1993).
  10. G. O. Waring, “Correction of presbyopia with a small aperture corneal inlay,” J. Refract. Surg. 27(11), 842–845 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. A. Atchison, S. Blazaki, M. Suheimat, S. Plainis, and W. N. Charman, “Do small-aperture presbyopic corrections influence the visual field?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 36(1), 51–59 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. S. Ong, J. R. Evans, and B. D. S. Allan, “Accommodative intraocular lens versus standard monofocal intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 5, CD009667 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  13. M. Kalloniatis and C. Luu, “Temporal Resolution,” in Webvision: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System, H. Kolb, E. Fernandez, and R. Nelson, eds. (University of Utah Health Sciences Center, 1995).
  14. F. Scharnowski, F. Hermens, and M. H. Herzog, “Bloch’s law and the dynamics of feature fusion,” Vision Res. 47(18), 2444–2452 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. A. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision. I. Experimental relationships between flicker and flash thresholds,” Vision Res. 12(2), 261–278 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. Blum, M. Büeler, C. Grätzel, J. Giger, and M. Aschwanden, “Optotune focus tunable lenses and laser speckle reduction based on electroactive polymers,” in H. Schenk, W. Piyawattanametha, and W. Noell, eds. (2012), p. 825207.
  17. C. Dorronsoro Díaz, J. R. Alonso Sanz, and S. Marcos Celestino, “Miniature Simultaneous Vision Simulator Instrument,” U.S. patent WO/2015/049402 (April 10, 2015).
  18. R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, “Are all aberrations equal?” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S556–S562 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  19. A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics for studying visual function: a comprehensive review,” J. Vis. 11(5), 6 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. L. Alió, B. Elkady, D. Ortiz, and G. Bernabeu, “Clinical outcomes and intraocular optical quality of a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens with asymmetrical light distribution,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(6), 942–948 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38(2), 209–229 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. D. A. Atchison, “Design of aspheric intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11(2), 137–146 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. T. Eppig, K. Scholz, A. Löffler, A. Messner, and A. Langenbucher, “Effect of decentration and tilt on the image quality of aspheric intraocular lens designs in a model eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1091–1100 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. K. M. Rocha, E. S. Soriano, W. Chamon, M. R. Chalita, and W. Nosé, “Spherical Aberration and Depth of Focus in Eyes Implanted with Aspheric and Spherical Intraocular Lenses: a Prospective Randomized Study,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2050–2054 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S. Marcos, S. Barbero, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Optical quality and depth-of-field of eyes implanted with spherical and aspheric intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(3), 223–235 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  26. N. López-Gil and V. Fernández-Sánchez, “The change of spherical aberration during accommodation and its effect on the accommodation response,” J. Vis. 10(13), 12 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. B. Antona, F. Barra, A. Barrio, A. Gutierrez, E. Piedrahita, and Y. Martin, “Comparing methods of determining addition in presbyopes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 313–318 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. L. Wang and D. D. Koch, “Custom optimization of intraocular lens asphericity,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(10), 1713–1720 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. H. E. Gollogly, D. O. Hodge, J. L. St Sauver, and J. C. Erie, “Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: population-based study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 39(9), 1383–1389 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. R. Navarro, J. J. Rozema, and M.-J. Tassignon, “Optical changes of the human cornea as a function of age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 90(6), 587–598 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. E. Papadatou, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, J. J. Esteve-Taboada, D. Madrid-Costa, and R. Montés-Micó, “Assessing the in vitro optical quality of presbyopic solutions based on the axial modulation transfer function,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 42(5), 780–787 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. D. Madrid-Costa, J. Ruiz-Alcocer, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and R. Montés-Micó, “Optical quality differences between three multifocal intraocular lenses: bifocal low add, bifocal moderate add, and trifocal,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(11), 749–754 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. M. J. Kim, L. Zheleznyak, S. Macrae, H. Tchah, and G. Yoon, “Objective evaluation of through-focus optical performance of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses using an optical bench system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(7), 1305–1312 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 329–351 (2004) .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. M. O. Mello, I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, H. W. Flynn, and W. Feuer, “Surgical management and outcomes of dislocated intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 107(1), 62–67 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. A. Galor, M. Gonzalez, D. Goldman, and T. P. O’Brien, “Intraocular lens exchange surgery in dissatisfied patients with refractive intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(10), 1706–1710 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. M. Artigas, J. L. Menezo, C. Peris, A. Felipe, and M. Díaz-Llopis, “Image quality with multifocal intraocular lenses and the effect of pupil size: comparison of refractive and hybrid refractive-diffractive designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(12), 2111–2117 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. C. Dorronsoro, J. R. Alonso-Sanz, D. Pascual, A. Radhakrishnan, M Velasco-OCana, P Perez-Merino, and S Marcos, “Visual performance and perception with bifocal and trifocal presbyopia corrections simulated using a hand-held simultaneous vision device,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4306 (2015).
  39. P. de Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. J. J. Esteve-Taboada, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, I. Marín-Franch, P. Bernal-Molina, R. Montés-Micó, and N. López-Gil, “Opto-mechanical artificial eye with accommodative ability,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19396–19404 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. A. Bradley, P. S. Kollbaum, and L. N. Thibos, “Multifocal correction providing improved quality of vision,” U.S. patent US8894203 B2 (November 25, 2014).
  42. J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, “Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(8), 1793–1803 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. A. P. Ginsburg, “Contrast sensitivity: determining the visual quality and function of cataract, intraocular lenses and refractive surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(1), 19–26 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. J. Carballo-Alvarez, J. M. Vazquez-Molini, J. C. Sanz-Fernandez, J. Garcia-Bella, V. Polo, J. García-Feijoo, and J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, “Visual outcomes after bilateral trifocal diffractive intraocular lens implantation,” BMC Ophthalmol. 15(1), 26 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

D. A. Atchison, S. Blazaki, M. Suheimat, S. Plainis, and W. N. Charman, “Do small-aperture presbyopic corrections influence the visual field?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 36(1), 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Papadatou, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, J. J. Esteve-Taboada, D. Madrid-Costa, and R. Montés-Micó, “Assessing the in vitro optical quality of presbyopic solutions based on the axial modulation transfer function,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 42(5), 780–787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

C. Dorronsoro, J. R. Alonso-Sanz, D. Pascual, A. Radhakrishnan, M Velasco-OCana, P Perez-Merino, and S Marcos, “Visual performance and perception with bifocal and trifocal presbyopia corrections simulated using a hand-held simultaneous vision device,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4306 (2015).

J. Carballo-Alvarez, J. M. Vazquez-Molini, J. C. Sanz-Fernandez, J. Garcia-Bella, V. Polo, J. García-Feijoo, and J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, “Visual outcomes after bilateral trifocal diffractive intraocular lens implantation,” BMC Ophthalmol. 15(1), 26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Esteve-Taboada, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, I. Marín-Franch, P. Bernal-Molina, R. Montés-Micó, and N. López-Gil, “Opto-mechanical artificial eye with accommodative ability,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19396–19404 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

H. S. Ong, J. R. Evans, and B. D. S. Allan, “Accommodative intraocular lens versus standard monofocal intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 5, CD009667 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. N. Charman, “Developments in the correction of presbyopia II: surgical approaches,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 34(4), 397–426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman, “Developments in the correction of presbyopia I: spectacle and contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 34(1), 8–29 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

P. de Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Gollogly, D. O. Hodge, J. L. St Sauver, and J. C. Erie, “Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: population-based study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 39(9), 1383–1389 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Navarro, J. J. Rozema, and M.-J. Tassignon, “Optical changes of the human cornea as a function of age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 90(6), 587–598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Madrid-Costa, J. Ruiz-Alcocer, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and R. Montés-Micó, “Optical quality differences between three multifocal intraocular lenses: bifocal low add, bifocal moderate add, and trifocal,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(11), 749–754 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. J. Kim, L. Zheleznyak, S. Macrae, H. Tchah, and G. Yoon, “Objective evaluation of through-focus optical performance of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses using an optical bench system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(7), 1305–1312 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. O. Waring, “Correction of presbyopia with a small aperture corneal inlay,” J. Refract. Surg. 27(11), 842–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics for studying visual function: a comprehensive review,” J. Vis. 11(5), 6 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

N. López-Gil and V. Fernández-Sánchez, “The change of spherical aberration during accommodation and its effect on the accommodation response,” J. Vis. 10(13), 12 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

T. Eppig, K. Scholz, A. Löffler, A. Messner, and A. Langenbucher, “Effect of decentration and tilt on the image quality of aspheric intraocular lens designs in a model eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1091–1100 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Galor, M. Gonzalez, D. Goldman, and T. P. O’Brien, “Intraocular lens exchange surgery in dissatisfied patients with refractive intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(10), 1706–1710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

B. Antona, F. Barra, A. Barrio, A. Gutierrez, E. Piedrahita, and Y. Martin, “Comparing methods of determining addition in presbyopes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 313–318 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Alió, B. Elkady, D. Ortiz, and G. Bernabeu, “Clinical outcomes and intraocular optical quality of a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens with asymmetrical light distribution,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(6), 942–948 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Bennett, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 265–278 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

F. Scharnowski, F. Hermens, and M. H. Herzog, “Bloch’s law and the dynamics of feature fusion,” Vision Res. 47(18), 2444–2452 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang and D. D. Koch, “Custom optimization of intraocular lens asphericity,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(10), 1713–1720 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Rocha, E. S. Soriano, W. Chamon, M. R. Chalita, and W. Nosé, “Spherical Aberration and Depth of Focus in Eyes Implanted with Aspheric and Spherical Intraocular Lenses: a Prospective Randomized Study,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2050–2054 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Artigas, J. L. Menezo, C. Peris, A. Felipe, and M. Díaz-Llopis, “Image quality with multifocal intraocular lenses and the effect of pupil size: comparison of refractive and hybrid refractive-diffractive designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(12), 2111–2117 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. P. Ginsburg, “Contrast sensitivity: determining the visual quality and function of cataract, intraocular lenses and refractive surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Davison and M. J. Simpson, “History and development of the apodized diffractive intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(5), 849–858 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Marcos, S. Barbero, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Optical quality and depth-of-field of eyes implanted with spherical and aspheric intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(3), 223–235 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (1)

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 329–351 (2004) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, “Are all aberrations equal?” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S556–S562 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

M. O. Mello, I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, H. W. Flynn, and W. Feuer, “Surgical management and outcomes of dislocated intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 107(1), 62–67 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. B. Dick, F. Krummenauer, O. Schwenn, R. Krist, and N. Pfeiffer, “Objective and subjective evaluation of photic phenomena after monofocal and multifocal intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 106(10), 1878–1886 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38(2), 209–229 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. A. Atchison, “Design of aspheric intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11(2), 137–146 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

I. K. O. K. Kragha, “Amplitude of Accommodation: Population and Methodological Differences,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6(1), 75–80 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

J. A. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision. I. Experimental relationships between flicker and flash thresholds,” Vision Res. 12(2), 261–278 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1908 (1)

A. Duane, “An attempt to determine the normal range of accommodation at various ages, being a revision of Donder’s experiments,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 11(Pt 3), 634–641 (1908).
[PubMed]

Alió, J. L.

J. L. Alió, B. Elkady, D. Ortiz, and G. Bernabeu, “Clinical outcomes and intraocular optical quality of a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens with asymmetrical light distribution,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(6), 942–948 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allan, B. D. S.

H. S. Ong, J. R. Evans, and B. D. S. Allan, “Accommodative intraocular lens versus standard monofocal intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 5, CD009667 (2014).
[PubMed]

Alonso-Sanz, J. R.

C. Dorronsoro, J. R. Alonso-Sanz, D. Pascual, A. Radhakrishnan, M Velasco-OCana, P Perez-Merino, and S Marcos, “Visual performance and perception with bifocal and trifocal presbyopia corrections simulated using a hand-held simultaneous vision device,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4306 (2015).

Antona, B.

B. Antona, F. Barra, A. Barrio, A. Gutierrez, E. Piedrahita, and Y. Martin, “Comparing methods of determining addition in presbyopes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 313–318 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 329–351 (2004) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, “Are all aberrations equal?” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S556–S562 (2002).
[PubMed]

Artigas, J. M.

J. M. Artigas, J. L. Menezo, C. Peris, A. Felipe, and M. Díaz-Llopis, “Image quality with multifocal intraocular lenses and the effect of pupil size: comparison of refractive and hybrid refractive-diffractive designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(12), 2111–2117 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison, S. Blazaki, M. Suheimat, S. Plainis, and W. N. Charman, “Do small-aperture presbyopic corrections influence the visual field?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 36(1), 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison, “Design of aspheric intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11(2), 137–146 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbero, S.

S. Marcos, S. Barbero, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Optical quality and depth-of-field of eyes implanted with spherical and aspheric intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(3), 223–235 (2005).
[PubMed]

Barra, F.

B. Antona, F. Barra, A. Barrio, A. Gutierrez, E. Piedrahita, and Y. Martin, “Comparing methods of determining addition in presbyopes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 313–318 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrio, A.

B. Antona, F. Barra, A. Barrio, A. Gutierrez, E. Piedrahita, and Y. Martin, “Comparing methods of determining addition in presbyopes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 313–318 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, E. S.

E. S. Bennett, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 265–278 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernabeu, G.

J. L. Alió, B. Elkady, D. Ortiz, and G. Bernabeu, “Clinical outcomes and intraocular optical quality of a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens with asymmetrical light distribution,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(6), 942–948 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernal-Molina, P.

Blazaki, S.

D. A. Atchison, S. Blazaki, M. Suheimat, S. Plainis, and W. N. Charman, “Do small-aperture presbyopic corrections influence the visual field?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 36(1), 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 329–351 (2004) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, M. C. W.

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38(2), 209–229 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carballo-Alvarez, J.

J. Carballo-Alvarez, J. M. Vazquez-Molini, J. C. Sanz-Fernandez, J. Garcia-Bella, V. Polo, J. García-Feijoo, and J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, “Visual outcomes after bilateral trifocal diffractive intraocular lens implantation,” BMC Ophthalmol. 15(1), 26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chalita, M. R.

K. M. Rocha, E. S. Soriano, W. Chamon, M. R. Chalita, and W. Nosé, “Spherical Aberration and Depth of Focus in Eyes Implanted with Aspheric and Spherical Intraocular Lenses: a Prospective Randomized Study,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2050–2054 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chamon, W.

K. M. Rocha, E. S. Soriano, W. Chamon, M. R. Chalita, and W. Nosé, “Spherical Aberration and Depth of Focus in Eyes Implanted with Aspheric and Spherical Intraocular Lenses: a Prospective Randomized Study,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2050–2054 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charman, W. N.

D. A. Atchison, S. Blazaki, M. Suheimat, S. Plainis, and W. N. Charman, “Do small-aperture presbyopic corrections influence the visual field?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 36(1), 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman, “Developments in the correction of presbyopia II: surgical approaches,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 34(4), 397–426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman, “Developments in the correction of presbyopia I: spectacle and contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 34(1), 8–29 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, I. G.

Davison, J. A.

J. A. Davison and M. J. Simpson, “History and development of the apodized diffractive intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(5), 849–858 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Gracia, P.

P. de Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del Águila-Carrasco, A. J.

E. Papadatou, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, J. J. Esteve-Taboada, D. Madrid-Costa, and R. Montés-Micó, “Assessing the in vitro optical quality of presbyopic solutions based on the axial modulation transfer function,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 42(5), 780–787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Esteve-Taboada, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, I. Marín-Franch, P. Bernal-Molina, R. Montés-Micó, and N. López-Gil, “Opto-mechanical artificial eye with accommodative ability,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19396–19404 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Díaz-Llopis, M.

J. M. Artigas, J. L. Menezo, C. Peris, A. Felipe, and M. Díaz-Llopis, “Image quality with multifocal intraocular lenses and the effect of pupil size: comparison of refractive and hybrid refractive-diffractive designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(12), 2111–2117 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dick, H. B.

H. B. Dick, F. Krummenauer, O. Schwenn, R. Krist, and N. Pfeiffer, “Objective and subjective evaluation of photic phenomena after monofocal and multifocal intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 106(10), 1878–1886 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorronsoro, C.

C. Dorronsoro, J. R. Alonso-Sanz, D. Pascual, A. Radhakrishnan, M Velasco-OCana, P Perez-Merino, and S Marcos, “Visual performance and perception with bifocal and trifocal presbyopia corrections simulated using a hand-held simultaneous vision device,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4306 (2015).

P. de Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duane, A.

A. Duane, “An attempt to determine the normal range of accommodation at various ages, being a revision of Donder’s experiments,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 11(Pt 3), 634–641 (1908).
[PubMed]

Elkady, B.

J. L. Alió, B. Elkady, D. Ortiz, and G. Bernabeu, “Clinical outcomes and intraocular optical quality of a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens with asymmetrical light distribution,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(6), 942–948 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eppig, T.

T. Eppig, K. Scholz, A. Löffler, A. Messner, and A. Langenbucher, “Effect of decentration and tilt on the image quality of aspheric intraocular lens designs in a model eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1091–1100 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erie, J. C.

H. E. Gollogly, D. O. Hodge, J. L. St Sauver, and J. C. Erie, “Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: population-based study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 39(9), 1383–1389 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esteve-Taboada, J. J.

E. Papadatou, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, J. J. Esteve-Taboada, D. Madrid-Costa, and R. Montés-Micó, “Assessing the in vitro optical quality of presbyopic solutions based on the axial modulation transfer function,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 42(5), 780–787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Esteve-Taboada, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, I. Marín-Franch, P. Bernal-Molina, R. Montés-Micó, and N. López-Gil, “Opto-mechanical artificial eye with accommodative ability,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19396–19404 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, J. R.

H. S. Ong, J. R. Evans, and B. D. S. Allan, “Accommodative intraocular lens versus standard monofocal intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 5, CD009667 (2014).
[PubMed]

Felipe, A.

J. M. Artigas, J. L. Menezo, C. Peris, A. Felipe, and M. Díaz-Llopis, “Image quality with multifocal intraocular lenses and the effect of pupil size: comparison of refractive and hybrid refractive-diffractive designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(12), 2111–2117 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernández-Sánchez, V.

N. López-Gil and V. Fernández-Sánchez, “The change of spherical aberration during accommodation and its effect on the accommodation response,” J. Vis. 10(13), 12 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrer-Blasco, T.

D. Madrid-Costa, J. Ruiz-Alcocer, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and R. Montés-Micó, “Optical quality differences between three multifocal intraocular lenses: bifocal low add, bifocal moderate add, and trifocal,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(11), 749–754 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feuer, W.

M. O. Mello, I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, H. W. Flynn, and W. Feuer, “Surgical management and outcomes of dislocated intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 107(1), 62–67 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flynn, H. W.

M. O. Mello, I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, H. W. Flynn, and W. Feuer, “Surgical management and outcomes of dislocated intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 107(1), 62–67 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galor, A.

A. Galor, M. Gonzalez, D. Goldman, and T. P. O’Brien, “Intraocular lens exchange surgery in dissatisfied patients with refractive intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(10), 1706–1710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Bella, J.

J. Carballo-Alvarez, J. M. Vazquez-Molini, J. C. Sanz-Fernandez, J. Garcia-Bella, V. Polo, J. García-Feijoo, and J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, “Visual outcomes after bilateral trifocal diffractive intraocular lens implantation,” BMC Ophthalmol. 15(1), 26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Feijoo, J.

J. Carballo-Alvarez, J. M. Vazquez-Molini, J. C. Sanz-Fernandez, J. Garcia-Bella, V. Polo, J. García-Feijoo, and J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, “Visual outcomes after bilateral trifocal diffractive intraocular lens implantation,” BMC Ophthalmol. 15(1), 26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Lázaro, S.

D. Madrid-Costa, J. Ruiz-Alcocer, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and R. Montés-Micó, “Optical quality differences between three multifocal intraocular lenses: bifocal low add, bifocal moderate add, and trifocal,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(11), 749–754 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ginsburg, A. P.

A. P. Ginsburg, “Contrast sensitivity: determining the visual quality and function of cataract, intraocular lenses and refractive surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glasser, A.

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38(2), 209–229 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldman, D.

A. Galor, M. Gonzalez, D. Goldman, and T. P. O’Brien, “Intraocular lens exchange surgery in dissatisfied patients with refractive intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(10), 1706–1710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gollogly, H. E.

H. E. Gollogly, D. O. Hodge, J. L. St Sauver, and J. C. Erie, “Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: population-based study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 39(9), 1383–1389 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, M.

A. Galor, M. Gonzalez, D. Goldman, and T. P. O’Brien, “Intraocular lens exchange surgery in dissatisfied patients with refractive intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(10), 1706–1710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guirao, A.

Gutierrez, A.

B. Antona, F. Barra, A. Barrio, A. Gutierrez, E. Piedrahita, and Y. Martin, “Comparing methods of determining addition in presbyopes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 313–318 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermens, F.

F. Scharnowski, F. Hermens, and M. H. Herzog, “Bloch’s law and the dynamics of feature fusion,” Vision Res. 47(18), 2444–2452 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herzog, M. H.

F. Scharnowski, F. Hermens, and M. H. Herzog, “Bloch’s law and the dynamics of feature fusion,” Vision Res. 47(18), 2444–2452 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hodge, D. O.

H. E. Gollogly, D. O. Hodge, J. L. St Sauver, and J. C. Erie, “Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: population-based study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 39(9), 1383–1389 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, X.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 329–351 (2004) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiménez-Alfaro, I.

S. Marcos, S. Barbero, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Optical quality and depth-of-field of eyes implanted with spherical and aspheric intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(3), 223–235 (2005).
[PubMed]

Khemsara, V.

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, “Are all aberrations equal?” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S556–S562 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kim, M. J.

M. J. Kim, L. Zheleznyak, S. Macrae, H. Tchah, and G. Yoon, “Objective evaluation of through-focus optical performance of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses using an optical bench system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(7), 1305–1312 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, D. D.

L. Wang and D. D. Koch, “Custom optimization of intraocular lens asphericity,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(10), 1713–1720 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kragha, I. K. O. K.

I. K. O. K. Kragha, “Amplitude of Accommodation: Population and Methodological Differences,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6(1), 75–80 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krist, R.

H. B. Dick, F. Krummenauer, O. Schwenn, R. Krist, and N. Pfeiffer, “Objective and subjective evaluation of photic phenomena after monofocal and multifocal intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 106(10), 1878–1886 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krummenauer, F.

H. B. Dick, F. Krummenauer, O. Schwenn, R. Krist, and N. Pfeiffer, “Objective and subjective evaluation of photic phenomena after monofocal and multifocal intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 106(10), 1878–1886 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langenbucher, A.

T. Eppig, K. Scholz, A. Löffler, A. Messner, and A. Langenbucher, “Effect of decentration and tilt on the image quality of aspheric intraocular lens designs in a model eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1091–1100 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Löffler, A.

T. Eppig, K. Scholz, A. Löffler, A. Messner, and A. Langenbucher, “Effect of decentration and tilt on the image quality of aspheric intraocular lens designs in a model eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1091–1100 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López-Gil, N.

Macrae, S.

M. J. Kim, L. Zheleznyak, S. Macrae, H. Tchah, and G. Yoon, “Objective evaluation of through-focus optical performance of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses using an optical bench system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(7), 1305–1312 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madrid-Costa, D.

E. Papadatou, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, J. J. Esteve-Taboada, D. Madrid-Costa, and R. Montés-Micó, “Assessing the in vitro optical quality of presbyopic solutions based on the axial modulation transfer function,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 42(5), 780–787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Madrid-Costa, J. Ruiz-Alcocer, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and R. Montés-Micó, “Optical quality differences between three multifocal intraocular lenses: bifocal low add, bifocal moderate add, and trifocal,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(11), 749–754 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcos, S

C. Dorronsoro, J. R. Alonso-Sanz, D. Pascual, A. Radhakrishnan, M Velasco-OCana, P Perez-Merino, and S Marcos, “Visual performance and perception with bifocal and trifocal presbyopia corrections simulated using a hand-held simultaneous vision device,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4306 (2015).

Marcos, S.

P. de Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, S. Barbero, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Optical quality and depth-of-field of eyes implanted with spherical and aspheric intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(3), 223–235 (2005).
[PubMed]

Marín-Franch, I.

Martin, Y.

B. Antona, F. Barra, A. Barrio, A. Gutierrez, E. Piedrahita, and Y. Martin, “Comparing methods of determining addition in presbyopes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 313–318 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinez-de-la-Casa, J. M.

J. Carballo-Alvarez, J. M. Vazquez-Molini, J. C. Sanz-Fernandez, J. Garcia-Bella, V. Polo, J. García-Feijoo, and J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, “Visual outcomes after bilateral trifocal diffractive intraocular lens implantation,” BMC Ophthalmol. 15(1), 26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mello, M. O.

M. O. Mello, I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, H. W. Flynn, and W. Feuer, “Surgical management and outcomes of dislocated intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 107(1), 62–67 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menezo, J. L.

J. M. Artigas, J. L. Menezo, C. Peris, A. Felipe, and M. Díaz-Llopis, “Image quality with multifocal intraocular lenses and the effect of pupil size: comparison of refractive and hybrid refractive-diffractive designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(12), 2111–2117 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messner, A.

T. Eppig, K. Scholz, A. Löffler, A. Messner, and A. Langenbucher, “Effect of decentration and tilt on the image quality of aspheric intraocular lens designs in a model eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1091–1100 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Montés-Micó, R.

E. Papadatou, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, J. J. Esteve-Taboada, D. Madrid-Costa, and R. Montés-Micó, “Assessing the in vitro optical quality of presbyopic solutions based on the axial modulation transfer function,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 42(5), 780–787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Esteve-Taboada, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, I. Marín-Franch, P. Bernal-Molina, R. Montés-Micó, and N. López-Gil, “Opto-mechanical artificial eye with accommodative ability,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19396–19404 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Madrid-Costa, J. Ruiz-Alcocer, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and R. Montés-Micó, “Optical quality differences between three multifocal intraocular lenses: bifocal low add, bifocal moderate add, and trifocal,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(11), 749–754 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Navarro, R.

R. Navarro, J. J. Rozema, and M.-J. Tassignon, “Optical changes of the human cornea as a function of age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 90(6), 587–598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nosé, W.

K. M. Rocha, E. S. Soriano, W. Chamon, M. R. Chalita, and W. Nosé, “Spherical Aberration and Depth of Focus in Eyes Implanted with Aspheric and Spherical Intraocular Lenses: a Prospective Randomized Study,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2050–2054 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Brien, T. P.

A. Galor, M. Gonzalez, D. Goldman, and T. P. O’Brien, “Intraocular lens exchange surgery in dissatisfied patients with refractive intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(10), 1706–1710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ong, H. S.

H. S. Ong, J. R. Evans, and B. D. S. Allan, “Accommodative intraocular lens versus standard monofocal intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 5, CD009667 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ortiz, D.

J. L. Alió, B. Elkady, D. Ortiz, and G. Bernabeu, “Clinical outcomes and intraocular optical quality of a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens with asymmetrical light distribution,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(6), 942–948 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papadatou, E.

E. Papadatou, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, J. J. Esteve-Taboada, D. Madrid-Costa, and R. Montés-Micó, “Assessing the in vitro optical quality of presbyopic solutions based on the axial modulation transfer function,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 42(5), 780–787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pascual, D.

C. Dorronsoro, J. R. Alonso-Sanz, D. Pascual, A. Radhakrishnan, M Velasco-OCana, P Perez-Merino, and S Marcos, “Visual performance and perception with bifocal and trifocal presbyopia corrections simulated using a hand-held simultaneous vision device,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4306 (2015).

Perez-Merino, P

C. Dorronsoro, J. R. Alonso-Sanz, D. Pascual, A. Radhakrishnan, M Velasco-OCana, P Perez-Merino, and S Marcos, “Visual performance and perception with bifocal and trifocal presbyopia corrections simulated using a hand-held simultaneous vision device,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4306 (2015).

Peris, C.

J. M. Artigas, J. L. Menezo, C. Peris, A. Felipe, and M. Díaz-Llopis, “Image quality with multifocal intraocular lenses and the effect of pupil size: comparison of refractive and hybrid refractive-diffractive designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(12), 2111–2117 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, N.

H. B. Dick, F. Krummenauer, O. Schwenn, R. Krist, and N. Pfeiffer, “Objective and subjective evaluation of photic phenomena after monofocal and multifocal intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 106(10), 1878–1886 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piedrahita, E.

B. Antona, F. Barra, A. Barrio, A. Gutierrez, E. Piedrahita, and Y. Martin, “Comparing methods of determining addition in presbyopes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 313–318 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plainis, S.

D. A. Atchison, S. Blazaki, M. Suheimat, S. Plainis, and W. N. Charman, “Do small-aperture presbyopic corrections influence the visual field?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 36(1), 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polo, V.

J. Carballo-Alvarez, J. M. Vazquez-Molini, J. C. Sanz-Fernandez, J. Garcia-Bella, V. Polo, J. García-Feijoo, and J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, “Visual outcomes after bilateral trifocal diffractive intraocular lens implantation,” BMC Ophthalmol. 15(1), 26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Porter, J.

Radhakrishnan, A.

C. Dorronsoro, J. R. Alonso-Sanz, D. Pascual, A. Radhakrishnan, M Velasco-OCana, P Perez-Merino, and S Marcos, “Visual performance and perception with bifocal and trifocal presbyopia corrections simulated using a hand-held simultaneous vision device,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4306 (2015).

Rocha, K. M.

K. M. Rocha, E. S. Soriano, W. Chamon, M. R. Chalita, and W. Nosé, “Spherical Aberration and Depth of Focus in Eyes Implanted with Aspheric and Spherical Intraocular Lenses: a Prospective Randomized Study,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2050–2054 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics for studying visual function: a comprehensive review,” J. Vis. 11(5), 6 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roufs, J. A.

J. A. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision. I. Experimental relationships between flicker and flash thresholds,” Vision Res. 12(2), 261–278 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rozema, J. J.

R. Navarro, J. J. Rozema, and M.-J. Tassignon, “Optical changes of the human cornea as a function of age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 90(6), 587–598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruiz-Alcocer, J.

D. Madrid-Costa, J. Ruiz-Alcocer, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and R. Montés-Micó, “Optical quality differences between three multifocal intraocular lenses: bifocal low add, bifocal moderate add, and trifocal,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(11), 749–754 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sánchez-González, Á.

P. de Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanz-Fernandez, J. C.

J. Carballo-Alvarez, J. M. Vazquez-Molini, J. C. Sanz-Fernandez, J. Garcia-Bella, V. Polo, J. García-Feijoo, and J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, “Visual outcomes after bilateral trifocal diffractive intraocular lens implantation,” BMC Ophthalmol. 15(1), 26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarver, E. J.

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, “Are all aberrations equal?” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S556–S562 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sawides, L.

P. de Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scharnowski, F.

F. Scharnowski, F. Hermens, and M. H. Herzog, “Bloch’s law and the dynamics of feature fusion,” Vision Res. 47(18), 2444–2452 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholz, K.

T. Eppig, K. Scholz, A. Löffler, A. Messner, and A. Langenbucher, “Effect of decentration and tilt on the image quality of aspheric intraocular lens designs in a model eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1091–1100 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwenn, O.

H. B. Dick, F. Krummenauer, O. Schwenn, R. Krist, and N. Pfeiffer, “Objective and subjective evaluation of photic phenomena after monofocal and multifocal intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 106(10), 1878–1886 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scott, I. U.

M. O. Mello, I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, H. W. Flynn, and W. Feuer, “Surgical management and outcomes of dislocated intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 107(1), 62–67 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simpson, M. J.

J. A. Davison and M. J. Simpson, “History and development of the apodized diffractive intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(5), 849–858 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smiddy, W. E.

M. O. Mello, I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, H. W. Flynn, and W. Feuer, “Surgical management and outcomes of dislocated intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 107(1), 62–67 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soriano, E. S.

K. M. Rocha, E. S. Soriano, W. Chamon, M. R. Chalita, and W. Nosé, “Spherical Aberration and Depth of Focus in Eyes Implanted with Aspheric and Spherical Intraocular Lenses: a Prospective Randomized Study,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2050–2054 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

St Sauver, J. L.

H. E. Gollogly, D. O. Hodge, J. L. St Sauver, and J. C. Erie, “Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: population-based study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 39(9), 1383–1389 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suheimat, M.

D. A. Atchison, S. Blazaki, M. Suheimat, S. Plainis, and W. N. Charman, “Do small-aperture presbyopic corrections influence the visual field?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 36(1), 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tassignon, M.-J.

R. Navarro, J. J. Rozema, and M.-J. Tassignon, “Optical changes of the human cornea as a function of age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 90(6), 587–598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tchah, H.

M. J. Kim, L. Zheleznyak, S. Macrae, H. Tchah, and G. Yoon, “Objective evaluation of through-focus optical performance of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses using an optical bench system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(7), 1305–1312 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 329–351 (2004) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vazquez-Molini, J. M.

J. Carballo-Alvarez, J. M. Vazquez-Molini, J. C. Sanz-Fernandez, J. Garcia-Bella, V. Polo, J. García-Feijoo, and J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, “Visual outcomes after bilateral trifocal diffractive intraocular lens implantation,” BMC Ophthalmol. 15(1), 26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velasco-OCana, M

C. Dorronsoro, J. R. Alonso-Sanz, D. Pascual, A. Radhakrishnan, M Velasco-OCana, P Perez-Merino, and S Marcos, “Visual performance and perception with bifocal and trifocal presbyopia corrections simulated using a hand-held simultaneous vision device,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4306 (2015).

Wang, L.

L. Wang and D. D. Koch, “Custom optimization of intraocular lens asphericity,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(10), 1713–1720 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waring, G. O.

G. O. Waring, “Correction of presbyopia with a small aperture corneal inlay,” J. Refract. Surg. 27(11), 842–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Yoon, G.

M. J. Kim, L. Zheleznyak, S. Macrae, H. Tchah, and G. Yoon, “Objective evaluation of through-focus optical performance of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses using an optical bench system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(7), 1305–1312 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheleznyak, L.

M. J. Kim, L. Zheleznyak, S. Macrae, H. Tchah, and G. Yoon, “Objective evaluation of through-focus optical performance of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses using an optical bench system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(7), 1305–1312 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

BMC Ophthalmol. (1)

J. Carballo-Alvarez, J. M. Vazquez-Molini, J. C. Sanz-Fernandez, J. Garcia-Bella, V. Polo, J. García-Feijoo, and J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, “Visual outcomes after bilateral trifocal diffractive intraocular lens implantation,” BMC Ophthalmol. 15(1), 26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Optom. (2)

E. S. Bennett, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 265–278 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Antona, F. Barra, A. Barrio, A. Gutierrez, E. Piedrahita, and Y. Martin, “Comparing methods of determining addition in presbyopes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 91(3), 313–318 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (1)

H. S. Ong, J. R. Evans, and B. D. S. Allan, “Accommodative intraocular lens versus standard monofocal intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 5, CD009667 (2014).
[PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. P. Ginsburg, “Contrast sensitivity: determining the visual quality and function of cataract, intraocular lenses and refractive surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

C. Dorronsoro, J. R. Alonso-Sanz, D. Pascual, A. Radhakrishnan, M Velasco-OCana, P Perez-Merino, and S Marcos, “Visual performance and perception with bifocal and trifocal presbyopia corrections simulated using a hand-held simultaneous vision device,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4306 (2015).

P. de Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (9)

A. Galor, M. Gonzalez, D. Goldman, and T. P. O’Brien, “Intraocular lens exchange surgery in dissatisfied patients with refractive intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(10), 1706–1710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Artigas, J. L. Menezo, C. Peris, A. Felipe, and M. Díaz-Llopis, “Image quality with multifocal intraocular lenses and the effect of pupil size: comparison of refractive and hybrid refractive-diffractive designs,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(12), 2111–2117 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Davison and M. J. Simpson, “History and development of the apodized diffractive intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(5), 849–858 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang and D. D. Koch, “Custom optimization of intraocular lens asphericity,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(10), 1713–1720 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Gollogly, D. O. Hodge, J. L. St Sauver, and J. C. Erie, “Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: population-based study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 39(9), 1383–1389 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Papadatou, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, J. J. Esteve-Taboada, D. Madrid-Costa, and R. Montés-Micó, “Assessing the in vitro optical quality of presbyopic solutions based on the axial modulation transfer function,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 42(5), 780–787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kim, L. Zheleznyak, S. Macrae, H. Tchah, and G. Yoon, “Objective evaluation of through-focus optical performance of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses using an optical bench system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(7), 1305–1312 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Alió, B. Elkady, D. Ortiz, and G. Bernabeu, “Clinical outcomes and intraocular optical quality of a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens with asymmetrical light distribution,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(6), 942–948 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eppig, K. Scholz, A. Löffler, A. Messner, and A. Langenbucher, “Effect of decentration and tilt on the image quality of aspheric intraocular lens designs in a model eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(6), 1091–1100 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Refract. Surg. (4)

S. Marcos, S. Barbero, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Optical quality and depth-of-field of eyes implanted with spherical and aspheric intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(3), 223–235 (2005).
[PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, “Are all aberrations equal?” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S556–S562 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. Madrid-Costa, J. Ruiz-Alcocer, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and R. Montés-Micó, “Optical quality differences between three multifocal intraocular lenses: bifocal low add, bifocal moderate add, and trifocal,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(11), 749–754 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. O. Waring, “Correction of presbyopia with a small aperture corneal inlay,” J. Refract. Surg. 27(11), 842–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vis. (3)

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 329–351 (2004) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics for studying visual function: a comprehensive review,” J. Vis. 11(5), 6 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. López-Gil and V. Fernández-Sánchez, “The change of spherical aberration during accommodation and its effect on the accommodation response,” J. Vis. 10(13), 12 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (5)

D. A. Atchison, S. Blazaki, M. Suheimat, S. Plainis, and W. N. Charman, “Do small-aperture presbyopic corrections influence the visual field?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 36(1), 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman, “Developments in the correction of presbyopia I: spectacle and contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 34(1), 8–29 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. K. O. K. Kragha, “Amplitude of Accommodation: Population and Methodological Differences,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 6(1), 75–80 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman, “Developments in the correction of presbyopia II: surgical approaches,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 34(4), 397–426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison, “Design of aspheric intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11(2), 137–146 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (3)

H. B. Dick, F. Krummenauer, O. Schwenn, R. Krist, and N. Pfeiffer, “Objective and subjective evaluation of photic phenomena after monofocal and multifocal intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 106(10), 1878–1886 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Rocha, E. S. Soriano, W. Chamon, M. R. Chalita, and W. Nosé, “Spherical Aberration and Depth of Focus in Eyes Implanted with Aspheric and Spherical Intraocular Lenses: a Prospective Randomized Study,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2050–2054 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Mello, I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, H. W. Flynn, and W. Feuer, “Surgical management and outcomes of dislocated intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 107(1), 62–67 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

R. Navarro, J. J. Rozema, and M.-J. Tassignon, “Optical changes of the human cornea as a function of age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 90(6), 587–598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. (1)

A. Duane, “An attempt to determine the normal range of accommodation at various ages, being a revision of Donder’s experiments,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 11(Pt 3), 634–641 (1908).
[PubMed]

Vision Res. (3)

F. Scharnowski, F. Hermens, and M. H. Herzog, “Bloch’s law and the dynamics of feature fusion,” Vision Res. 47(18), 2444–2452 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision. I. Experimental relationships between flicker and flash thresholds,” Vision Res. 12(2), 261–278 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38(2), 209–229 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

M. Blum, M. Büeler, C. Grätzel, J. Giger, and M. Aschwanden, “Optotune focus tunable lenses and laser speckle reduction based on electroactive polymers,” in H. Schenk, W. Piyawattanametha, and W. Noell, eds. (2012), p. 825207.

C. Dorronsoro Díaz, J. R. Alonso Sanz, and S. Marcos Celestino, “Miniature Simultaneous Vision Simulator Instrument,” U.S. patent WO/2015/049402 (April 10, 2015).

M. Kalloniatis and C. Luu, “Temporal Resolution,” in Webvision: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System, H. Kolb, E. Fernandez, and R. Nelson, eds. (University of Utah Health Sciences Center, 1995).

D. Miller and L. Meshel, “Annular mask contact lenses,” U.S. patent US5245367 A (September 14, 1993).

D. Alais and R. Blake, eds., Binocular Rivalry (MIT Press, 2005).

A. Bradley, P. S. Kollbaum, and L. N. Thibos, “Multifocal correction providing improved quality of vision,” U.S. patent US8894203 B2 (November 25, 2014).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (78 KB)      Visualization 1 shows a through-focus video of a Sloan E when simulating a bifocal equal energy (50/50) design, when vergence changed from 0.5 D to -3.5 D at a temporal frequency of 50 Hz.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the AO system (MurciAO). Lenses L1, L2, L3, and L5 are achromatic doublets; lenses L4 and L6 are singlets; M1, M2, and M3 are flat mirrors; P1 is an artificial pupil; P2 is the camera stop; and BS1 is a pellicle beam splitter. Targets on the left side are (a) an acuity chart, (b) a vertical square grating, and (c) a horizontal square grating described in Section 2.2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Through-focus photographic images of a visual acuity chart for three bifocal designs: (a) equal energy design; (b) equal energy design with negative SA at the far focus and positive SA at the near focus; (c) equal-energy design with corneal HOAs (up to 7th order). Arrows indicate the far and near foci.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Visualization 1 shows a through-focus video of a Sloan E when simulating a bifocal equal energy (50/50) design, when vergence changed from 0.5 D to −3.5 D at a temporal frequency of 50 Hz.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental (black) and simulated (grey) through-focus curves for simultaneous vision designs: equal-energy (50/50) design (left), unequal-energy (60/40) design (center), and equal energy (50/50) toric design with 1.0 D of astigmatism at 0° (right). The dashed lines in the upper-right panel are the experimental and theoretical curves for the meridian with no astigmatic power whereas the continuous lines correspond to the meridian that has the astigmatism. The black arrows in the lower-right panel indicate the peaks for far and near vision of the toric design. Notice that the through-focus curves for the toric design are 1.0 D wider than for the rest.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental (black) and simulated (grey) through-focus curves of the normalized contrast for different combinations of SA in near and far foci. The upper panel shows through-focus curves when (left) positive SA was added to both foci and (right) negative SA was added to both foci. Lower panel shows through-focus when (left) positive SA was added to far focus and negative SA to near focus and (right) negative SA was added to far focus and positive SA to near focus. Notice that the y-axis has been rescaled for visualization purposes.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated (grey) through-focus curves of the normalized cross-correlation for different combinations of SA in near and far foci. For comparison purposes, the cross-correlation curve of the equal-energy bifocal (black curve) is included in each panel. The upper panel shows through-focus curves when (left) positive SA was added to both foci and (right) negative SA was added to both foci. Lower panel shows through-focus when (left) positive SA was added to far focus and negative SA to near focus and (right) negative SA was added to far focus and positive SA to near focus.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Through-focus curves for normalized Michelson contrast (left) and normalized cross-correlation (right) for a 60-year-old pseudophakic eye wearing an ideal equal-energy bifocal lens without SA (black) and with negative SA (gray) in both foci (−0.1 μm) for partially compensating the positive SA of the model cornea ( + 0.19 μm). Notice that the y-axis has been rescaled for visualization purposes.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Upper left panel shows the behavior of the mirror if it changed shape instantly. Bottom left panel shows a more realistic (continuous) change of the defocus. Right panel shows simulated through-focus curves for both situations on the left (dotted gray line corresponds to the top profile change; gray solid line corresponds to the bottom profile change), and also the real through-focus curve (solid black line) for comparison purposes.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Computed simulations of the through-focus of a center-near bifocal IOL (black) and an equal-energy bifocal design, where both images share the whole pupil (grey).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the simultaneous vision designs generated with AO. F reads for far focus and N for near focus. Note that the SA values herein are given for a 5-mm pupil diameter.

Metrics