Abstract

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to investigate spontaneous hemodynamic activity in the temporal cortex for typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Forty-seven children participated in the experiments including twenty-five with ASD. Compared with TD children, children with ASD showed weaker bilateral resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), but much stronger fluctuation magnitude in terms of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb). Differentiating between ASD and TD based on a support vector machine (SVM) model including bilateral RSFC and the fluctuation power of HbO2 and Hb as variables could achieve high accurate classification with sensitivity of 81.6% and specificity of 94.6%. This study demonstrates optical brain imaging has the potential for screening children with risk of ASD.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

J. D. Power, A. Mitra, T. O. Laumann, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Methods to detect, characterize, and remove motion artifact in resting state fMRI,” Neuroimage 84, 320–341 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Tyszka, D. P. Kennedy, L. K. Paul, and R. Adolphs, “Largely typical patterns of resting-state functional connectivity in high-functioning adults with autism,” Cereb. Cortex 24(7), 1894–1905 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, Y. Fan, H. Guo, D. Huang, and S. He, “Reduced interhemispheric functional connectivity of children with autism spectrum disorder: evidence from functional near infrared spectroscopy studies,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1262–1274 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li and L. Qiu, “Temporal correlation of spontaneous hemodynamic activity in language areas measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 587–595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. D. Power, K. A. Barnes, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion,” Neuroimage 59(3), 2142–2154 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Duan, Y. J. Zhang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Quantitative comparison of resting-state functional connectivity derived from fNIRS and fMRI: A simultaneous recording study,” Neuroimage 60(4), 2008–2018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lange, “Perspective: imaging autism,” Nature 491(7422), S17 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cornew, T. P. L. Roberts, L. Blaskey, and J. C. Edgar, “Resting-state oscillatory activity in autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 42(9), 1884–1894 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

J. S. Anderson, T. J. Druzgal, A. Froehlich, M. B. DuBray, N. Lange, A. L. Alexander, T. Abildskov, J. A. Nielsen, A. N. Cariello, J. R. Cooperrider, E. D. Bigler, and J. E. Lainhart, “Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism,” Cereb. Cortex 21(5), 1134–1146 (2011).
[PubMed]

G. Lai, H. D. Schneider, J. C. Schwarzenberger, and J. Hirsch, “Speech stimulation during functional MR imaging as a potential indicator of autism,” Radiology 260(2), 521–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Dinstein, K. Pierce, L. Eyler, S. Solso, R. Malach, M. Behrmann, and E. Courchesne, “Disrupted neural synchronization in toddlers with autism,” Neuron 70(6), 1218–1225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

N. Lange, M. B. Dubray, J. E. Lee, M. P. Froimowitz, A. Froehlich, N. Adluru, B. Wright, C. Ravichandran, P. T. Fletcher, E. D. Bigler, A. L. Alexander, and J. E. Lainhart, “Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism,” Autism Res. 3(6), 350–358 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “Resting state functional connectivity of the whole head with near-infrared spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 324–336 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Verhoeven, P. De Cock, L. Lagae, and S. Sunaert, “Neuroimaging of autism,” Neuroradiology 52(1), 3–14 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

B. R. White, A. Z. Snyder, A. L. Cohen, S. E. Petersen, M. E. Raichle, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Resting-state functional connectivity in the human brain revealed with diffuse optical tomography,” Neuroimage 47(1), 148–156 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Toddler Module: A new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, “Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lu, Y. Zuo, H. Gu, J. A. Waltz, W. Zhan, C. A. Scholl, W. Rea, Y. Yang, and E. A. Stein, “Synchronized delta oscillations correlate with the resting-state functional MRI signal,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(46), 18265–18269 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Y. Toronov, X. Zhang, and A. G. Webb, “A spatial and temporal comparison of hemodynamic signals measured using optical and functional magnetic resonance imaging during activation in the human primary visual cortex,” Neuroimage 34(3), 1136–1148 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

V. L. Cherkassky, R. K. Kana, T. A. Keller, and M. A. Just, “Functional connectivity in a baseline resting-state network in autism,” Neuroreport 17(16), 1687–1690 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Ben-Hur, D. Horn, H. T. Siegelmann, and V. Vapnik, “Support vector clustering,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 2, 125–137 (2002).

2000 (2)

C. Lord, S. Risi, L. Lambrecht, E. H. Cook, B. L. Leventhal, P. C. DiLavore, A. Pickles, and M. Rutter, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30(3), 205–223 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hyvärinen and E. Oja, “Independent Component Analysis: Algorithms and Applications,” Neural Netw. 13(4-5), 411–430 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. A. Frost, J. R. Binder, J. A. Springer, T. A. Hammeke, P. S. F. Bellgowan, S. M. Rao, and R. W. Cox, “Language processing is strongly left lateralized in both sexes. Evidence from functional MRI,” Brain 122(2), 199–208 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn. 20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abildskov, T.

J. S. Anderson, T. J. Druzgal, A. Froehlich, M. B. DuBray, N. Lange, A. L. Alexander, T. Abildskov, J. A. Nielsen, A. N. Cariello, J. R. Cooperrider, E. D. Bigler, and J. E. Lainhart, “Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism,” Cereb. Cortex 21(5), 1134–1146 (2011).
[PubMed]

Adluru, N.

N. Lange, M. B. Dubray, J. E. Lee, M. P. Froimowitz, A. Froehlich, N. Adluru, B. Wright, C. Ravichandran, P. T. Fletcher, E. D. Bigler, A. L. Alexander, and J. E. Lainhart, “Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism,” Autism Res. 3(6), 350–358 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adolphs, R.

J. M. Tyszka, D. P. Kennedy, L. K. Paul, and R. Adolphs, “Largely typical patterns of resting-state functional connectivity in high-functioning adults with autism,” Cereb. Cortex 24(7), 1894–1905 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexander, A. L.

J. S. Anderson, T. J. Druzgal, A. Froehlich, M. B. DuBray, N. Lange, A. L. Alexander, T. Abildskov, J. A. Nielsen, A. N. Cariello, J. R. Cooperrider, E. D. Bigler, and J. E. Lainhart, “Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism,” Cereb. Cortex 21(5), 1134–1146 (2011).
[PubMed]

N. Lange, M. B. Dubray, J. E. Lee, M. P. Froimowitz, A. Froehlich, N. Adluru, B. Wright, C. Ravichandran, P. T. Fletcher, E. D. Bigler, A. L. Alexander, and J. E. Lainhart, “Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism,” Autism Res. 3(6), 350–358 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, J. S.

J. S. Anderson, T. J. Druzgal, A. Froehlich, M. B. DuBray, N. Lange, A. L. Alexander, T. Abildskov, J. A. Nielsen, A. N. Cariello, J. R. Cooperrider, E. D. Bigler, and J. E. Lainhart, “Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism,” Cereb. Cortex 21(5), 1134–1146 (2011).
[PubMed]

Barnes, K. A.

J. D. Power, K. A. Barnes, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion,” Neuroimage 59(3), 2142–2154 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behrmann, M.

I. Dinstein, K. Pierce, L. Eyler, S. Solso, R. Malach, M. Behrmann, and E. Courchesne, “Disrupted neural synchronization in toddlers with autism,” Neuron 70(6), 1218–1225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellgowan, P. S. F.

J. A. Frost, J. R. Binder, J. A. Springer, T. A. Hammeke, P. S. F. Bellgowan, S. M. Rao, and R. W. Cox, “Language processing is strongly left lateralized in both sexes. Evidence from functional MRI,” Brain 122(2), 199–208 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben-Hur, A.

A. Ben-Hur, D. Horn, H. T. Siegelmann, and V. Vapnik, “Support vector clustering,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 2, 125–137 (2002).

Bigler, E. D.

J. S. Anderson, T. J. Druzgal, A. Froehlich, M. B. DuBray, N. Lange, A. L. Alexander, T. Abildskov, J. A. Nielsen, A. N. Cariello, J. R. Cooperrider, E. D. Bigler, and J. E. Lainhart, “Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism,” Cereb. Cortex 21(5), 1134–1146 (2011).
[PubMed]

N. Lange, M. B. Dubray, J. E. Lee, M. P. Froimowitz, A. Froehlich, N. Adluru, B. Wright, C. Ravichandran, P. T. Fletcher, E. D. Bigler, A. L. Alexander, and J. E. Lainhart, “Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism,” Autism Res. 3(6), 350–358 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binder, J. R.

J. A. Frost, J. R. Binder, J. A. Springer, T. A. Hammeke, P. S. F. Bellgowan, S. M. Rao, and R. W. Cox, “Language processing is strongly left lateralized in both sexes. Evidence from functional MRI,” Brain 122(2), 199–208 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bishop, S.

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Toddler Module: A new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaskey, L.

L. Cornew, T. P. L. Roberts, L. Blaskey, and J. C. Edgar, “Resting-state oscillatory activity in autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 42(9), 1884–1894 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Cariello, A. N.

J. S. Anderson, T. J. Druzgal, A. Froehlich, M. B. DuBray, N. Lange, A. L. Alexander, T. Abildskov, J. A. Nielsen, A. N. Cariello, J. R. Cooperrider, E. D. Bigler, and J. E. Lainhart, “Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism,” Cereb. Cortex 21(5), 1134–1146 (2011).
[PubMed]

Cherkassky, V. L.

V. L. Cherkassky, R. K. Kana, T. A. Keller, and M. A. Just, “Functional connectivity in a baseline resting-state network in autism,” Neuroreport 17(16), 1687–1690 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coffing, M.

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Toddler Module: A new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, A. L.

B. R. White, A. Z. Snyder, A. L. Cohen, S. E. Petersen, M. E. Raichle, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Resting-state functional connectivity in the human brain revealed with diffuse optical tomography,” Neuroimage 47(1), 148–156 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, E. H.

C. Lord, S. Risi, L. Lambrecht, E. H. Cook, B. L. Leventhal, P. C. DiLavore, A. Pickles, and M. Rutter, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30(3), 205–223 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooperrider, J. R.

J. S. Anderson, T. J. Druzgal, A. Froehlich, M. B. DuBray, N. Lange, A. L. Alexander, T. Abildskov, J. A. Nielsen, A. N. Cariello, J. R. Cooperrider, E. D. Bigler, and J. E. Lainhart, “Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism,” Cereb. Cortex 21(5), 1134–1146 (2011).
[PubMed]

Cornew, L.

L. Cornew, T. P. L. Roberts, L. Blaskey, and J. C. Edgar, “Resting-state oscillatory activity in autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 42(9), 1884–1894 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cortes, C.

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn. 20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[Crossref]

Courchesne, E.

I. Dinstein, K. Pierce, L. Eyler, S. Solso, R. Malach, M. Behrmann, and E. Courchesne, “Disrupted neural synchronization in toddlers with autism,” Neuron 70(6), 1218–1225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, R. W.

J. A. Frost, J. R. Binder, J. A. Springer, T. A. Hammeke, P. S. F. Bellgowan, S. M. Rao, and R. W. Cox, “Language processing is strongly left lateralized in both sexes. Evidence from functional MRI,” Brain 122(2), 199–208 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

B. R. White, A. Z. Snyder, A. L. Cohen, S. E. Petersen, M. E. Raichle, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Resting-state functional connectivity in the human brain revealed with diffuse optical tomography,” Neuroimage 47(1), 148–156 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Cock, P.

J. S. Verhoeven, P. De Cock, L. Lagae, and S. Sunaert, “Neuroimaging of autism,” Neuroradiology 52(1), 3–14 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

deGrauw, X.

J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiLavore, P. C.

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J. S. Anderson, T. J. Druzgal, A. Froehlich, M. B. DuBray, N. Lange, A. L. Alexander, T. Abildskov, J. A. Nielsen, A. N. Cariello, J. R. Cooperrider, E. D. Bigler, and J. E. Lainhart, “Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism,” Cereb. Cortex 21(5), 1134–1146 (2011).
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N. Lange, M. B. Dubray, J. E. Lee, M. P. Froimowitz, A. Froehlich, N. Adluru, B. Wright, C. Ravichandran, P. T. Fletcher, E. D. Bigler, A. L. Alexander, and J. E. Lainhart, “Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism,” Autism Res. 3(6), 350–358 (2010).
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M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
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J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
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J. S. Anderson, T. J. Druzgal, A. Froehlich, M. B. DuBray, N. Lange, A. L. Alexander, T. Abildskov, J. A. Nielsen, A. N. Cariello, J. R. Cooperrider, E. D. Bigler, and J. E. Lainhart, “Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism,” Cereb. Cortex 21(5), 1134–1146 (2011).
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N. Lange, M. B. Dubray, J. E. Lee, M. P. Froimowitz, A. Froehlich, N. Adluru, B. Wright, C. Ravichandran, P. T. Fletcher, E. D. Bigler, A. L. Alexander, and J. E. Lainhart, “Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism,” Autism Res. 3(6), 350–358 (2010).
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C. Lord, S. Risi, L. Lambrecht, E. H. Cook, B. L. Leventhal, P. C. DiLavore, A. Pickles, and M. Rutter, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30(3), 205–223 (2000).
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J. S. Anderson, T. J. Druzgal, A. Froehlich, M. B. DuBray, N. Lange, A. L. Alexander, T. Abildskov, J. A. Nielsen, A. N. Cariello, J. R. Cooperrider, E. D. Bigler, and J. E. Lainhart, “Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism,” Cereb. Cortex 21(5), 1134–1146 (2011).
[PubMed]

N. Lange, M. B. Dubray, J. E. Lee, M. P. Froimowitz, A. Froehlich, N. Adluru, B. Wright, C. Ravichandran, P. T. Fletcher, E. D. Bigler, A. L. Alexander, and J. E. Lainhart, “Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism,” Autism Res. 3(6), 350–358 (2010).
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J. D. Power, A. Mitra, T. O. Laumann, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Methods to detect, characterize, and remove motion artifact in resting state fMRI,” Neuroimage 84, 320–341 (2014).
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Lee, J. E.

N. Lange, M. B. Dubray, J. E. Lee, M. P. Froimowitz, A. Froehlich, N. Adluru, B. Wright, C. Ravichandran, P. T. Fletcher, E. D. Bigler, A. L. Alexander, and J. E. Lainhart, “Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism,” Autism Res. 3(6), 350–358 (2010).
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J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
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C. Lord, S. Risi, L. Lambrecht, E. H. Cook, B. L. Leventhal, P. C. DiLavore, A. Pickles, and M. Rutter, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30(3), 205–223 (2000).
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Li, X.

Lord, C.

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Toddler Module: A new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
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C. Lord, S. Risi, L. Lambrecht, E. H. Cook, B. L. Leventhal, P. C. DiLavore, A. Pickles, and M. Rutter, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30(3), 205–223 (2000).
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H. Lu, Y. Zuo, H. Gu, J. A. Waltz, W. Zhan, C. A. Scholl, W. Rea, Y. Yang, and E. A. Stein, “Synchronized delta oscillations correlate with the resting-state functional MRI signal,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(46), 18265–18269 (2007).
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R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Toddler Module: A new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
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I. Dinstein, K. Pierce, L. Eyler, S. Solso, R. Malach, M. Behrmann, and E. Courchesne, “Disrupted neural synchronization in toddlers with autism,” Neuron 70(6), 1218–1225 (2011).
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J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
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Minabe, Y.

M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
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J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
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J. D. Power, A. Mitra, T. O. Laumann, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Methods to detect, characterize, and remove motion artifact in resting state fMRI,” Neuroimage 84, 320–341 (2014).
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Molloy, C.

J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
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M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
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J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
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J. S. Anderson, T. J. Druzgal, A. Froehlich, M. B. DuBray, N. Lange, A. L. Alexander, T. Abildskov, J. A. Nielsen, A. N. Cariello, J. R. Cooperrider, E. D. Bigler, and J. E. Lainhart, “Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism,” Cereb. Cortex 21(5), 1134–1146 (2011).
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M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
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M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
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A. Hyvärinen and E. Oja, “Independent Component Analysis: Algorithms and Applications,” Neural Netw. 13(4-5), 411–430 (2000).
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M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
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R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Toddler Module: A new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
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J. M. Tyszka, D. P. Kennedy, L. K. Paul, and R. Adolphs, “Largely typical patterns of resting-state functional connectivity in high-functioning adults with autism,” Cereb. Cortex 24(7), 1894–1905 (2014).
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Petersen, S. E.

J. D. Power, A. Mitra, T. O. Laumann, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Methods to detect, characterize, and remove motion artifact in resting state fMRI,” Neuroimage 84, 320–341 (2014).
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J. D. Power, K. A. Barnes, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion,” Neuroimage 59(3), 2142–2154 (2012).
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Pickles, A.

C. Lord, S. Risi, L. Lambrecht, E. H. Cook, B. L. Leventhal, P. C. DiLavore, A. Pickles, and M. Rutter, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30(3), 205–223 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, K.

I. Dinstein, K. Pierce, L. Eyler, S. Solso, R. Malach, M. Behrmann, and E. Courchesne, “Disrupted neural synchronization in toddlers with autism,” Neuron 70(6), 1218–1225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Toddler Module: A new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Power, J. D.

J. D. Power, A. Mitra, T. O. Laumann, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Methods to detect, characterize, and remove motion artifact in resting state fMRI,” Neuroimage 84, 320–341 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Power, K. A. Barnes, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion,” Neuroimage 59(3), 2142–2154 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, L.

Quaresima, V.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raichle, M. E.

B. R. White, A. Z. Snyder, A. L. Cohen, S. E. Petersen, M. E. Raichle, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Resting-state functional connectivity in the human brain revealed with diffuse optical tomography,” Neuroimage 47(1), 148–156 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, S. M.

J. A. Frost, J. R. Binder, J. A. Springer, T. A. Hammeke, P. S. F. Bellgowan, S. M. Rao, and R. W. Cox, “Language processing is strongly left lateralized in both sexes. Evidence from functional MRI,” Brain 122(2), 199–208 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ravichandran, C.

N. Lange, M. B. Dubray, J. E. Lee, M. P. Froimowitz, A. Froehlich, N. Adluru, B. Wright, C. Ravichandran, P. T. Fletcher, E. D. Bigler, A. L. Alexander, and J. E. Lainhart, “Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism,” Autism Res. 3(6), 350–358 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rea, W.

H. Lu, Y. Zuo, H. Gu, J. A. Waltz, W. Zhan, C. A. Scholl, W. Rea, Y. Yang, and E. A. Stein, “Synchronized delta oscillations correlate with the resting-state functional MRI signal,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(46), 18265–18269 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Remijn, G. B.

M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richler, J.

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Toddler Module: A new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Risi, S.

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Toddler Module: A new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lord, S. Risi, L. Lambrecht, E. H. Cook, B. L. Leventhal, P. C. DiLavore, A. Pickles, and M. Rutter, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30(3), 205–223 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, T. P. L.

L. Cornew, T. P. L. Roberts, L. Blaskey, and J. C. Edgar, “Resting-state oscillatory activity in autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 42(9), 1884–1894 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rose, D. F.

J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rutter, M.

C. Lord, S. Risi, L. Lambrecht, E. H. Cook, B. L. Leventhal, P. C. DiLavore, A. Pickles, and M. Rutter, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30(3), 205–223 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlaggar, B. L.

J. D. Power, A. Mitra, T. O. Laumann, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Methods to detect, characterize, and remove motion artifact in resting state fMRI,” Neuroimage 84, 320–341 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Power, K. A. Barnes, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion,” Neuroimage 59(3), 2142–2154 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, A. Z. Snyder, A. L. Cohen, S. E. Petersen, M. E. Raichle, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Resting-state functional connectivity in the human brain revealed with diffuse optical tomography,” Neuroimage 47(1), 148–156 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, H. D.

G. Lai, H. D. Schneider, J. C. Schwarzenberger, and J. Hirsch, “Speech stimulation during functional MR imaging as a potential indicator of autism,” Radiology 260(2), 521–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholl, C. A.

H. Lu, Y. Zuo, H. Gu, J. A. Waltz, W. Zhan, C. A. Scholl, W. Rea, Y. Yang, and E. A. Stein, “Synchronized delta oscillations correlate with the resting-state functional MRI signal,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(46), 18265–18269 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarzenberger, J. C.

G. Lai, H. D. Schneider, J. C. Schwarzenberger, and J. Hirsch, “Speech stimulation during functional MR imaging as a potential indicator of autism,” Radiology 260(2), 521–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shitamichi, K.

M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegelmann, H. T.

A. Ben-Hur, D. Horn, H. T. Siegelmann, and V. Vapnik, “Support vector clustering,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 2, 125–137 (2002).

Snyder, A. Z.

J. D. Power, A. Mitra, T. O. Laumann, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Methods to detect, characterize, and remove motion artifact in resting state fMRI,” Neuroimage 84, 320–341 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Power, K. A. Barnes, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion,” Neuroimage 59(3), 2142–2154 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, A. Z. Snyder, A. L. Cohen, S. E. Petersen, M. E. Raichle, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Resting-state functional connectivity in the human brain revealed with diffuse optical tomography,” Neuroimage 47(1), 148–156 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solso, S.

I. Dinstein, K. Pierce, L. Eyler, S. Solso, R. Malach, M. Behrmann, and E. Courchesne, “Disrupted neural synchronization in toddlers with autism,” Neuron 70(6), 1218–1225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Springer, J. A.

J. A. Frost, J. R. Binder, J. A. Springer, T. A. Hammeke, P. S. F. Bellgowan, S. M. Rao, and R. W. Cox, “Language processing is strongly left lateralized in both sexes. Evidence from functional MRI,” Brain 122(2), 199–208 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stein, E. A.

H. Lu, Y. Zuo, H. Gu, J. A. Waltz, W. Zhan, C. A. Scholl, W. Rea, Y. Yang, and E. A. Stein, “Synchronized delta oscillations correlate with the resting-state functional MRI signal,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(46), 18265–18269 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sunaert, S.

J. S. Verhoeven, P. De Cock, L. Lagae, and S. Sunaert, “Neuroimaging of autism,” Neuroradiology 52(1), 3–14 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, M.

M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, T.

M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toronov, V. Y.

V. Y. Toronov, X. Zhang, and A. G. Webb, “A spatial and temporal comparison of hemodynamic signals measured using optical and functional magnetic resonance imaging during activation in the human primary visual cortex,” Neuroimage 34(3), 1136–1148 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsubokawa, T.

M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tyszka, J. M.

J. M. Tyszka, D. P. Kennedy, L. K. Paul, and R. Adolphs, “Largely typical patterns of resting-state functional connectivity in high-functioning adults with autism,” Cereb. Cortex 24(7), 1894–1905 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ueno, S.

M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vapnik, V.

A. Ben-Hur, D. Horn, H. T. Siegelmann, and V. Vapnik, “Support vector clustering,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 2, 125–137 (2002).

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn. 20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[Crossref]

Verhoeven, J. S.

J. S. Verhoeven, P. De Cock, L. Lagae, and S. Sunaert, “Neuroimaging of autism,” Neuroradiology 52(1), 3–14 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waltz, J. A.

H. Lu, Y. Zuo, H. Gu, J. A. Waltz, W. Zhan, C. A. Scholl, W. Rea, Y. Yang, and E. A. Stein, “Synchronized delta oscillations correlate with the resting-state functional MRI signal,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(46), 18265–18269 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, A. G.

V. Y. Toronov, X. Zhang, and A. G. Webb, “A spatial and temporal comparison of hemodynamic signals measured using optical and functional magnetic resonance imaging during activation in the human primary visual cortex,” Neuroimage 34(3), 1136–1148 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, B. R.

B. R. White, A. Z. Snyder, A. L. Cohen, S. E. Petersen, M. E. Raichle, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Resting-state functional connectivity in the human brain revealed with diffuse optical tomography,” Neuroimage 47(1), 148–156 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, B.

N. Lange, M. B. Dubray, J. E. Lee, M. P. Froimowitz, A. Froehlich, N. Adluru, B. Wright, C. Ravichandran, P. T. Fletcher, E. D. Bigler, A. L. Alexander, and J. E. Lainhart, “Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism,” Autism Res. 3(6), 350–358 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, J.

J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

H. Lu, Y. Zuo, H. Gu, J. A. Waltz, W. Zhan, C. A. Scholl, W. Rea, Y. Yang, and E. A. Stein, “Synchronized delta oscillations correlate with the resting-state functional MRI signal,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(46), 18265–18269 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshimura, Y.

M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhan, W.

H. Lu, Y. Zuo, H. Gu, J. A. Waltz, W. Zhan, C. A. Scholl, W. Rea, Y. Yang, and E. A. Stein, “Synchronized delta oscillations correlate with the resting-state functional MRI signal,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(46), 18265–18269 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

V. Y. Toronov, X. Zhang, and A. G. Webb, “A spatial and temporal comparison of hemodynamic signals measured using optical and functional magnetic resonance imaging during activation in the human primary visual cortex,” Neuroimage 34(3), 1136–1148 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. J.

L. Duan, Y. J. Zhang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Quantitative comparison of resting-state functional connectivity derived from fNIRS and fMRI: A simultaneous recording study,” Neuroimage 60(4), 2008–2018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, C. Z.

L. Duan, Y. J. Zhang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Quantitative comparison of resting-state functional connectivity derived from fNIRS and fMRI: A simultaneous recording study,” Neuroimage 60(4), 2008–2018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

Zuo, Y.

H. Lu, Y. Zuo, H. Gu, J. A. Waltz, W. Zhan, C. A. Scholl, W. Rea, Y. Yang, and E. A. Stein, “Synchronized delta oscillations correlate with the resting-state functional MRI signal,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(46), 18265–18269 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Autism Res. (1)

N. Lange, M. B. Dubray, J. E. Lee, M. P. Froimowitz, A. Froehlich, N. Adluru, B. Wright, C. Ravichandran, P. T. Fletcher, E. D. Bigler, A. L. Alexander, and J. E. Lainhart, “Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism,” Autism Res. 3(6), 350–358 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Brain (1)

J. A. Frost, J. R. Binder, J. A. Springer, T. A. Hammeke, P. S. F. Bellgowan, S. M. Rao, and R. W. Cox, “Language processing is strongly left lateralized in both sexes. Evidence from functional MRI,” Brain 122(2), 199–208 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brain Dev. (1)

J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cereb. Cortex (2)

J. M. Tyszka, D. P. Kennedy, L. K. Paul, and R. Adolphs, “Largely typical patterns of resting-state functional connectivity in high-functioning adults with autism,” Cereb. Cortex 24(7), 1894–1905 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Anderson, T. J. Druzgal, A. Froehlich, M. B. DuBray, N. Lange, A. L. Alexander, T. Abildskov, J. A. Nielsen, A. N. Cariello, J. R. Cooperrider, E. D. Bigler, and J. E. Lainhart, “Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism,” Cereb. Cortex 21(5), 1134–1146 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Autism Dev. Disord. (3)

C. Lord, S. Risi, L. Lambrecht, E. H. Cook, B. L. Leventhal, P. C. DiLavore, A. Pickles, and M. Rutter, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30(3), 205–223 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Toddler Module: A new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cornew, T. P. L. Roberts, L. Blaskey, and J. C. Edgar, “Resting-state oscillatory activity in autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 42(9), 1884–1894 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, “Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mach. Learn. Res. (1)

A. Ben-Hur, D. Horn, H. T. Siegelmann, and V. Vapnik, “Support vector clustering,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 2, 125–137 (2002).

Mach. Learn. (1)

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn. 20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

N. Lange, “Perspective: imaging autism,” Nature 491(7422), S17 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neural Netw. (1)

A. Hyvärinen and E. Oja, “Independent Component Analysis: Algorithms and Applications,” Neural Netw. 13(4-5), 411–430 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (5)

J. D. Power, K. A. Barnes, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion,” Neuroimage 59(3), 2142–2154 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Power, A. Mitra, T. O. Laumann, A. Z. Snyder, B. L. Schlaggar, and S. E. Petersen, “Methods to detect, characterize, and remove motion artifact in resting state fMRI,” Neuroimage 84, 320–341 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Duan, Y. J. Zhang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Quantitative comparison of resting-state functional connectivity derived from fNIRS and fMRI: A simultaneous recording study,” Neuroimage 60(4), 2008–2018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, A. Z. Snyder, A. L. Cohen, S. E. Petersen, M. E. Raichle, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Resting-state functional connectivity in the human brain revealed with diffuse optical tomography,” Neuroimage 47(1), 148–156 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Y. Toronov, X. Zhang, and A. G. Webb, “A spatial and temporal comparison of hemodynamic signals measured using optical and functional magnetic resonance imaging during activation in the human primary visual cortex,” Neuroimage 34(3), 1136–1148 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuron (1)

I. Dinstein, K. Pierce, L. Eyler, S. Solso, R. Malach, M. Behrmann, and E. Courchesne, “Disrupted neural synchronization in toddlers with autism,” Neuron 70(6), 1218–1225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuroradiology (1)

J. S. Verhoeven, P. De Cock, L. Lagae, and S. Sunaert, “Neuroimaging of autism,” Neuroradiology 52(1), 3–14 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuroreport (1)

V. L. Cherkassky, R. K. Kana, T. A. Keller, and M. A. Just, “Functional connectivity in a baseline resting-state network in autism,” Neuroreport 17(16), 1687–1690 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS One (1)

M. Kikuchi, Y. Yoshimura, K. Shitamichi, S. Ueno, H. Hiraishi, T. Munesue, T. Hirosawa, Y. Ono, T. Tsubokawa, Y. Inoue, M. Oi, Y. Niida, G. B. Remijn, T. Takahashi, M. Suzuki, H. Higashida, and Y. Minabe, “Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder,” PLoS One 8(2), e56087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

H. Lu, Y. Zuo, H. Gu, J. A. Waltz, W. Zhan, C. A. Scholl, W. Rea, Y. Yang, and E. A. Stein, “Synchronized delta oscillations correlate with the resting-state functional MRI signal,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(46), 18265–18269 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

G. Lai, H. D. Schneider, J. C. Schwarzenberger, and J. Hirsch, “Speech stimulation during functional MR imaging as a potential indicator of autism,” Radiology 260(2), 521–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

American Psychiatry Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR® (American Psychiatric Pub, 2000).

J. Raven and J. Court, “Raven manual: Section 3,” in Standard Progressive Matrices (Oxford Psychologists Press 1998).

American Psychiatry Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed.: DSM-5® (Washington D.C., American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the brain showing the location of each measurement channel.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Raw time traces of HbO2 (a) and those after the band-pass filter and further after the ICA (b) of two neighboring channels (Ch4 and 5) from a subject. The black traces are signals only after the filter, while the red traces are those further after the ICA.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 False color maps of the correlation matrices for TD (a) and ASD (b). Each number (1-24) in x- or y-axis denotes the numbering of optical channels. Color bar indicates the value of Pearson correlation coefficient.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Correlation maps of HbO2 and Hb for TD and ASD children. Three seeds locating at the left superior (Ch4), middle (Ch6) and inferior (Ch8) gyrus were selected for generating correlation maps. The seed region can be visually recognized by the maximal color value in each map. The mapping area in each hemisphere was about 6 cm × 6 cm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Correlation coefficients of HbO2 and Hb for each channel pair located symmetrically on the left and right TL. The digit pair in the parenthesis indicates the corresponding channel pair, e.g., r(1,14) is the temporal correlation coefficient between channel 1 and 14. The symbol of asterisk indicates the difference between ASD and TD is statistically significant (p<0.05 after FDR correction). The error bar is the standard error of mean. The top 5 channel pairs with the smallest p values are (3, 17), (11, 24), (10,20), (8, 22) and (9, 21).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Group (ASD vs. TD) average of signal power of HbO2 and Hb for each channel. For all channels except for channel 12 and 20 of Hb, ASD show significantly larger than TD in the signal power (p<0.05 after FDR correction). The error bar is the standard error of mean. The top 4 channels with the smallest p value are 6, 8, 3, 22 for HbO2, and 8, 6, 19, 14 for Hb.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 A representative time trace and power spectra of HbO2 and Hb for TD and ASD. Data were taken from Ch 5.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Relative variance of HbO2 and Hb for each subject of the two groups (ASD and TD). This variance (for either HbO2 or Hb) shows no significant difference (p>0.05) between the two groups.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Differentiation with various component combinations in the SVM model

Metrics