Abstract

Photovoltaic restoration of sight requires intense near-infrared light to effectively stimulate retinal neurons. We assess the retinal safety of such radiation with and without the retinal implant. Retinal damage threshold was determined in pigmented rabbits exposed to 880nm laser radiation. The 50% probability (ED50) of retinal damage during 100s exposures with 1.2mm diameter beam occurred at 175mW, corresponding to a modeled temperature rise of 12.5°C. With the implant, the same temperature was reached at 78mW, close to the experimental ED50 of 71mW. In typical use conditions, the retinal temperature rise is not expected to exceed 0.43°C, well within the safety limits for chronic use.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual perception elicited by electrical stimulation of retina in blind humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The artificial silicon retina microchip for the treatment of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
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  7. Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C. Sramek, Y. Paulus, H. Nomoto, P. Huie, J. Brown, and D. Palanker, “Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and rupture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034007 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. L. Jacques, R. D. Glickman, and J. A. Schwartz, “Internal absorption coefficient and threshold for pulsed laser disruption of melanosomes isolated from retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 2681, 468–477 (1996).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. J. Welch and G. D. Polhamus, “Measurement and prediction of thermal injury in the retina of the rhesus monkey,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 31(10), 633–644 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. A. Mainster and E. Reichel, “Transpupillary thermotherapy for age-related macular degeneration: long-pulse photocoagulation, apoptosis, and heat shock proteins,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31(5), 359–373 (2000).
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  19. A. Jain, M. S. Blumenkranz, Y. Paulus, M. W. Wiltberger, D. E. Andersen, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Effect of pulse duration on size and character of the lesion in retinal photocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 78–85 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. Lavinsky, J. A. Cardillo, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, L. A. Melo, M. E. Farah, R. Belfort, and D. Palanker, “Restoration of retinal morphology and residual scarring after photocoagulation,” Acta Ophthalmol. 91(4), e315–e323 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27(2), 145–152 (1986).
    [PubMed]
  22. F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1250–1265 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, Y. Mandel, X. Lei, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, R. Dalal, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration,” Vision Res. 111, 142–148 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

S. Koinzer, C. Hesse, A. Caliebe, M. Saeger, A. Baade, K. Schlott, R. Brinkmann, and J. Roider, “Photocoagulation in rabbits: optical coherence tomographic lesion classification, wound healing reaction, and retinal temperatures,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 427–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lavinsky, J. A. Cardillo, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, L. A. Melo, M. E. Farah, R. Belfort, and D. Palanker, “Restoration of retinal morphology and residual scarring after photocoagulation,” Acta Ophthalmol. 91(4), e315–e323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, C. Sramek, Y. M. Paulus, D. Lavinsky, G. Schuele, D. Anderson, D. Dewey, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near-infrared lasers in cataract surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 095001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L. S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31(2), 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. Sramek, Y. Paulus, H. Nomoto, P. Huie, J. Brown, and D. Palanker, “Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and rupture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034007 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. Jain, M. S. Blumenkranz, Y. Paulus, M. W. Wiltberger, D. E. Andersen, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Effect of pulse duration on size and character of the lesion in retinal photocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 78–85 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The artificial silicon retina microchip for the treatment of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. A. Peyman, M. Genaidy, S. Yoneya, G. Men, F. Ghahramani, P. C. Kuo, Y. Bezerra, Y. Nishiyama-Ito, and A. A. Moshfeghi, “Transpupillary thermotherapy threshold parameters: effect of indocyanine green pretreatment,” Retina 23(3), 378–386 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. A. Mainster and E. Reichel, “Transpupillary thermotherapy for age-related macular degeneration: long-pulse photocoagulation, apoptosis, and heat shock proteins,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31(5), 359–373 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

E. Zrenner, A. Stett, S. Weiss, R. B. Aramant, E. Guenther, K. Kohler, K. D. Miliczek, M. J. Seiler, and H. Haemmerle, “Can subretinal microphotodiodes successfully replace degenerated photoreceptors?” Vision Res. 39(15), 2555–2567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual perception elicited by electrical stimulation of retina in blind humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, R. D. Glickman, and J. A. Schwartz, “Internal absorption coefficient and threshold for pulsed laser disruption of melanosomes isolated from retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 2681, 468–477 (1996).

1986 (1)

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27(2), 145–152 (1986).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

A. J. Welch and G. D. Polhamus, “Measurement and prediction of thermal injury in the retina of the rhesus monkey,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 31(10), 633–644 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

Andersen, D.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L. S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31(2), 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, D. E.

A. Jain, M. S. Blumenkranz, Y. Paulus, M. W. Wiltberger, D. E. Andersen, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Effect of pulse duration on size and character of the lesion in retinal photocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 78–85 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, D.

J. Wang, C. Sramek, Y. M. Paulus, D. Lavinsky, G. Schuele, D. Anderson, D. Dewey, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near-infrared lasers in cataract surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 095001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aramant, R. B.

E. Zrenner, A. Stett, S. Weiss, R. B. Aramant, E. Guenther, K. Kohler, K. D. Miliczek, M. J. Seiler, and H. Haemmerle, “Can subretinal microphotodiodes successfully replace degenerated photoreceptors?” Vision Res. 39(15), 2555–2567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baade, A.

S. Koinzer, C. Hesse, A. Caliebe, M. Saeger, A. Baade, K. Schlott, R. Brinkmann, and J. Roider, “Photocoagulation in rabbits: optical coherence tomographic lesion classification, wound healing reaction, and retinal temperatures,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 427–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belfort, R.

D. Lavinsky, J. A. Cardillo, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, L. A. Melo, M. E. Farah, R. Belfort, and D. Palanker, “Restoration of retinal morphology and residual scarring after photocoagulation,” Acta Ophthalmol. 91(4), e315–e323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bezerra, Y.

G. A. Peyman, M. Genaidy, S. Yoneya, G. Men, F. Ghahramani, P. C. Kuo, Y. Bezerra, Y. Nishiyama-Ito, and A. A. Moshfeghi, “Transpupillary thermotherapy threshold parameters: effect of indocyanine green pretreatment,” Retina 23(3), 378–386 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blumenkranz, M. S.

A. Jain, M. S. Blumenkranz, Y. Paulus, M. W. Wiltberger, D. E. Andersen, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Effect of pulse duration on size and character of the lesion in retinal photocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 78–85 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brinkmann, R.

S. Koinzer, C. Hesse, A. Caliebe, M. Saeger, A. Baade, K. Schlott, R. Brinkmann, and J. Roider, “Photocoagulation in rabbits: optical coherence tomographic lesion classification, wound healing reaction, and retinal temperatures,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 427–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, J.

C. Sramek, Y. Paulus, H. Nomoto, P. Huie, J. Brown, and D. Palanker, “Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and rupture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034007 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caliebe, A.

S. Koinzer, C. Hesse, A. Caliebe, M. Saeger, A. Baade, K. Schlott, R. Brinkmann, and J. Roider, “Photocoagulation in rabbits: optical coherence tomographic lesion classification, wound healing reaction, and retinal temperatures,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 427–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardillo, J. A.

D. Lavinsky, J. A. Cardillo, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, L. A. Melo, M. E. Farah, R. Belfort, and D. Palanker, “Restoration of retinal morphology and residual scarring after photocoagulation,” Acta Ophthalmol. 91(4), e315–e323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chow, A. Y.

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The artificial silicon retina microchip for the treatment of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chow, V. Y.

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The artificial silicon retina microchip for the treatment of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dagnelie, G.

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual perception elicited by electrical stimulation of retina in blind humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalal, R.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, Y. Mandel, X. Lei, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, R. Dalal, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration,” Vision Res. 111, 142–148 (2014).
[PubMed]

de Juan, E.

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual perception elicited by electrical stimulation of retina in blind humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1250–1265 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27(2), 145–152 (1986).
[PubMed]

Dewey, D.

J. Wang, C. Sramek, Y. M. Paulus, D. Lavinsky, G. Schuele, D. Anderson, D. Dewey, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near-infrared lasers in cataract surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 095001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elsner, H.

J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farah, M. E.

D. Lavinsky, J. A. Cardillo, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, L. A. Melo, M. E. Farah, R. Belfort, and D. Palanker, “Restoration of retinal morphology and residual scarring after photocoagulation,” Acta Ophthalmol. 91(4), e315–e323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitch, K. A.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27(2), 145–152 (1986).
[PubMed]

Galambos, L.

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gariano, R. F.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L. S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31(2), 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genaidy, M.

G. A. Peyman, M. Genaidy, S. Yoneya, G. Men, F. Ghahramani, P. C. Kuo, Y. Bezerra, Y. Nishiyama-Ito, and A. A. Moshfeghi, “Transpupillary thermotherapy threshold parameters: effect of indocyanine green pretreatment,” Retina 23(3), 378–386 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghahramani, F.

G. A. Peyman, M. Genaidy, S. Yoneya, G. Men, F. Ghahramani, P. C. Kuo, Y. Bezerra, Y. Nishiyama-Ito, and A. A. Moshfeghi, “Transpupillary thermotherapy threshold parameters: effect of indocyanine green pretreatment,” Retina 23(3), 378–386 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glickman, R. D.

S. L. Jacques, R. D. Glickman, and J. A. Schwartz, “Internal absorption coefficient and threshold for pulsed laser disruption of melanosomes isolated from retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 2681, 468–477 (1996).

Goetz, G.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, Y. Mandel, X. Lei, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, R. Dalal, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration,” Vision Res. 111, 142–148 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenberg, R. J.

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual perception elicited by electrical stimulation of retina in blind humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guenther, E.

E. Zrenner, A. Stett, S. Weiss, R. B. Aramant, E. Guenther, K. Kohler, K. D. Miliczek, M. J. Seiler, and H. Haemmerle, “Can subretinal microphotodiodes successfully replace degenerated photoreceptors?” Vision Res. 39(15), 2555–2567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haemmerle, H.

E. Zrenner, A. Stett, S. Weiss, R. B. Aramant, E. Guenther, K. Kohler, K. D. Miliczek, M. J. Seiler, and H. Haemmerle, “Can subretinal microphotodiodes successfully replace degenerated photoreceptors?” Vision Res. 39(15), 2555–2567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hale, G. M.

Harris, J.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, J. S.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, Y. Mandel, X. Lei, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, R. Dalal, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration,” Vision Res. 111, 142–148 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hesse, C.

S. Koinzer, C. Hesse, A. Caliebe, M. Saeger, A. Baade, K. Schlott, R. Brinkmann, and J. Roider, “Photocoagulation in rabbits: optical coherence tomographic lesion classification, wound healing reaction, and retinal temperatures,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 427–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huie, P.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, Y. Mandel, X. Lei, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, R. Dalal, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration,” Vision Res. 111, 142–148 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Lavinsky, J. A. Cardillo, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, L. A. Melo, M. E. Farah, R. Belfort, and D. Palanker, “Restoration of retinal morphology and residual scarring after photocoagulation,” Acta Ophthalmol. 91(4), e315–e323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sramek, Y. Paulus, H. Nomoto, P. Huie, J. Brown, and D. Palanker, “Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and rupture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034007 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jain, M. S. Blumenkranz, Y. Paulus, M. W. Wiltberger, D. E. Andersen, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Effect of pulse duration on size and character of the lesion in retinal photocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 78–85 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Humayun, M. S.

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual perception elicited by electrical stimulation of retina in blind humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, R. D. Glickman, and J. A. Schwartz, “Internal absorption coefficient and threshold for pulsed laser disruption of melanosomes isolated from retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 2681, 468–477 (1996).

Jain, A.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L. S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31(2), 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jain, M. S. Blumenkranz, Y. Paulus, M. W. Wiltberger, D. E. Andersen, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Effect of pulse duration on size and character of the lesion in retinal photocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 78–85 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamins, T.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamins, T. I.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, Y. Mandel, X. Lei, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, R. Dalal, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration,” Vision Res. 111, 142–148 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kandulla, J.

J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohler, K.

E. Zrenner, A. Stett, S. Weiss, R. B. Aramant, E. Guenther, K. Kohler, K. D. Miliczek, M. J. Seiler, and H. Haemmerle, “Can subretinal microphotodiodes successfully replace degenerated photoreceptors?” Vision Res. 39(15), 2555–2567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koinzer, S.

S. Koinzer, C. Hesse, A. Caliebe, M. Saeger, A. Baade, K. Schlott, R. Brinkmann, and J. Roider, “Photocoagulation in rabbits: optical coherence tomographic lesion classification, wound healing reaction, and retinal temperatures,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 427–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, P. C.

G. A. Peyman, M. Genaidy, S. Yoneya, G. Men, F. Ghahramani, P. C. Kuo, Y. Bezerra, Y. Nishiyama-Ito, and A. A. Moshfeghi, “Transpupillary thermotherapy threshold parameters: effect of indocyanine green pretreatment,” Retina 23(3), 378–386 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavinsky, D.

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lavinsky, J. A. Cardillo, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, L. A. Melo, M. E. Farah, R. Belfort, and D. Palanker, “Restoration of retinal morphology and residual scarring after photocoagulation,” Acta Ophthalmol. 91(4), e315–e323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, C. Sramek, Y. M. Paulus, D. Lavinsky, G. Schuele, D. Anderson, D. Dewey, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near-infrared lasers in cataract surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 095001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, X.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, Y. Mandel, X. Lei, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, R. Dalal, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration,” Vision Res. 111, 142–148 (2014).
[PubMed]

Leng, T.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L. S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31(2), 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leung, L. S.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L. S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31(2), 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorach, H.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, Y. Mandel, X. Lei, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, R. Dalal, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration,” Vision Res. 111, 142–148 (2014).
[PubMed]

Loudin, J.

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loudin, J. D.

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mainster, M. A.

M. A. Mainster and E. Reichel, “Transpupillary thermotherapy for age-related macular degeneration: long-pulse photocoagulation, apoptosis, and heat shock proteins,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31(5), 359–373 (2000).
[PubMed]

Mandel, Y.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, Y. Mandel, X. Lei, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, R. Dalal, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration,” Vision Res. 111, 142–148 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Lavinsky, J. A. Cardillo, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, L. A. Melo, M. E. Farah, R. Belfort, and D. Palanker, “Restoration of retinal morphology and residual scarring after photocoagulation,” Acta Ophthalmol. 91(4), e315–e323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manivanh, R.

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathieson, K.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, Y. Mandel, X. Lei, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, R. Dalal, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration,” Vision Res. 111, 142–148 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melo, L. A.

D. Lavinsky, J. A. Cardillo, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, L. A. Melo, M. E. Farah, R. Belfort, and D. Palanker, “Restoration of retinal morphology and residual scarring after photocoagulation,” Acta Ophthalmol. 91(4), e315–e323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Men, G.

G. A. Peyman, M. Genaidy, S. Yoneya, G. Men, F. Ghahramani, P. C. Kuo, Y. Bezerra, Y. Nishiyama-Ito, and A. A. Moshfeghi, “Transpupillary thermotherapy threshold parameters: effect of indocyanine green pretreatment,” Retina 23(3), 378–386 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miliczek, K. D.

E. Zrenner, A. Stett, S. Weiss, R. B. Aramant, E. Guenther, K. Kohler, K. D. Miliczek, M. J. Seiler, and H. Haemmerle, “Can subretinal microphotodiodes successfully replace degenerated photoreceptors?” Vision Res. 39(15), 2555–2567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moshfeghi, A. A.

G. A. Peyman, M. Genaidy, S. Yoneya, G. Men, F. Ghahramani, P. C. Kuo, Y. Bezerra, Y. Nishiyama-Ito, and A. A. Moshfeghi, “Transpupillary thermotherapy threshold parameters: effect of indocyanine green pretreatment,” Retina 23(3), 378–386 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishiyama-Ito, Y.

G. A. Peyman, M. Genaidy, S. Yoneya, G. Men, F. Ghahramani, P. C. Kuo, Y. Bezerra, Y. Nishiyama-Ito, and A. A. Moshfeghi, “Transpupillary thermotherapy threshold parameters: effect of indocyanine green pretreatment,” Retina 23(3), 378–386 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nomoto, H.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L. S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31(2), 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sramek, Y. Paulus, H. Nomoto, P. Huie, J. Brown, and D. Palanker, “Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and rupture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034007 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Packo, K. H.

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The artificial silicon retina microchip for the treatment of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palanker, D.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, Y. Mandel, X. Lei, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, R. Dalal, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration,” Vision Res. 111, 142–148 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lavinsky, J. A. Cardillo, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, L. A. Melo, M. E. Farah, R. Belfort, and D. Palanker, “Restoration of retinal morphology and residual scarring after photocoagulation,” Acta Ophthalmol. 91(4), e315–e323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, C. Sramek, Y. M. Paulus, D. Lavinsky, G. Schuele, D. Anderson, D. Dewey, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near-infrared lasers in cataract surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 095001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L. S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31(2), 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sramek, Y. Paulus, H. Nomoto, P. Huie, J. Brown, and D. Palanker, “Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and rupture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034007 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jain, M. S. Blumenkranz, Y. Paulus, M. W. Wiltberger, D. E. Andersen, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Effect of pulse duration on size and character of the lesion in retinal photocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 78–85 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palanker, D. V.

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulus, Y.

C. Sramek, Y. Paulus, H. Nomoto, P. Huie, J. Brown, and D. Palanker, “Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and rupture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034007 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jain, M. S. Blumenkranz, Y. Paulus, M. W. Wiltberger, D. E. Andersen, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Effect of pulse duration on size and character of the lesion in retinal photocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 78–85 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulus, Y. M.

J. Wang, C. Sramek, Y. M. Paulus, D. Lavinsky, G. Schuele, D. Anderson, D. Dewey, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near-infrared lasers in cataract surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 095001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L. S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31(2), 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peyman, G. A.

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The artificial silicon retina microchip for the treatment of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Peyman, M. Genaidy, S. Yoneya, G. Men, F. Ghahramani, P. C. Kuo, Y. Bezerra, Y. Nishiyama-Ito, and A. A. Moshfeghi, “Transpupillary thermotherapy threshold parameters: effect of indocyanine green pretreatment,” Retina 23(3), 378–386 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, D. H.

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual perception elicited by electrical stimulation of retina in blind humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polhamus, G. D.

A. J. Welch and G. D. Polhamus, “Measurement and prediction of thermal injury in the retina of the rhesus monkey,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 31(10), 633–644 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pollack, J. S.

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The artificial silicon retina microchip for the treatment of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Propst, R. H.

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual perception elicited by electrical stimulation of retina in blind humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Querry, M. R.

Reichel, E.

M. A. Mainster and E. Reichel, “Transpupillary thermotherapy for age-related macular degeneration: long-pulse photocoagulation, apoptosis, and heat shock proteins,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31(5), 359–373 (2000).
[PubMed]

Roider, J.

S. Koinzer, C. Hesse, A. Caliebe, M. Saeger, A. Baade, K. Schlott, R. Brinkmann, and J. Roider, “Photocoagulation in rabbits: optical coherence tomographic lesion classification, wound healing reaction, and retinal temperatures,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 427–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saeger, M.

S. Koinzer, C. Hesse, A. Caliebe, M. Saeger, A. Baade, K. Schlott, R. Brinkmann, and J. Roider, “Photocoagulation in rabbits: optical coherence tomographic lesion classification, wound healing reaction, and retinal temperatures,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 427–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlott, K.

S. Koinzer, C. Hesse, A. Caliebe, M. Saeger, A. Baade, K. Schlott, R. Brinkmann, and J. Roider, “Photocoagulation in rabbits: optical coherence tomographic lesion classification, wound healing reaction, and retinal temperatures,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 427–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuchard, R.

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The artificial silicon retina microchip for the treatment of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuele, G.

J. Wang, C. Sramek, Y. M. Paulus, D. Lavinsky, G. Schuele, D. Anderson, D. Dewey, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near-infrared lasers in cataract surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 095001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L. S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31(2), 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, J. A.

S. L. Jacques, R. D. Glickman, and J. A. Schwartz, “Internal absorption coefficient and threshold for pulsed laser disruption of melanosomes isolated from retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 2681, 468–477 (1996).

Seiler, M. J.

E. Zrenner, A. Stett, S. Weiss, R. B. Aramant, E. Guenther, K. Kohler, K. D. Miliczek, M. J. Seiler, and H. Haemmerle, “Can subretinal microphotodiodes successfully replace degenerated photoreceptors?” Vision Res. 39(15), 2555–2567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sher, A.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sliney, D. H.

Smith, R.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sramek, C.

J. Wang, C. Sramek, Y. M. Paulus, D. Lavinsky, G. Schuele, D. Anderson, D. Dewey, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near-infrared lasers in cataract surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 095001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L. S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31(2), 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sramek, Y. Paulus, H. Nomoto, P. Huie, J. Brown, and D. Palanker, “Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and rupture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034007 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stett, A.

E. Zrenner, A. Stett, S. Weiss, R. B. Aramant, E. Guenther, K. Kohler, K. D. Miliczek, M. J. Seiler, and H. Haemmerle, “Can subretinal microphotodiodes successfully replace degenerated photoreceptors?” Vision Res. 39(15), 2555–2567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, C. Sramek, Y. M. Paulus, D. Lavinsky, G. Schuele, D. Anderson, D. Dewey, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near-infrared lasers in cataract surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 095001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Weiss, S.

E. Zrenner, A. Stett, S. Weiss, R. B. Aramant, E. Guenther, K. Kohler, K. D. Miliczek, M. J. Seiler, and H. Haemmerle, “Can subretinal microphotodiodes successfully replace degenerated photoreceptors?” Vision Res. 39(15), 2555–2567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiter, J. J.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27(2), 145–152 (1986).
[PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

A. J. Welch and G. D. Polhamus, “Measurement and prediction of thermal injury in the retina of the rhesus monkey,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 31(10), 633–644 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiltberger, M. W.

A. Jain, M. S. Blumenkranz, Y. Paulus, M. W. Wiltberger, D. E. Andersen, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Effect of pulse duration on size and character of the lesion in retinal photocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 78–85 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wing, G. L.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27(2), 145–152 (1986).
[PubMed]

Yoneya, S.

G. A. Peyman, M. Genaidy, S. Yoneya, G. Men, F. Ghahramani, P. C. Kuo, Y. Bezerra, Y. Nishiyama-Ito, and A. A. Moshfeghi, “Transpupillary thermotherapy threshold parameters: effect of indocyanine green pretreatment,” Retina 23(3), 378–386 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zrenner, E.

E. Zrenner, A. Stett, S. Weiss, R. B. Aramant, E. Guenther, K. Kohler, K. D. Miliczek, M. J. Seiler, and H. Haemmerle, “Can subretinal microphotodiodes successfully replace degenerated photoreceptors?” Vision Res. 39(15), 2555–2567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

D. Lavinsky, J. A. Cardillo, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, L. A. Melo, M. E. Farah, R. Belfort, and D. Palanker, “Restoration of retinal morphology and residual scarring after photocoagulation,” Acta Ophthalmol. 91(4), e315–e323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (3)

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual perception elicited by electrical stimulation of retina in blind humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The artificial silicon retina microchip for the treatment of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jain, M. S. Blumenkranz, Y. Paulus, M. W. Wiltberger, D. E. Andersen, P. Huie, and D. Palanker, “Effect of pulse duration on size and character of the lesion in retinal photocoagulation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 78–85 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

A. J. Welch and G. D. Polhamus, “Measurement and prediction of thermal injury in the retina of the rhesus monkey,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 31(10), 633–644 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27(2), 145–152 (1986).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sramek, Y. Paulus, H. Nomoto, P. Huie, J. Brown, and D. Palanker, “Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and rupture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034007 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, C. Sramek, Y. M. Paulus, D. Lavinsky, G. Schuele, D. Anderson, D. Dewey, and D. Palanker, “Retinal safety of near-infrared lasers in cataract surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 095001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neural Eng. (1)

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. Koinzer, C. Hesse, A. Caliebe, M. Saeger, A. Baade, K. Schlott, R. Brinkmann, and J. Roider, “Photocoagulation in rabbits: optical coherence tomographic lesion classification, wound healing reaction, and retinal temperatures,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 427–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Mandel, G. Goetz, D. Lavinsky, P. Huie, K. Mathieson, L. Wang, T. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Manivanh, J. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers (1)

M. A. Mainster and E. Reichel, “Transpupillary thermotherapy for age-related macular degeneration: long-pulse photocoagulation, apoptosis, and heat shock proteins,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31(5), 359–373 (2000).
[PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. L. Jacques, R. D. Glickman, and J. A. Schwartz, “Internal absorption coefficient and threshold for pulsed laser disruption of melanosomes isolated from retinal pigment epithelium,” Proc. SPIE 2681, 468–477 (1996).

Retina (2)

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L. S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31(2), 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Peyman, M. Genaidy, S. Yoneya, G. Men, F. Ghahramani, P. C. Kuo, Y. Bezerra, Y. Nishiyama-Ito, and A. A. Moshfeghi, “Transpupillary thermotherapy threshold parameters: effect of indocyanine green pretreatment,” Retina 23(3), 378–386 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, Y. Mandel, X. Lei, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, R. Dalal, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration,” Vision Res. 111, 142–148 (2014).
[PubMed]

E. Zrenner, A. Stett, S. Weiss, R. B. Aramant, E. Guenther, K. Kohler, K. D. Miliczek, M. J. Seiler, and H. Haemmerle, “Can subretinal microphotodiodes successfully replace degenerated photoreceptors?” Vision Res. 39(15), 2555–2567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Damage threshold determination in normal retina. A) NIR fundus of a rabbit retina 1 hour after irradiation with various intensities (1-6: 350-250-200-175-150-125mW). No lesions were visible at locations 5 and 6. B) OCT of the 350mW (1) and 250mW (2) lesions demonstrates severe retinal damage (whitening) and detachment. C) Mild retinal whitening in the 175mW lesion. No retinal changes were observed with OCT after the 150mW and 125mW exposures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Changes in avascular retina after implantation. OCT reveals changes in the retina above the implant starting at 2 hours after the implantation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Retinal damage above the implants after irradiation with increasing power. (A) Implanted retina before irradiation. (B) In the same retina, no damage can be seen at 60mW, but mild whitening is detectable at 90mW (C), pointed by the yellow arrow. (D) Severe damage and detachment occurs at 125mW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature rise in the retina. A) Spatial distribution of the temperature rise in the rabbit eye at the end of the 100s long irradiation. The temperature rise is maximum at RPE, and it rapidly drops with distance. Small absorption of the 880nm radiation in water results in slight elevation of temperature on the beam axis. B) Comparison of the thermal modeling to direct temperature measurements. Optoacoustic measurements of the RPE temperature rise during 810nm illumination by a 2mm wide beam of 129mW (dashed lines, OA1 and OA2) are plotted along the RPE temperature computed with our model using the same beam characteristics (blue curve). Experimental data replotted from (Kandulla, Elsner et al. 2006) with permission. C) Temperature rise as a function of power (dash line) plotted along with the probability of retinal damage (solid line) for the normal (red) and implanted (green) retina. At 175mW, corresponding to the ED50 in normal retina, the temperature rise reaches 12.5°C. With an implant, the same temperature is reached at 78mW (intersection between green and yellow dash lines), matching the experimental thresholds (solid green curve) with ED50 at 71mW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modeled temperature rise as a function of the beam size, implant size and duty cycle. A) Temperature increases with increasing beam diameter (5mW/mm2) has an inflexion point when beam exceeds the 2mm implant size. B) With a constant beam size of 4.5mm, temperature increases with increasing implant diameter. C-D) Pulsing light (5ms, 40Hz) generates temperature spikes of about 0.05°C, oscillating around the blue line corresponding to the average power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Modular implant and its axio-symmetric model. A) Implant composed of 7 disks in a hexagonal pattern is modeled B) by an axio-symmetric structure composed of a central disk and a ring separated by a 200μm gap. C) A solid implant with same total diameter is used for comparison.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Model parameters for 880nm radiation in the rabbit eyea

Equations (1)

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MPE [ W ]=6.93 ×  10 5  ×  10 0.002( λ[ nm ]700 )  × 6.67 ×  10 3 α 2 [ mrad ]

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