Abstract

Master Slave optical coherence tomography (MS-OCT) is an OCT method that does not require resampling of data and can be used to deliver en-face images from several depths simultaneously. As the MS-OCT method requires important computational resources, the number of multiple depth en-face images that can be produced in real-time is limited. Here, we demonstrate progress in taking advantage of the parallel processing feature of the MS-OCT technology. Harnessing the capabilities of graphics processing units (GPU)s, information from 384 depth positions is acquired in one raster with real time display of up to 40 en-face OCT images. These exhibit comparable resolution and sensitivity to the images produced using the conventional Fourier domain based method. The GPU facilitates versatile real time selection of parameters, such as the depth positions of the 40 images out of the set of 384 depth locations, as well as their axial resolution. In each updated displayed frame, in parallel with the 40 en-face OCT images, a scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) lookalike image is presented together with two B-scan OCT images oriented along rectangular directions. The thickness of the SLO lookalike image is dynamically determined by the choice of number of en-face OCT images displayed in the frame and the choice of differential axial distance between them.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

A. Bradu, M. Maria, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Demonstration of tolerance to dispersion of master/slave interferometry,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14148–14161 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “On the possibility of producing true real-time retinal cross-sectional images using a graphics processing unit enhanced master-slave optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 100502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, X. Liu, and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 3D and 4D Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on dual graphics processing units,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 2162–2174 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

2010 (5)

2008 (3)

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(4), 464–499 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu and A. M. Rollins, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3525–3527 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, G. Huang, Z. Ding, and L. Wang, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 830 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 6826, 68260A (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

W. J. Donnelly, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, “Optimal pupil size for axial resolution in the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 161 (2001).

1998 (2)

A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, “Combined optical coherence tomograph and scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1088–1090 (1998).

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1987 (1)

Adler, D. C.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Arathorn, D. W.

Azimi, E.

Bajraszewski, T.

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, F.

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “On the possibility of producing true real-time retinal cross-sectional images using a graphics processing unit enhanced master-slave optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, S.

Baumann, B.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bloor, J. W.

Boer, J. D.

Bouma, B.

Boxer, A.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Bradu, A.

A. Bradu, M. Maria, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Demonstration of tolerance to dispersion of master/slave interferometry,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14148–14161 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “On the possibility of producing true real-time retinal cross-sectional images using a graphics processing unit enhanced master-slave optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Calibration-free B-scan images produced by master/slave optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 450–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Imaging the eye fundus with real-time en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1233–1249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu and A. Bradu, “Master-slave interferometry for parallel spectral domain interferometry sensing and versatile 3D optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19324–19338 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Neagu, A. Bradu, L. Ma, J. W. Bloor, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Multiple-depth en face optical coherence tomography using active recirculation loops,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2296–2298 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brandacher, G.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

Bukowska, D.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 100502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. D. Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).

Cha, J.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, K.-P.

Chen, T. C.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, C.

Cucu, R. G.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(1), 51–65 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

Ding, Z.

K. Wang, G. Huang, Z. Ding, and L. Wang, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 830 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 6826, 68260A (2007).
[Crossref]

Dobre, G. M.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of two layers in the human retina by low-coherence reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 1039–1041 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donnelly, W. J.

W. J. Donnelly, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, “Optimal pupil size for axial resolution in the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 161 (2001).

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunne, S.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, Y.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F. W.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Garcia, P.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gehlbach, P. L.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gentile, R.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 100502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregori, G.

Hermann, B.

Hillmann, D.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hornegger, J.

Hu, Z.

Huang, D.

Huang, G.

K. Wang, G. Huang, Z. Ding, and L. Wang, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 830 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 6826, 68260A (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Huang, Y.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, X. Liu, and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 3D and 4D Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on dual graphics processing units,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 2162–2174 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Hughes, G. W.

Hüttmann, G.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, Z.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Jackson, D. A.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, “Combined optical coherence tomograph and scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1088–1090 (1998).

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of two layers in the human retina by low-coherence reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 1039–1041 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Jian, Y.

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

Kang, J. U.

Kapinchev, K.

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “On the possibility of producing true real-time retinal cross-sectional images using a graphics processing unit enhanced master-slave optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, T.

Knighton, R.

Koch, P.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Lankenau, E.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, T.

Lee, W. P. A.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, G. Shi, and Y. Zhang, “High-speed optical coherence tomography signal processing on GPU,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 277, 012019 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Liu, J. J.

Liu, X.

Lo, P.-W.

Ma, L.

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

Maria, M.

Morosawa, A.

Mujat, M.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. D. Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).

Muldoon, T.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neagu, L.

Nieto, J.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oelckers, S.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orlock, D.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palte, G.

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Podoleanu, A.

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “On the possibility of producing true real-time retinal cross-sectional images using a graphics processing unit enhanced master-slave optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

A. Bradu, M. Maria, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Demonstration of tolerance to dispersion of master/slave interferometry,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14148–14161 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Imaging the eye fundus with real-time en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1233–1249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Calibration-free B-scan images produced by master/slave optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 450–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu and A. Bradu, “Master-slave interferometry for parallel spectral domain interferometry sensing and versatile 3D optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19324–19338 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Neagu, A. Bradu, L. Ma, J. W. Bloor, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Multiple-depth en face optical coherence tomography using active recirculation loops,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2296–2298 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(4), 464–499 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, “Combined optical coherence tomograph and scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1088–1090 (1998).

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of two layers in the human retina by low-coherence reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 1039–1041 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Probst, J.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C.

Rogers, J. A.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Romero-Borja, F.

W. J. Donnelly, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, “Optimal pupil size for axial resolution in the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 161 (2001).

Roorda, A.

Rosen, R.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, R. B.

A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(4), 464–499 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, T.

Sarunic, M. V.

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seeger, M.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheehy, C. K.

Shi, G.

X. Li, G. Shi, and Y. Zhang, “High-speed optical coherence tomography signal processing on GPU,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 277, 012019 (2011).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, V. J.

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

Subhash, H.

Sylwestrzak, M.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 100502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 100502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szlag, D.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 100502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Targowski, P.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 100502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tiruveedhula, P.

Tokayer, J.

Trost, P.

Unterhuber, A.

Van der Jeught, S.

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vermeer, K. A.

Vienola, K. V.

Walsh, J.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, G. Huang, Z. Ding, and L. Wang, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 830 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 6826, 68260A (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

K. Wang, G. Huang, Z. Ding, and L. Wang, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 830 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 6826, 68260A (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Webb, D. J.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of two layers in the human retina by low-coherence reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 1039–1041 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Weitz, R.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wieser, W.

Will, D.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winter, C.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 100502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, K.

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Yannuzzi, L. A.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S. H.

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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (15220 KB)      The versatility of the MS instrument in producing en-face images.
» Visualization 2: AVI (8080 KB)      The real case scenario of the movie demonstrated in media 1.
» Visualization 3: AVI (27856 KB)      Post-processing manipulation of the 3D dataset via the GPUApp.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram demonstrating the operation of the MS-OCT instrument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flowchart showing the timing of data acquisition, transfer and processing (A3 and B3) in a GPU enhanced MS-OCT system. The timings shown on the figure ensure a real-time operation of the system for r = q = 200 pixels and p = 40 depths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Processing time required vs. the number of en-face images to be produced. Red points: no B-scan images are computed; Blue points: B-scans computation turned on.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The output of GPUapp, in live mode showing 40 en-face images (left) separated axially by 21 µm (measured in air), a SLO lookalike image (top right) as well as two orthogonal MS based B-scan images used for eye guidance and depth localization of the en-face planes. All images are updated at the frame rate. The images were obtaining by imaging the optical nerve area of a healthy volunteer. The size of the en-face images is 3.0 × 3.0 mm2, while the size of the B-scans is 3.0 (lateral) × 2.7 (depth) mm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Averages of 9 (a), 18 (b), 35 (c), 70 (d), 140 (e) and 280 (f) en-face images (Visualization 1, p = 235) with an equivalent thickness of 0.0625, 0.0125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mm respectively at z = 1.645 mm. Size of the images is 3.0 × 3.0 mm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

En-face MS-OCT based images of the optic nerve area of a healthy volunteer obtained by adjusting the size of the integration window of the correlation signal, from W = 4, which determines a depth resolution of ~10 µm (a) to W = 2047, which determines an axial resolution of ~40 µm (b). Size of the images is 3.0 × 3.0 mm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

LVApp1 interface in LI mode.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

LVApp2 interface.

Equations (6)

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V SDOCT =[ A 11 A 12 A 1q A 21 A 22 A 2q A r1 A r2 A rq ]=[ | FFT(C S 11 ) | | FFT(C S 12 ) | | FFT(C S 1q ) | | FFT(C S 21 ) | | FFT(C S 22 ) | | FFT(C S 2q ) | | FFT(C S r1 ) | | FFT(C S r2 ) | | FFT(C S rq ) | ]
t enface (FFT)= t acq + t FFT + t render
I MSOCT =[ T 11 l T 12 l T 1l l T 21 l T 22 l T 2q l T r1 l T r2 l T rq l ]
T ij l = k=(w1) k=+(w1) | C S ij M l | k
T ij l =iFFT[ FFT(C S ij )FFT ( M l ) * ]
t enface (MS)= t acq +2 t FFT

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