Abstract

Metastatic melanoma is associated with a poor prognosis, but no method reliably predicts which melanomas of a given stage will ultimately metastasize and which will not. While sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as the most powerful predictor of metastatic disease, the majority of people dying from metastatic melanoma still have a negative SLNB. Here we analyze pump-probe microscopy images of thin biopsy slides of primary melanomas to assess their metastatic potential. Pump-probe microscopy reveals detailed chemical information of melanin with subcellular spatial resolution. Quantification of the molecular signatures without reference standards is achieved using a geometrical representation of principal component analysis. Melanin structure is analyzed in unison with the chemical information by applying principles of mathematical morphology. Results show that melanin in metastatic primary lesions has lower chemical diversity than non-metastatic primary lesions, and contains two distinct phenotypes that are indicative of aggressive disease. Further, the mathematical morphology analysis reveals melanin in metastatic primary lesions has a distinct “dusty” quality. Finally, a statistical analysis shows that the combination of the chemical information with spatial structures predicts metastatic potential with much better sensitivity than SLNB and high specificity, suggesting pump-probe microscopy can be an important tool to help predict the metastatic potential of melanomas.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, C. P. Dall, K. Glass, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(6), 993–1003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, M. A. Phipps, F. E. Robles, M. A. Selim, and W. S. Warren, “Nonlinear Microscopy of Eumelanin and Pheomelanin with Subcellular Resolution,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(7), 1822–1826 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Mar, S. Q. Wong, J. Li, R. A. Scolyer, C. McLean, A. T. Papenfuss, R. W. Tothill, H. Kakavand, G. J. Mann, J. F. Thompson, A. Behren, J. S. Cebon, R. Wolfe, J. W. Kelly, A. Dobrovic, and G. A. McArthur, “BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Melanomas Have a High Mutation Load Correlating with Histologic and Molecular Signatures of UV Damage,” Clin. Cancer Res. 19(17), 4589–4598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bonaventure, M. J. Domingues, and L. Larue, “Cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling the migration of melanocytes and melanoma cells,” Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 26(3), 316–325 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, and W. S. Warren, “Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Wilson, L. Vajzovic, F. E. Robles, T. J. Cummings, P. Mruthyunjaya, and W. S. Warren, “Imaging microscopic pigment chemistry in conjunctival melanocytic lesions using pump-probe laser microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 6867–6876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-Probe Microscopic Imaging of Jurassic-Aged Eumelanin,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, M. C. Fischer, and W. S. Warren, “Phasor analysis for nonlinear pump-probe microscopy,” Opt. Express 20(15), 17082 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

T. E. Matthews, J. W. Wilson, S. Degan, M. J. Simpson, J. Y. Jin, J. Y. Zhang, and W. S. Warren, “In vivo and ex vivo epi-mode pump-probe imaging of melanin and microvasculature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1576–1583 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Xie, J. Y. Chung, K. Ylaya, R. L. Williams, N. Guerrero, N. Nakatsuka, C. Badie, and S. M. Hewitt, “Factors Influencing the Degradation of Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 59(4), 356–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Science Translational Medicine 3, 71ra15 (2011).

D. C. Zedek and T. H. McCalmont, “Spitz nevi, atypical spitzoid neoplasms, and spitzoid melanoma,” Clin. Lab. Med. 31(2), 311–320 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pinner, P. Jordan, K. Sharrock, L. Bazley, L. Collinson, R. Marais, E. Bonvin, C. Goding, and E. Sahai, “Intravital imaging reveals transient changes in pigment production and Brn2 expression during metastatic melanoma dissemination,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7969–7977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

D. L. Morton, J. F. Thompson, A. J. Cochran, N. Mozzillo, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, E. C. Glass, H. J. Wang, and MSLT Group, “Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(13), 1307–1317 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

H. L. H. Liu and L. Y. L. Yu, “Toward integrating feature selection algorithms for classification and clustering,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 17(4), 491–502 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. L. Morton, A. J. Cochran, J. F. Thompson, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, E. C. Glass, N. Mozzillo, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, H. J. Wang, and Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial Group, “Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage melanoma: accuracy and morbidity in MSLT-I, an international multicenter trial,” Ann. Surg. 242(3), 302–313 (2005).
[PubMed]

S. B. Kesmodel, G. C. Karakousis, J. D. Botbyl, R. J. Canter, R. T. Lewis, P. M. Wahl, K. P. Terhune, A. Alavi, D. E. Elder, M. E. Ming, D. Guerry, P. A. Gimotty, D. L. Fraker, B. J. Czerniecki, and F. R. Spitz, “Mitotic Rate as a Predictor of Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Patients With Thin Melanomas,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(6), 449–458 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Gimotty, J. Botbyl, S. J. Soong, and D. Guerry, “A population-based validation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system,” J. Clin. Oncol. 23(31), 8065–8075 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. R. Wrightson, S. L. Wong, M. J. Edwards, C. Chao, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, R. D. Noyes, V. Viar, P. B. Cerrito, K. M. McMasters, and Sunbelt Melanoma Trial Study Group, “Complications Associated With Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(6), 676–680 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

E. A. Seftor, P. S. Meltzer, G. C. Schatteman, L. M. Gruman, A. R. Hess, D. A. Kirschmann, R. E. B. Seftor, and M. J. C. Hendrix, “Expression of multiple molecular phenotypes by aggressive melanoma tumor cells: role in vasculogenic mimicry,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 44(1), 17–27 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Scott, “Rac and rho: the story behind melanocyte dendrite formation,” Pigment Cell Res. 15(5), 322–330 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

K. M. McMasters, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, J. E. Gershenwald, M. J. Edwards, A. Sober, N. Fenske, F. Glass, C. M. Balch, and D. G. Coit, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: Controversy despite widespread agreement,” J. Clin. Oncol. 19(11), 2851–2855 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. G. Statius Muller, P. A. van Leeuwen, E. S. de Lange-De Klerk, P. J. van Diest, R. Pijpers, C. C. Ferwerda, R. J. Vuylsteke, and S. Meijer, “The sentinel lymph node status is an important factor for predicting clinical outcome in patients with Stage I or II cutaneous melanoma,” Cancer 91(12), 2401–2408 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. B. Langley, M. Rajadhyaksha, P. J. Dwyer, A. J. Sober, T. J. Flotte, and R. R. Anderson, “Confocal scanning laser microscopy of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 45(3), 365–376 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. Durko, R. Navab, H. R. Shibata, and P. Brodt, “Suppression of basement membrane type IV collagen degradation and cell invasion in human melanoma cells expressing an antisense RNA for MMP-1,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1356(3), 271–280 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. M. Kirkwood, M. H. Strawderman, M. S. Ernstoff, T. J. Smith, E. C. Borden, and R. H. Blum, “Interferon alfa-2b adjuvant therapy of high-risk resected cutaneous melanoma: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial EST 1684,” J. Clin. Oncol. 14(1), 7–17 (1996).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

S. W. McCarthy, K. A. Crotty, A. A. Palmer, A. B. P. Ng, W. H. McCarthy, and H. M. Shaw, “Cutaneous malignant melanoma in teenagers,” Histopathology 24(5), 453–461 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

A. P. A. Loui, A. N. A. Venetsanopoulos, and K. C. K. Smith, “Morphological autocorrelation transform: A new representation and classification scheme for two-dimensional images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 1(3), 337–354 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

L. Yi-Zeng, X. Yu-Long, and Y. Ru-Qin, “Accuracy criteria and optimal wavelength selection for multicomponent spectrophotometric determinations,” Anal. Chim. Acta 222, 347–357 (Elsevier, 1989).

1985 (1)

C. Schmoeckel, C. E. Castro, and O. Braun-Falco, “Nevoid malignant melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 277(5), 362–369 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

W. H. Clark, L. From, E. A. Bernardino, and M. C. Mihm, “The histogenesis and biologic behavior of primary human malignant melanomas of the skin,” Cancer Res. 29(3), 705–727 (1969).
[PubMed]

Alavi, A.

S. B. Kesmodel, G. C. Karakousis, J. D. Botbyl, R. J. Canter, R. T. Lewis, P. M. Wahl, K. P. Terhune, A. Alavi, D. E. Elder, M. E. Ming, D. Guerry, P. A. Gimotty, D. L. Fraker, B. J. Czerniecki, and F. R. Spitz, “Mitotic Rate as a Predictor of Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Patients With Thin Melanomas,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(6), 449–458 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alberts, D.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Algazi, A.

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allred, A.

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

R. G. B. Langley, M. Rajadhyaksha, P. J. Dwyer, A. J. Sober, T. J. Flotte, and R. R. Anderson, “Confocal scanning laser microscopy of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 45(3), 365–376 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrew, M. S. L.

M. S. L. Andrew and W. Moore, “Efficient Algorithms for Minimizing Cross Validation Error,” Proc. 11th Int’l Conf. Machine Learning (1994).

Atkins, M. B.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avisar, E.

D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badie, C.

R. Xie, J. Y. Chung, K. Ylaya, R. L. Williams, N. Guerrero, N. Nakatsuka, C. Badie, and S. M. Hewitt, “Factors Influencing the Degradation of Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 59(4), 356–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balch, C. M.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. McMasters, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, J. E. Gershenwald, M. J. Edwards, A. Sober, N. Fenske, F. Glass, C. M. Balch, and D. G. Coit, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: Controversy despite widespread agreement,” J. Clin. Oncol. 19(11), 2851–2855 (2001).
[PubMed]

Bazley, L.

S. Pinner, P. Jordan, K. Sharrock, L. Bazley, L. Collinson, R. Marais, E. Bonvin, C. Goding, and E. Sahai, “Intravital imaging reveals transient changes in pigment production and Brn2 expression during metastatic melanoma dissemination,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7969–7977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaudry, C.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behren, A.

V. J. Mar, S. Q. Wong, J. Li, R. A. Scolyer, C. McLean, A. T. Papenfuss, R. W. Tothill, H. Kakavand, G. J. Mann, J. F. Thompson, A. Behren, J. S. Cebon, R. Wolfe, J. W. Kelly, A. Dobrovic, and G. A. McArthur, “BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Melanomas Have a High Mutation Load Correlating with Histologic and Molecular Signatures of UV Damage,” Clin. Cancer Res. 19(17), 4589–4598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben-Dor, A.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berens, M.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernardino, E. A.

W. H. Clark, L. From, E. A. Bernardino, and M. C. Mihm, “The histogenesis and biologic behavior of primary human malignant melanomas of the skin,” Cancer Res. 29(3), 705–727 (1969).
[PubMed]

Berry, L. D.

D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bittner, M.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blum, R. H.

J. M. Kirkwood, M. H. Strawderman, M. S. Ernstoff, T. J. Smith, E. C. Borden, and R. H. Blum, “Interferon alfa-2b adjuvant therapy of high-risk resected cutaneous melanoma: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial EST 1684,” J. Clin. Oncol. 14(1), 7–17 (1996).
[PubMed]

Bonaventure, J.

J. Bonaventure, M. J. Domingues, and L. Larue, “Cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling the migration of melanocytes and melanoma cells,” Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 26(3), 316–325 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonvin, E.

S. Pinner, P. Jordan, K. Sharrock, L. Bazley, L. Collinson, R. Marais, E. Bonvin, C. Goding, and E. Sahai, “Intravital imaging reveals transient changes in pigment production and Brn2 expression during metastatic melanoma dissemination,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7969–7977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borden, E. C.

J. M. Kirkwood, M. H. Strawderman, M. S. Ernstoff, T. J. Smith, E. C. Borden, and R. H. Blum, “Interferon alfa-2b adjuvant therapy of high-risk resected cutaneous melanoma: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial EST 1684,” J. Clin. Oncol. 14(1), 7–17 (1996).
[PubMed]

Botbyl, J.

P. A. Gimotty, J. Botbyl, S. J. Soong, and D. Guerry, “A population-based validation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system,” J. Clin. Oncol. 23(31), 8065–8075 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botbyl, J. D.

S. B. Kesmodel, G. C. Karakousis, J. D. Botbyl, R. J. Canter, R. T. Lewis, P. M. Wahl, K. P. Terhune, A. Alavi, D. E. Elder, M. E. Ming, D. Guerry, P. A. Gimotty, D. L. Fraker, B. J. Czerniecki, and F. R. Spitz, “Mitotic Rate as a Predictor of Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Patients With Thin Melanomas,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(6), 449–458 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun-Falco, O.

C. Schmoeckel, C. E. Castro, and O. Braun-Falco, “Nevoid malignant melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 277(5), 362–369 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brodt, P.

M. Durko, R. Navab, H. R. Shibata, and P. Brodt, “Suppression of basement membrane type IV collagen degradation and cell invasion in human melanoma cells expressing an antisense RNA for MMP-1,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1356(3), 271–280 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burris, H. A.

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buzaid, A. C.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byrd, D. R.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canter, R. J.

S. B. Kesmodel, G. C. Karakousis, J. D. Botbyl, R. J. Canter, R. T. Lewis, P. M. Wahl, K. P. Terhune, A. Alavi, D. E. Elder, M. E. Ming, D. Guerry, P. A. Gimotty, D. L. Fraker, B. J. Czerniecki, and F. R. Spitz, “Mitotic Rate as a Predictor of Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Patients With Thin Melanomas,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(6), 449–458 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carpten, J.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carreira, S.

S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro, C. E.

C. Schmoeckel, C. E. Castro, and O. Braun-Falco, “Nevoid malignant melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 277(5), 362–369 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cebon, J.

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cebon, J. S.

V. J. Mar, S. Q. Wong, J. Li, R. A. Scolyer, C. McLean, A. T. Papenfuss, R. W. Tothill, H. Kakavand, G. J. Mann, J. F. Thompson, A. Behren, J. S. Cebon, R. Wolfe, J. W. Kelly, A. Dobrovic, and G. A. McArthur, “BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Melanomas Have a High Mutation Load Correlating with Histologic and Molecular Signatures of UV Damage,” Clin. Cancer Res. 19(17), 4589–4598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerrito, P. B.

W. R. Wrightson, S. L. Wong, M. J. Edwards, C. Chao, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, R. D. Noyes, V. Viar, P. B. Cerrito, K. M. McMasters, and Sunbelt Melanoma Trial Study Group, “Complications Associated With Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(6), 676–680 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, C.

W. R. Wrightson, S. L. Wong, M. J. Edwards, C. Chao, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, R. D. Noyes, V. Viar, P. B. Cerrito, K. M. McMasters, and Sunbelt Melanoma Trial Study Group, “Complications Associated With Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(6), 676–680 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charney, K. J.

D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, J. Y.

R. Xie, J. Y. Chung, K. Ylaya, R. L. Williams, N. Guerrero, N. Nakatsuka, C. Badie, and S. M. Hewitt, “Factors Influencing the Degradation of Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 59(4), 356–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, W. H.

W. H. Clark, L. From, E. A. Bernardino, and M. C. Mihm, “The histogenesis and biologic behavior of primary human malignant melanomas of the skin,” Cancer Res. 29(3), 705–727 (1969).
[PubMed]

Cochran, A. J.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Morton, J. F. Thompson, A. J. Cochran, N. Mozzillo, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, E. C. Glass, H. J. Wang, and MSLT Group, “Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(13), 1307–1317 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Morton, A. J. Cochran, J. F. Thompson, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, E. C. Glass, N. Mozzillo, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, H. J. Wang, and Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial Group, “Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage melanoma: accuracy and morbidity in MSLT-I, an international multicenter trial,” Ann. Surg. 242(3), 302–313 (2005).
[PubMed]

Coit, D. G.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, C. P. Dall, K. Glass, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(6), 993–1003 (2014).
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K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
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S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
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D. L. Morton, A. J. Cochran, J. F. Thompson, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, E. C. Glass, N. Mozzillo, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, H. J. Wang, and Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial Group, “Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage melanoma: accuracy and morbidity in MSLT-I, an international multicenter trial,” Ann. Surg. 242(3), 302–313 (2005).
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D. L. Morton, A. J. Cochran, J. F. Thompson, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, E. C. Glass, N. Mozzillo, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, H. J. Wang, and Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial Group, “Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage melanoma: accuracy and morbidity in MSLT-I, an international multicenter trial,” Ann. Surg. 242(3), 302–313 (2005).
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R. G. B. Langley, M. Rajadhyaksha, P. J. Dwyer, A. J. Sober, T. J. Flotte, and R. R. Anderson, “Confocal scanning laser microscopy of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 45(3), 365–376 (2001).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. McMasters, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, J. E. Gershenwald, M. J. Edwards, A. Sober, N. Fenske, F. Glass, C. M. Balch, and D. G. Coit, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: Controversy despite widespread agreement,” J. Clin. Oncol. 19(11), 2851–2855 (2001).
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Gillanders, E.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
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Gimotty, P. A.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. L. Morton, J. F. Thompson, A. J. Cochran, N. Mozzillo, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, E. C. Glass, H. J. Wang, and MSLT Group, “Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(13), 1307–1317 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Morton, A. J. Cochran, J. F. Thompson, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, E. C. Glass, N. Mozzillo, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, H. J. Wang, and Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial Group, “Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage melanoma: accuracy and morbidity in MSLT-I, an international multicenter trial,” Ann. Surg. 242(3), 302–313 (2005).
[PubMed]

Glass, F.

K. M. McMasters, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, J. E. Gershenwald, M. J. Edwards, A. Sober, N. Fenske, F. Glass, C. M. Balch, and D. G. Coit, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: Controversy despite widespread agreement,” J. Clin. Oncol. 19(11), 2851–2855 (2001).
[PubMed]

Glass, K.

M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, C. P. Dall, K. Glass, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(6), 993–1003 (2014).
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S. Pinner, P. Jordan, K. Sharrock, L. Bazley, L. Collinson, R. Marais, E. Bonvin, C. Goding, and E. Sahai, “Intravital imaging reveals transient changes in pigment production and Brn2 expression during metastatic melanoma dissemination,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7969–7977 (2009).
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S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, R.

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodall, J.

S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
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S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
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Gooden, C.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
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Gruman, L. M.

E. A. Seftor, P. S. Meltzer, G. C. Schatteman, L. M. Gruman, A. R. Hess, D. A. Kirschmann, R. E. B. Seftor, and M. J. C. Hendrix, “Expression of multiple molecular phenotypes by aggressive melanoma tumor cells: role in vasculogenic mimicry,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 44(1), 17–27 (2002).
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Guerrero, N.

R. Xie, J. Y. Chung, K. Ylaya, R. L. Williams, N. Guerrero, N. Nakatsuka, C. Badie, and S. M. Hewitt, “Factors Influencing the Degradation of Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 59(4), 356–365 (2011).
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Guerry, D.

P. A. Gimotty, J. Botbyl, S. J. Soong, and D. Guerry, “A population-based validation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system,” J. Clin. Oncol. 23(31), 8065–8075 (2005).
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S. B. Kesmodel, G. C. Karakousis, J. D. Botbyl, R. J. Canter, R. T. Lewis, P. M. Wahl, K. P. Terhune, A. Alavi, D. E. Elder, M. E. Ming, D. Guerry, P. A. Gimotty, D. L. Fraker, B. J. Czerniecki, and F. R. Spitz, “Mitotic Rate as a Predictor of Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Patients With Thin Melanomas,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(6), 449–458 (2005).
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Hamid, O.

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
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Han, D.

D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
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Hayward, N.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
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M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
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Hendrix, M. J. C.

E. A. Seftor, P. S. Meltzer, G. C. Schatteman, L. M. Gruman, A. R. Hess, D. A. Kirschmann, R. E. B. Seftor, and M. J. C. Hendrix, “Expression of multiple molecular phenotypes by aggressive melanoma tumor cells: role in vasculogenic mimicry,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 44(1), 17–27 (2002).
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Hess, A. R.

E. A. Seftor, P. S. Meltzer, G. C. Schatteman, L. M. Gruman, A. R. Hess, D. A. Kirschmann, R. E. B. Seftor, and M. J. C. Hendrix, “Expression of multiple molecular phenotypes by aggressive melanoma tumor cells: role in vasculogenic mimicry,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 44(1), 17–27 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hewitt, S. M.

R. Xie, J. Y. Chung, K. Ylaya, R. L. Williams, N. Guerrero, N. Nakatsuka, C. Badie, and S. M. Hewitt, “Factors Influencing the Degradation of Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 59(4), 356–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoek, K. S.

S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
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Hoekstra, H. J.

D. L. Morton, J. F. Thompson, A. J. Cochran, N. Mozzillo, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, E. C. Glass, H. J. Wang, and MSLT Group, “Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(13), 1307–1317 (2006).
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D. L. Morton, A. J. Cochran, J. F. Thompson, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, E. C. Glass, N. Mozzillo, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, H. J. Wang, and Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial Group, “Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage melanoma: accuracy and morbidity in MSLT-I, an international multicenter trial,” Ann. Surg. 242(3), 302–313 (2005).
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B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
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Infante, J. R.

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
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D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
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Jiang, Y.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
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Jin, J. Y.

John, G. H.

G. H. John, R. Kohavi, and K. Pfleger, “Irrelevant Features and the Subset Selection Problem.,” InProceedings of The Eleventh International Conference on Machine Learning94, 121–129 (1994).
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V. J. Mar, S. Q. Wong, J. Li, R. A. Scolyer, C. McLean, A. T. Papenfuss, R. W. Tothill, H. Kakavand, G. J. Mann, J. F. Thompson, A. Behren, J. S. Cebon, R. Wolfe, J. W. Kelly, A. Dobrovic, and G. A. McArthur, “BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Melanomas Have a High Mutation Load Correlating with Histologic and Molecular Signatures of UV Damage,” Clin. Cancer Res. 19(17), 4589–4598 (2013).
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D. L. Morton, J. F. Thompson, A. J. Cochran, N. Mozzillo, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, E. C. Glass, H. J. Wang, and MSLT Group, “Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(13), 1307–1317 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Morton, A. J. Cochran, J. F. Thompson, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, E. C. Glass, N. Mozzillo, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, H. J. Wang, and Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial Group, “Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage melanoma: accuracy and morbidity in MSLT-I, an international multicenter trial,” Ann. Surg. 242(3), 302–313 (2005).
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S. B. Kesmodel, G. C. Karakousis, J. D. Botbyl, R. J. Canter, R. T. Lewis, P. M. Wahl, K. P. Terhune, A. Alavi, D. E. Elder, M. E. Ming, D. Guerry, P. A. Gimotty, D. L. Fraker, B. J. Czerniecki, and F. R. Spitz, “Mitotic Rate as a Predictor of Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Patients With Thin Melanomas,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(6), 449–458 (2005).
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D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
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K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
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V. J. Mar, S. Q. Wong, J. Li, R. A. Scolyer, C. McLean, A. T. Papenfuss, R. W. Tothill, H. Kakavand, G. J. Mann, J. F. Thompson, A. Behren, J. S. Cebon, R. Wolfe, J. W. Kelly, A. Dobrovic, and G. A. McArthur, “BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Melanomas Have a High Mutation Load Correlating with Histologic and Molecular Signatures of UV Damage,” Clin. Cancer Res. 19(17), 4589–4598 (2013).
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Kim, K. B.

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
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Kohavi, R.

G. H. John, R. Kohavi, and K. Pfleger, “Irrelevant Features and the Subset Selection Problem.,” InProceedings of The Eleventh International Conference on Machine Learning94, 121–129 (1994).
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D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
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Kudchadkar, R.

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
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S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
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Lebowitz, P.

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
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M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
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D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
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K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
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Lewis, R. T.

S. B. Kesmodel, G. C. Karakousis, J. D. Botbyl, R. J. Canter, R. T. Lewis, P. M. Wahl, K. P. Terhune, A. Alavi, D. E. Elder, M. E. Ming, D. Guerry, P. A. Gimotty, D. L. Fraker, B. J. Czerniecki, and F. R. Spitz, “Mitotic Rate as a Predictor of Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Patients With Thin Melanomas,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(6), 449–458 (2005).
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Li, J.

V. J. Mar, S. Q. Wong, J. Li, R. A. Scolyer, C. McLean, A. T. Papenfuss, R. W. Tothill, H. Kakavand, G. J. Mann, J. F. Thompson, A. Behren, J. S. Cebon, R. Wolfe, J. W. Kelly, A. Dobrovic, and G. A. McArthur, “BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Melanomas Have a High Mutation Load Correlating with Histologic and Molecular Signatures of UV Damage,” Clin. Cancer Res. 19(17), 4589–4598 (2013).
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Little, S.

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
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H. L. H. Liu and L. Y. L. Yu, “Toward integrating feature selection algorithms for classification and clustering,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 17(4), 491–502 (2005).
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K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
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M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, C. P. Dall, K. Glass, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(6), 993–1003 (2014).
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M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, M. A. Phipps, F. E. Robles, M. A. Selim, and W. S. Warren, “Nonlinear Microscopy of Eumelanin and Pheomelanin with Subcellular Resolution,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(7), 1822–1826 (2013).
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F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, and W. S. Warren, “Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120502 (2013).
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J. W. Wilson, L. Vajzovic, F. E. Robles, T. J. Cummings, P. Mruthyunjaya, and W. S. Warren, “Imaging microscopic pigment chemistry in conjunctival melanocytic lesions using pump-probe laser microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 6867–6876 (2013).
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S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
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S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
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D. L. Morton, J. F. Thompson, A. J. Cochran, N. Mozzillo, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, E. C. Glass, H. J. Wang, and MSLT Group, “Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(13), 1307–1317 (2006).
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M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, M. A. Phipps, F. E. Robles, M. A. Selim, and W. S. Warren, “Nonlinear Microscopy of Eumelanin and Pheomelanin with Subcellular Resolution,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(7), 1822–1826 (2013).
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Sharrock, K.

S. Pinner, P. Jordan, K. Sharrock, L. Bazley, L. Collinson, R. Marais, E. Bonvin, C. Goding, and E. Sahai, “Intravital imaging reveals transient changes in pigment production and Brn2 expression during metastatic melanoma dissemination,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7969–7977 (2009).
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M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, C. P. Dall, K. Glass, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(6), 993–1003 (2014).
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M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-Probe Microscopic Imaging of Jurassic-Aged Eumelanin,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
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M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, C. P. Dall, K. Glass, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(6), 993–1003 (2014).
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M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-Probe Microscopic Imaging of Jurassic-Aged Eumelanin,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
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T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Science Translational Medicine 3, 71ra15 (2011).

T. E. Matthews, J. W. Wilson, S. Degan, M. J. Simpson, J. Y. Jin, J. Y. Zhang, and W. S. Warren, “In vivo and ex vivo epi-mode pump-probe imaging of melanin and microvasculature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1576–1583 (2011).
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J. M. Kirkwood, M. H. Strawderman, M. S. Ernstoff, T. J. Smith, E. C. Borden, and R. H. Blum, “Interferon alfa-2b adjuvant therapy of high-risk resected cutaneous melanoma: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial EST 1684,” J. Clin. Oncol. 14(1), 7–17 (1996).
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K. M. McMasters, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, J. E. Gershenwald, M. J. Edwards, A. Sober, N. Fenske, F. Glass, C. M. Balch, and D. G. Coit, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: Controversy despite widespread agreement,” J. Clin. Oncol. 19(11), 2851–2855 (2001).
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C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
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D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
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C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
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C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
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Spitz, F. R.

S. B. Kesmodel, G. C. Karakousis, J. D. Botbyl, R. J. Canter, R. T. Lewis, P. M. Wahl, K. P. Terhune, A. Alavi, D. E. Elder, M. E. Ming, D. Guerry, P. A. Gimotty, D. L. Fraker, B. J. Czerniecki, and F. R. Spitz, “Mitotic Rate as a Predictor of Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Patients With Thin Melanomas,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(6), 449–458 (2005).
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B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
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J. M. Kirkwood, M. H. Strawderman, M. S. Ernstoff, T. J. Smith, E. C. Borden, and R. H. Blum, “Interferon alfa-2b adjuvant therapy of high-risk resected cutaneous melanoma: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial EST 1684,” J. Clin. Oncol. 14(1), 7–17 (1996).
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K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
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S. B. Kesmodel, G. C. Karakousis, J. D. Botbyl, R. J. Canter, R. T. Lewis, P. M. Wahl, K. P. Terhune, A. Alavi, D. E. Elder, M. E. Ming, D. Guerry, P. A. Gimotty, D. L. Fraker, B. J. Czerniecki, and F. R. Spitz, “Mitotic Rate as a Predictor of Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Patients With Thin Melanomas,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(6), 449–458 (2005).
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Testori, A.

S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
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S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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V. J. Mar, S. Q. Wong, J. Li, R. A. Scolyer, C. McLean, A. T. Papenfuss, R. W. Tothill, H. Kakavand, G. J. Mann, J. F. Thompson, A. Behren, J. S. Cebon, R. Wolfe, J. W. Kelly, A. Dobrovic, and G. A. McArthur, “BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Melanomas Have a High Mutation Load Correlating with Histologic and Molecular Signatures of UV Damage,” Clin. Cancer Res. 19(17), 4589–4598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Morton, J. F. Thompson, A. J. Cochran, N. Mozzillo, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, E. C. Glass, H. J. Wang, and MSLT Group, “Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(13), 1307–1317 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Morton, A. J. Cochran, J. F. Thompson, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, E. C. Glass, N. Mozzillo, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, H. J. Wang, and Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial Group, “Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage melanoma: accuracy and morbidity in MSLT-I, an international multicenter trial,” Ann. Surg. 242(3), 302–313 (2005).
[PubMed]

Tothill, R. W.

V. J. Mar, S. Q. Wong, J. Li, R. A. Scolyer, C. McLean, A. T. Papenfuss, R. W. Tothill, H. Kakavand, G. J. Mann, J. F. Thompson, A. Behren, J. S. Cebon, R. Wolfe, J. W. Kelly, A. Dobrovic, and G. A. McArthur, “BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Melanomas Have a High Mutation Load Correlating with Histologic and Molecular Signatures of UV Damage,” Clin. Cancer Res. 19(17), 4589–4598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trent, J.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vajzovic, L.

J. W. Wilson, L. Vajzovic, F. E. Robles, T. J. Cummings, P. Mruthyunjaya, and W. S. Warren, “Imaging microscopic pigment chemistry in conjunctival melanocytic lesions using pump-probe laser microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 6867–6876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Diest, P. J.

M. G. Statius Muller, P. A. van Leeuwen, E. S. de Lange-De Klerk, P. J. van Diest, R. Pijpers, C. C. Ferwerda, R. J. Vuylsteke, and S. Meijer, “The sentinel lymph node status is an important factor for predicting clinical outcome in patients with Stage I or II cutaneous melanoma,” Cancer 91(12), 2401–2408 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, P. A.

M. G. Statius Muller, P. A. van Leeuwen, E. S. de Lange-De Klerk, P. J. van Diest, R. Pijpers, C. C. Ferwerda, R. J. Vuylsteke, and S. Meijer, “The sentinel lymph node status is an important factor for predicting clinical outcome in patients with Stage I or II cutaneous melanoma,” Cancer 91(12), 2401–2408 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venetsanopoulos, A. N. A.

A. P. A. Loui, A. N. A. Venetsanopoulos, and K. C. K. Smith, “Morphological autocorrelation transform: A new representation and classification scheme for two-dimensional images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 1(3), 337–354 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vetto, J. T.

D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viar, V.

W. R. Wrightson, S. L. Wong, M. J. Edwards, C. Chao, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, R. D. Noyes, V. Viar, P. B. Cerrito, K. M. McMasters, and Sunbelt Melanoma Trial Study Group, “Complications Associated With Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(6), 676–680 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vuylsteke, R. J.

M. G. Statius Muller, P. A. van Leeuwen, E. S. de Lange-De Klerk, P. J. van Diest, R. Pijpers, C. C. Ferwerda, R. J. Vuylsteke, and S. Meijer, “The sentinel lymph node status is an important factor for predicting clinical outcome in patients with Stage I or II cutaneous melanoma,” Cancer 91(12), 2401–2408 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahl, P. M.

S. B. Kesmodel, G. C. Karakousis, J. D. Botbyl, R. J. Canter, R. T. Lewis, P. M. Wahl, K. P. Terhune, A. Alavi, D. E. Elder, M. E. Ming, D. Guerry, P. A. Gimotty, D. L. Fraker, B. J. Czerniecki, and F. R. Spitz, “Mitotic Rate as a Predictor of Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Patients With Thin Melanomas,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(6), 449–458 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, E.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. J.

D. L. Morton, J. F. Thompson, A. J. Cochran, N. Mozzillo, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, E. C. Glass, H. J. Wang, and MSLT Group, “Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(13), 1307–1317 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Morton, A. J. Cochran, J. F. Thompson, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, E. C. Glass, N. Mozzillo, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, H. J. Wang, and Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial Group, “Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage melanoma: accuracy and morbidity in MSLT-I, an international multicenter trial,” Ann. Surg. 242(3), 302–313 (2005).
[PubMed]

Warren, W. S.

M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, C. P. Dall, K. Glass, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(6), 993–1003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, M. A. Phipps, F. E. Robles, M. A. Selim, and W. S. Warren, “Nonlinear Microscopy of Eumelanin and Pheomelanin with Subcellular Resolution,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(7), 1822–1826 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Wilson, L. Vajzovic, F. E. Robles, T. J. Cummings, P. Mruthyunjaya, and W. S. Warren, “Imaging microscopic pigment chemistry in conjunctival melanocytic lesions using pump-probe laser microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 6867–6876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, and W. S. Warren, “Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-Probe Microscopic Imaging of Jurassic-Aged Eumelanin,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, M. C. Fischer, and W. S. Warren, “Phasor analysis for nonlinear pump-probe microscopy,” Opt. Express 20(15), 17082 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. E. Matthews, J. W. Wilson, S. Degan, M. J. Simpson, J. Y. Jin, J. Y. Zhang, and W. S. Warren, “In vivo and ex vivo epi-mode pump-probe imaging of melanin and microvasculature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1576–1583 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Science Translational Medicine 3, 71ra15 (2011).

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, J.

K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, J. L.

D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, R. L.

D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilby, P. R.

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-Probe Microscopic Imaging of Jurassic-Aged Eumelanin,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, R. L.

R. Xie, J. Y. Chung, K. Ylaya, R. L. Williams, N. Guerrero, N. Nakatsuka, C. Badie, and S. M. Hewitt, “Factors Influencing the Degradation of Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 59(4), 356–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, J. W.

M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, C. P. Dall, K. Glass, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(6), 993–1003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-Probe Microscopic Imaging of Jurassic-Aged Eumelanin,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Wilson, L. Vajzovic, F. E. Robles, T. J. Cummings, P. Mruthyunjaya, and W. S. Warren, “Imaging microscopic pigment chemistry in conjunctival melanocytic lesions using pump-probe laser microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 6867–6876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, and W. S. Warren, “Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, M. A. Phipps, F. E. Robles, M. A. Selim, and W. S. Warren, “Nonlinear Microscopy of Eumelanin and Pheomelanin with Subcellular Resolution,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(7), 1822–1826 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, M. C. Fischer, and W. S. Warren, “Phasor analysis for nonlinear pump-probe microscopy,” Opt. Express 20(15), 17082 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. E. Matthews, J. W. Wilson, S. Degan, M. J. Simpson, J. Y. Jin, J. Y. Zhang, and W. S. Warren, “In vivo and ex vivo epi-mode pump-probe imaging of melanin and microvasculature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1576–1583 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolfe, R.

V. J. Mar, S. Q. Wong, J. Li, R. A. Scolyer, C. McLean, A. T. Papenfuss, R. W. Tothill, H. Kakavand, G. J. Mann, J. F. Thompson, A. Behren, J. S. Cebon, R. Wolfe, J. W. Kelly, A. Dobrovic, and G. A. McArthur, “BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Melanomas Have a High Mutation Load Correlating with Histologic and Molecular Signatures of UV Damage,” Clin. Cancer Res. 19(17), 4589–4598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, S. L.

W. R. Wrightson, S. L. Wong, M. J. Edwards, C. Chao, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, R. D. Noyes, V. Viar, P. B. Cerrito, K. M. McMasters, and Sunbelt Melanoma Trial Study Group, “Complications Associated With Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(6), 676–680 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, S. Q.

V. J. Mar, S. Q. Wong, J. Li, R. A. Scolyer, C. McLean, A. T. Papenfuss, R. W. Tothill, H. Kakavand, G. J. Mann, J. F. Thompson, A. Behren, J. S. Cebon, R. Wolfe, J. W. Kelly, A. Dobrovic, and G. A. McArthur, “BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Melanomas Have a High Mutation Load Correlating with Histologic and Molecular Signatures of UV Damage,” Clin. Cancer Res. 19(17), 4589–4598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wrightson, W. R.

W. R. Wrightson, S. L. Wong, M. J. Edwards, C. Chao, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, R. D. Noyes, V. Viar, P. B. Cerrito, K. M. McMasters, and Sunbelt Melanoma Trial Study Group, “Complications Associated With Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(6), 676–680 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, R.

R. Xie, J. Y. Chung, K. Ylaya, R. L. Williams, N. Guerrero, N. Nakatsuka, C. Badie, and S. M. Hewitt, “Factors Influencing the Degradation of Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 59(4), 356–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakhini, Z.

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, T.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi-Zeng, L.

L. Yi-Zeng, X. Yu-Long, and Y. Ru-Qin, “Accuracy criteria and optimal wavelength selection for multicomponent spectrophotometric determinations,” Anal. Chim. Acta 222, 347–357 (Elsevier, 1989).

Ylaya, K.

R. Xie, J. Y. Chung, K. Ylaya, R. L. Williams, N. Guerrero, N. Nakatsuka, C. Badie, and S. M. Hewitt, “Factors Influencing the Degradation of Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 59(4), 356–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, L. Y. L.

H. L. H. Liu and L. Y. L. Yu, “Toward integrating feature selection algorithms for classification and clustering,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 17(4), 491–502 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu-Long, X.

L. Yi-Zeng, X. Yu-Long, and Y. Ru-Qin, “Accuracy criteria and optimal wavelength selection for multicomponent spectrophotometric determinations,” Anal. Chim. Acta 222, 347–357 (Elsevier, 1989).

Yurtsever, G.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zager, J. S.

D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zedek, D. C.

D. C. Zedek and T. H. McCalmont, “Spitz nevi, atypical spitzoid neoplasms, and spitzoid melanoma,” Clin. Lab. Med. 31(2), 311–320 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. Y.

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

L. Yi-Zeng, X. Yu-Long, and Y. Ru-Qin, “Accuracy criteria and optimal wavelength selection for multicomponent spectrophotometric determinations,” Anal. Chim. Acta 222, 347–357 (Elsevier, 1989).

Ann. Surg. (1)

D. L. Morton, A. J. Cochran, J. F. Thompson, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, E. C. Glass, N. Mozzillo, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, H. J. Wang, and Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial Group, “Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage melanoma: accuracy and morbidity in MSLT-I, an international multicenter trial,” Ann. Surg. 242(3), 302–313 (2005).
[PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (2)

W. R. Wrightson, S. L. Wong, M. J. Edwards, C. Chao, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, R. D. Noyes, V. Viar, P. B. Cerrito, K. M. McMasters, and Sunbelt Melanoma Trial Study Group, “Complications Associated With Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(6), 676–680 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Kesmodel, G. C. Karakousis, J. D. Botbyl, R. J. Canter, R. T. Lewis, P. M. Wahl, K. P. Terhune, A. Alavi, D. E. Elder, M. E. Ming, D. Guerry, P. A. Gimotty, D. L. Fraker, B. J. Czerniecki, and F. R. Spitz, “Mitotic Rate as a Predictor of Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Patients With Thin Melanomas,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(6), 449–458 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Dermatol. Res. (1)

C. Schmoeckel, C. E. Castro, and O. Braun-Falco, “Nevoid malignant melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 277(5), 362–369 (1985).
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Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

M. Durko, R. Navab, H. R. Shibata, and P. Brodt, “Suppression of basement membrane type IV collagen degradation and cell invasion in human melanoma cells expressing an antisense RNA for MMP-1,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1356(3), 271–280 (1997).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Cancer (1)

M. G. Statius Muller, P. A. van Leeuwen, E. S. de Lange-De Klerk, P. J. van Diest, R. Pijpers, C. C. Ferwerda, R. J. Vuylsteke, and S. Meijer, “The sentinel lymph node status is an important factor for predicting clinical outcome in patients with Stage I or II cutaneous melanoma,” Cancer 91(12), 2401–2408 (2001).
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Cancer Res. (2)

S. Pinner, P. Jordan, K. Sharrock, L. Bazley, L. Collinson, R. Marais, E. Bonvin, C. Goding, and E. Sahai, “Intravital imaging reveals transient changes in pigment production and Brn2 expression during metastatic melanoma dissemination,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7969–7977 (2009).
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Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

V. J. Mar, S. Q. Wong, J. Li, R. A. Scolyer, C. McLean, A. T. Papenfuss, R. W. Tothill, H. Kakavand, G. J. Mann, J. F. Thompson, A. Behren, J. S. Cebon, R. Wolfe, J. W. Kelly, A. Dobrovic, and G. A. McArthur, “BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Melanomas Have a High Mutation Load Correlating with Histologic and Molecular Signatures of UV Damage,” Clin. Cancer Res. 19(17), 4589–4598 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Lab. Med. (1)

D. C. Zedek and T. H. McCalmont, “Spitz nevi, atypical spitzoid neoplasms, and spitzoid melanoma,” Clin. Lab. Med. 31(2), 311–320 (2011).
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Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. (1)

E. A. Seftor, P. S. Meltzer, G. C. Schatteman, L. M. Gruman, A. R. Hess, D. A. Kirschmann, R. E. B. Seftor, and M. J. C. Hendrix, “Expression of multiple molecular phenotypes by aggressive melanoma tumor cells: role in vasculogenic mimicry,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 44(1), 17–27 (2002).
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Genes Dev. (2)

S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
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S. Carreira, J. Goodall, L. Denat, M. Rodriguez, P. Nuciforo, K. S. Hoek, A. Testori, L. Larue, and C. R. Goding, “Mitf regulation of Dia1 controls melanoma proliferation and invasiveness,” Genes Dev. 20(24), 3426–3439 (2006).
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Histopathology (1)

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IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

A. P. A. Loui, A. N. A. Venetsanopoulos, and K. C. K. Smith, “Morphological autocorrelation transform: A new representation and classification scheme for two-dimensional images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 1(3), 337–354 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. (1)

H. L. H. Liu and L. Y. L. Yu, “Toward integrating feature selection algorithms for classification and clustering,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 17(4), 491–502 (2005).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

J. W. Wilson, L. Vajzovic, F. E. Robles, T. J. Cummings, P. Mruthyunjaya, and W. S. Warren, “Imaging microscopic pigment chemistry in conjunctival melanocytic lesions using pump-probe laser microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 6867–6876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

R. G. B. Langley, M. Rajadhyaksha, P. J. Dwyer, A. J. Sober, T. J. Flotte, and R. R. Anderson, “Confocal scanning laser microscopy of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 45(3), 365–376 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, and W. S. Warren, “Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Oncol. (5)

P. A. Gimotty, J. Botbyl, S. J. Soong, and D. Guerry, “A population-based validation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system,” J. Clin. Oncol. 23(31), 8065–8075 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Han, J. S. Zager, Y. Shyr, H. Chen, L. D. Berry, S. Iyengar, M. Djulbegovic, J. L. Weber, S. S. Marzban, V. K. Sondak, J. L. Messina, J. T. Vetto, R. L. White, B. Pockaj, N. Mozzillo, K. J. Charney, E. Avisar, R. Krouse, M. Kashani-Sabet, and S. P. Leong, “Clinicopathologic Predictors of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Thin Melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(35), 4387–4393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Kirkwood, M. H. Strawderman, M. S. Ernstoff, T. J. Smith, E. C. Borden, and R. H. Blum, “Interferon alfa-2b adjuvant therapy of high-risk resected cutaneous melanoma: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial EST 1684,” J. Clin. Oncol. 14(1), 7–17 (1996).
[PubMed]

K. M. McMasters, D. S. Reintgen, M. I. Ross, J. E. Gershenwald, M. J. Edwards, A. Sober, N. Fenske, F. Glass, C. M. Balch, and D. G. Coit, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: Controversy despite widespread agreement,” J. Clin. Oncol. 19(11), 2851–2855 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1)

R. Xie, J. Y. Chung, K. Ylaya, R. L. Williams, N. Guerrero, N. Nakatsuka, C. Badie, and S. M. Hewitt, “Factors Influencing the Degradation of Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 59(4), 356–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, M. A. Phipps, F. E. Robles, M. A. Selim, and W. S. Warren, “Nonlinear Microscopy of Eumelanin and Pheomelanin with Subcellular Resolution,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(7), 1822–1826 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

M. J. Simpson, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, C. P. Dall, K. Glass, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(6), 993–1003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-Probe Microscopic Imaging of Jurassic-Aged Eumelanin,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (2)

D. L. Morton, J. F. Thompson, A. J. Cochran, N. Mozzillo, R. Elashoff, R. Essner, O. E. Nieweg, D. F. Roses, H. J. Hoekstra, C. P. Karakousis, D. S. Reintgen, B. J. Coventry, E. C. Glass, H. J. Wang, and MSLT Group, “Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 355(13), 1307–1317 (2006).
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K. T. Flaherty, J. R. Infante, A. Daud, R. Gonzalez, R. F. Kefford, J. Sosman, O. Hamid, L. Schuchter, J. Cebon, N. Ibrahim, R. Kudchadkar, H. A. Burris, G. Falchook, A. Algazi, K. Lewis, G. V. Long, I. Puzanov, P. Lebowitz, A. Singh, S. Little, P. Sun, A. Allred, D. Ouellet, K. B. Kim, K. Patel, and J. Weber, “Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma with BRAF V600 Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med. 367(18), 1694–1703 (2012).
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Nature (1)

M. Bittner, P. Meltzer, Y. Chen, Y. Jiang, E. Seftor, M. Hendrix, M. Radmacher, R. Simon, Z. Yakhini, A. Ben-Dor, N. Sampas, E. Dougherty, E. Wang, F. Marincola, C. Gooden, J. Lueders, A. Glatfelter, P. Pollock, J. Carpten, E. Gillanders, D. Leja, K. Dietrich, C. Beaudry, M. Berens, D. Alberts, V. Sondak, N. Hayward, and J. Trent, “Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling,” Nature 406(6795), 536–540 (2000).
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Opt. Express (1)

Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. (1)

J. Bonaventure, M. J. Domingues, and L. Larue, “Cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling the migration of melanocytes and melanoma cells,” Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 26(3), 316–325 (2013).
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Pigment Cell Res. (1)

G. Scott, “Rac and rho: the story behind melanocyte dendrite formation,” Pigment Cell Res. 15(5), 322–330 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
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Science Translational Medicine (1)

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Science Translational Medicine 3, 71ra15 (2011).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Image acquisition process and PCA representation of pump-probe signals. (a) A stack of 34 images is collected, with each image containing a different pump-probe time-delay (−1.5 to 4 ps). Inset shows the dynamics of four pixels in the composite stack. (b) Melanin dynamics measured from ~2 million spatial pixels are used to compute the PCs. Inset shows the variance captured by each PC. (c) The delays are projected onto the three PCs, which constitutes a three-dimensional space that may be described in spherical coordinated. (d) Cumulative histogram of the angles of the spherical coordinate projection of the 2 million spectra. (e) Phasor plot of the same data. (f) Example dynamics of the data—their mapping onto the PC angle and phasor space is demarcated on (d) and (e), respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative pump-probe images and photomicrographs of unstained and H&E stained tissue sections. Primary tumors from patients with positive (a-c) and negative (d,e) SLNB. Scale = 100 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantification of image structure. (a) Selected pump-probe image for illustration and (b) its corresponding 2D PC histogram, with arrows demarcating the different weightings used to derive the grayscale images shown in (c). (d) Corresponding 2D autocorrelation of each grayscale image used to quantify structure. Scale bar = 100µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pigment distribution. Two-dimensional PC histogram of melanin in primary melanomas from patients with positive (a) and negative (b) SLNB. (c) Histogram of the azimuth angle for each group.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Illustration of feature selection algorithm. CV MCE: cross validation misclassification error. (b) Histogram of the MCE of 100 iterations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Summary of statistics. (a-f) Box plots show the six parameters selected by a forward feature selection algorithm. (g) The scatter plot illustrates the complementary information of two of the parameters. (h) Histogram of the two groups along a rotated axis of (g), x’ (green line in (g)), which yields maximum separation of the two groups in this 2D subspace. *p-val<0.1, **p-val<0.001, N.S.: not statistically significant, using Bonferroni correction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optimization of the number of measured pump-probe time-points. (a) Original image stack and 2D PC histogram with 34 measurements. Down-sampling to 12 (b), 6 (c) and 3 (d) measurements. The lines on the inset show the selected points using the determinant criterion. Note that there is little change on the images and PC histograms. (e) Illustration of the effects of choosing an unoptimized time-point. Scale bar = 100µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Boxplot of all quantitative features. *p-val<0.1, **p-val<0.001, using Bonferroni correction.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Azimuth angle histogram of all lesions.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Sample characteristics

Metrics