Abstract

Fecal based tests have limited diagnostic values in detecting adenomatous polyps, the precursor lesions to colorectal cancer (CRC). Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using silver nanoparticles as substrate is a multiplexed analytical technique capable of detecting biomolecules with high sensitivity. This study utilizes SERS to analyze blood plasma for detecting both CRC and adenomatous polyps for the first time. Blood plasma samples are collected from healthy control subjects and patients diagnosed with adenomas and CRC. Using a real-time Raman system, SERS spectra for blood plasma samples are measured in 1 s. The collected SERS spectra are analyzed with partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Classification of normal versus CRC plus adenomatous polyps achieved diagnostic sensitivity of 86.4% and specificity of 80%. The results suggest that blood plasma SERS analysis could be a potential screening test to detect both CRC and adenomas.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. Dikshit, S. Eser, C. Mathers, M. Rebelo, D. M. Parkin, D. Forman, and F. Bray, “Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012,” Int. J. Cancer 136(5), E359–E386 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Plumb and S. Halligan, “Colorectal cancer screening,” Semin. Roentgenol. 50(2), 101–110 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

F. Stracci, M. Zorzi, and G. Grazzini, “Colorectal cancer screening: tests, strategies, and perspectives,” Front. Public Health 2, 210 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Ganepola, J. Nizin, J. R. Rutledge, and D. H. Chang, “Use of blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis and surveillance of colorectal cancer,” World J. Gastrointest. Oncol. 6(4), 83–97 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shah, E. Jones, V. Vidart, P. J. Kuppen, J. A. Conti, and N. K. Francis, “Biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps: systematic review,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 23(9), 1712–1728 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (6)

G. Chen, Y. P. Chen, X. W. Zheng, C. He, J. P. Lu, S. Y. Feng, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum from patients with colorectal cancers,” Appl. Phys. B. 113(4), 597–602 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Boyd, M. F. Bertino, D. Ye, L. S. White, and S. J. Seashols, “Highly sensitive detection of blood by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Forensic Sci. 58(3), 753–756 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Toiyama, M. Takahashi, K. Hur, T. Nagasaka, K. Tanaka, Y. Inoue, M. Kusunoki, C. R. Boland, and A. Goel, “Serum miR-21 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 105(12), 849–859 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Di Lena, E. Travaglio, and D. F. Altomare, “New strategies for colorectal cancer screening,” World J. Gastroenterol. 19(12), 1855–1860 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Garborg, Ø. Holme, M. Løberg, M. Kalager, H. O. Adami, and M. Bretthauer, “Current status of screening for colorectal cancer,” Ann. Oncol. 24(8), 1963–1972 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

A. Ikeda, S. Nishiumi, M. Shinohara, T. Yoshie, N. Hatano, T. Okuno, T. Bamba, E. Fukusaki, T. Takenawa, T. Azuma, and M. Yoshida, “Serum metabolomics as a novel diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal cancer,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 26(5), 548–558 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Berger and D. A. Ahlquist, “Stool DNA screening for colorectal neoplasia: biological and technical basis for high detection rates,” Pathology 44(2), 80–88 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Quintero, C. Hassan, C. Senore, and Y. Saito, “Progress and challenges in colorectal cancer screening,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract. 2012, 846985 (2012).
[PubMed]

Q. Tu and C. Chang, “Diagnostic applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 8(5), 545–558 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, and R. Ishigamori, “Biomarkers for colorectal cancer,” Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11(9), 3209–3225 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Labianca, G. D. Beretta, B. Kildani, L. Milesi, F. Merlin, S. Mosconi, M. A. Pessi, T. Prochilo, A. Quadri, G. Gatta, F. de Braud, and J. Wils, “Colon cancer,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 74(2), 106–133 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Harris, A. Lungari, C. J. Needham, S. L. Smith, M. A. Lones, S. E. Fisher, X. B. Yang, N. Cooper, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Potential for Raman spectroscopy to provide cancer screening using a peripheral blood sample,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 34 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “SERS--a single-molecule and nanoscale tool for bioanalytics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 1052–1060 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Levin, D. A. Lieberman, B. McFarland, K. S. Andrews, D. Brooks, J. Bond, C. Dash, F. M. Giardiello, S. Glick, D. Johnson, C. D. Johnson, T. R. Levin, P. J. Pickhardt, D. K. Rex, R. A. Smith, A. Thorson, S. J. Winawer, American Cancer Society Colorectal Cancer Advisory GroupUS Multi-Society Task ForceAmerican College of Radiology Colon Cancer Committee, “Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology,” Gastroenterology 134(5), 1570–1595 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Banki, W. N. Yacoub, J. A. Hagen, R. J. Mason, S. Ayazi, S. R. DeMeester, J. C. Lipham, K. Danenberg, P. Danenberg, and T. R. DeMeester, “Plasma DNA is more reliable than carcinoembryonic antigen for diagnosis of recurrent esophageal cancer,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 207(1), 30–35 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

T. Vo-Dinh, F. Yan, and M. B. Wabuyele, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for medical diagnostics and biological imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(6–7), 640–647 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. Barker and W. Rayens, “Partial least squares for discrimination,” J. Chem. 17(3), 166–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Leopold and B. Lendl, “A new method for fast preparation of highly surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active silver colloids at room temperature by reduction of silver nitrate with hydroxylamine hydrochloride,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5723–5727 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

N. Elmas, R. M. Killi, and A. Sever, “Colorectal carcinoma: radiological diagnosis and staging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 42(3), 206–223 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pignone, M. Rich, S. M. Teutsch, A. O. Berg, and K. N. Lohr, “Screening for colorectal cancer in adults at average risk: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force,” Ann. Intern. Med. 137(2), 132–141 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Brenner, V. Arndt, and T. Stürmer, “Cost-effectiveness of colonoscopy in screening for colorectal cancer,” Arch. Intern. Med. 162(19), 2249 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

J. A. Hanley and B. J. McNeil, “The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve,” Radiology 143(1), 29–36 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adami, H. O.

K. Garborg, Ø. Holme, M. Løberg, M. Kalager, H. O. Adami, and M. Bretthauer, “Current status of screening for colorectal cancer,” Ann. Oncol. 24(8), 1963–1972 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlquist, D. A.

B. M. Berger and D. A. Ahlquist, “Stool DNA screening for colorectal neoplasia: biological and technical basis for high detection rates,” Pathology 44(2), 80–88 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altomare, D. F.

M. Di Lena, E. Travaglio, and D. F. Altomare, “New strategies for colorectal cancer screening,” World J. Gastroenterol. 19(12), 1855–1860 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrews, K. S.

B. Levin, D. A. Lieberman, B. McFarland, K. S. Andrews, D. Brooks, J. Bond, C. Dash, F. M. Giardiello, S. Glick, D. Johnson, C. D. Johnson, T. R. Levin, P. J. Pickhardt, D. K. Rex, R. A. Smith, A. Thorson, S. J. Winawer, American Cancer Society Colorectal Cancer Advisory GroupUS Multi-Society Task ForceAmerican College of Radiology Colon Cancer Committee, “Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology,” Gastroenterology 134(5), 1570–1595 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arndt, V.

H. Brenner, V. Arndt, and T. Stürmer, “Cost-effectiveness of colonoscopy in screening for colorectal cancer,” Arch. Intern. Med. 162(19), 2249 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayazi, S.

F. Banki, W. N. Yacoub, J. A. Hagen, R. J. Mason, S. Ayazi, S. R. DeMeester, J. C. Lipham, K. Danenberg, P. Danenberg, and T. R. DeMeester, “Plasma DNA is more reliable than carcinoembryonic antigen for diagnosis of recurrent esophageal cancer,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 207(1), 30–35 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azuma, T.

A. Ikeda, S. Nishiumi, M. Shinohara, T. Yoshie, N. Hatano, T. Okuno, T. Bamba, E. Fukusaki, T. Takenawa, T. Azuma, and M. Yoshida, “Serum metabolomics as a novel diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal cancer,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 26(5), 548–558 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bamba, T.

A. Ikeda, S. Nishiumi, M. Shinohara, T. Yoshie, N. Hatano, T. Okuno, T. Bamba, E. Fukusaki, T. Takenawa, T. Azuma, and M. Yoshida, “Serum metabolomics as a novel diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal cancer,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 26(5), 548–558 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banki, F.

F. Banki, W. N. Yacoub, J. A. Hagen, R. J. Mason, S. Ayazi, S. R. DeMeester, J. C. Lipham, K. Danenberg, P. Danenberg, and T. R. DeMeester, “Plasma DNA is more reliable than carcinoembryonic antigen for diagnosis of recurrent esophageal cancer,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 207(1), 30–35 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barker, M.

M. Barker and W. Rayens, “Partial least squares for discrimination,” J. Chem. 17(3), 166–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Beretta, G. D.

R. Labianca, G. D. Beretta, B. Kildani, L. Milesi, F. Merlin, S. Mosconi, M. A. Pessi, T. Prochilo, A. Quadri, G. Gatta, F. de Braud, and J. Wils, “Colon cancer,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 74(2), 106–133 (2010).
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Berg, A. O.

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D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

G. Chen, Y. P. Chen, X. W. Zheng, C. He, J. P. Lu, S. Y. Feng, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum from patients with colorectal cancers,” Appl. Phys. B. 113(4), 597–602 (2013).
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S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
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Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
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D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
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S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
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Chen, J.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
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S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
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Chen, R.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
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D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

G. Chen, Y. P. Chen, X. W. Zheng, C. He, J. P. Lu, S. Y. Feng, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum from patients with colorectal cancers,” Appl. Phys. B. 113(4), 597–602 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
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Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
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S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
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D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
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S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
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Chen, W.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
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S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
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D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
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Chen, Y. P.

G. Chen, Y. P. Chen, X. W. Zheng, C. He, J. P. Lu, S. Y. Feng, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum from patients with colorectal cancers,” Appl. Phys. B. 113(4), 597–602 (2013).
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Cheng, M.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
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R. Shah, E. Jones, V. Vidart, P. J. Kuppen, J. A. Conti, and N. K. Francis, “Biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps: systematic review,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 23(9), 1712–1728 (2014).
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F. Banki, W. N. Yacoub, J. A. Hagen, R. J. Mason, S. Ayazi, S. R. DeMeester, J. C. Lipham, K. Danenberg, P. Danenberg, and T. R. DeMeester, “Plasma DNA is more reliable than carcinoembryonic antigen for diagnosis of recurrent esophageal cancer,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 207(1), 30–35 (2008).
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F. Banki, W. N. Yacoub, J. A. Hagen, R. J. Mason, S. Ayazi, S. R. DeMeester, J. C. Lipham, K. Danenberg, P. Danenberg, and T. R. DeMeester, “Plasma DNA is more reliable than carcinoembryonic antigen for diagnosis of recurrent esophageal cancer,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 207(1), 30–35 (2008).
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Dash, C.

B. Levin, D. A. Lieberman, B. McFarland, K. S. Andrews, D. Brooks, J. Bond, C. Dash, F. M. Giardiello, S. Glick, D. Johnson, C. D. Johnson, T. R. Levin, P. J. Pickhardt, D. K. Rex, R. A. Smith, A. Thorson, S. J. Winawer, American Cancer Society Colorectal Cancer Advisory GroupUS Multi-Society Task ForceAmerican College of Radiology Colon Cancer Committee, “Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology,” Gastroenterology 134(5), 1570–1595 (2008).
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Day, R.

T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
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R. Labianca, G. D. Beretta, B. Kildani, L. Milesi, F. Merlin, S. Mosconi, M. A. Pessi, T. Prochilo, A. Quadri, G. Gatta, F. de Braud, and J. Wils, “Colon cancer,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 74(2), 106–133 (2010).
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F. Banki, W. N. Yacoub, J. A. Hagen, R. J. Mason, S. Ayazi, S. R. DeMeester, J. C. Lipham, K. Danenberg, P. Danenberg, and T. R. DeMeester, “Plasma DNA is more reliable than carcinoembryonic antigen for diagnosis of recurrent esophageal cancer,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 207(1), 30–35 (2008).
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DeMeester, T. R.

F. Banki, W. N. Yacoub, J. A. Hagen, R. J. Mason, S. Ayazi, S. R. DeMeester, J. C. Lipham, K. Danenberg, P. Danenberg, and T. R. DeMeester, “Plasma DNA is more reliable than carcinoembryonic antigen for diagnosis of recurrent esophageal cancer,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 207(1), 30–35 (2008).
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T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
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M. Di Lena, E. Travaglio, and D. F. Altomare, “New strategies for colorectal cancer screening,” World J. Gastroenterol. 19(12), 1855–1860 (2013).
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J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. Dikshit, S. Eser, C. Mathers, M. Rebelo, D. M. Parkin, D. Forman, and F. Bray, “Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012,” Int. J. Cancer 136(5), E359–E386 (2015).
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T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
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N. Elmas, R. M. Killi, and A. Sever, “Colorectal carcinoma: radiological diagnosis and staging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 42(3), 206–223 (2002).
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J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. Dikshit, S. Eser, C. Mathers, M. Rebelo, D. M. Parkin, D. Forman, and F. Bray, “Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012,” Int. J. Cancer 136(5), E359–E386 (2015).
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Feng, S.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S. Y.

G. Chen, Y. P. Chen, X. W. Zheng, C. He, J. P. Lu, S. Y. Feng, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum from patients with colorectal cancers,” Appl. Phys. B. 113(4), 597–602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferlay, J.

J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. Dikshit, S. Eser, C. Mathers, M. Rebelo, D. M. Parkin, D. Forman, and F. Bray, “Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012,” Int. J. Cancer 136(5), E359–E386 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, S. E.

A. T. Harris, A. Lungari, C. J. Needham, S. L. Smith, M. A. Lones, S. E. Fisher, X. B. Yang, N. Cooper, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Potential for Raman spectroscopy to provide cancer screening using a peripheral blood sample,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 34 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleshner, P. R.

T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forman, D.

J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. Dikshit, S. Eser, C. Mathers, M. Rebelo, D. M. Parkin, D. Forman, and F. Bray, “Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012,” Int. J. Cancer 136(5), E359–E386 (2015).
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R. Shah, E. Jones, V. Vidart, P. J. Kuppen, J. A. Conti, and N. K. Francis, “Biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps: systematic review,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 23(9), 1712–1728 (2014).
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A. Ikeda, S. Nishiumi, M. Shinohara, T. Yoshie, N. Hatano, T. Okuno, T. Bamba, E. Fukusaki, T. Takenawa, T. Azuma, and M. Yoshida, “Serum metabolomics as a novel diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal cancer,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 26(5), 548–558 (2012).
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G. A. Ganepola, J. Nizin, J. R. Rutledge, and D. H. Chang, “Use of blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis and surveillance of colorectal cancer,” World J. Gastrointest. Oncol. 6(4), 83–97 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garborg, K.

K. Garborg, Ø. Holme, M. Løberg, M. Kalager, H. O. Adami, and M. Bretthauer, “Current status of screening for colorectal cancer,” Ann. Oncol. 24(8), 1963–1972 (2013).
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Gatta, G.

R. Labianca, G. D. Beretta, B. Kildani, L. Milesi, F. Merlin, S. Mosconi, M. A. Pessi, T. Prochilo, A. Quadri, G. Gatta, F. de Braud, and J. Wils, “Colon cancer,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 74(2), 106–133 (2010).
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Giardiello, F. M.

B. Levin, D. A. Lieberman, B. McFarland, K. S. Andrews, D. Brooks, J. Bond, C. Dash, F. M. Giardiello, S. Glick, D. Johnson, C. D. Johnson, T. R. Levin, P. J. Pickhardt, D. K. Rex, R. A. Smith, A. Thorson, S. J. Winawer, American Cancer Society Colorectal Cancer Advisory GroupUS Multi-Society Task ForceAmerican College of Radiology Colon Cancer Committee, “Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology,” Gastroenterology 134(5), 1570–1595 (2008).
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Glick, S.

B. Levin, D. A. Lieberman, B. McFarland, K. S. Andrews, D. Brooks, J. Bond, C. Dash, F. M. Giardiello, S. Glick, D. Johnson, C. D. Johnson, T. R. Levin, P. J. Pickhardt, D. K. Rex, R. A. Smith, A. Thorson, S. J. Winawer, American Cancer Society Colorectal Cancer Advisory GroupUS Multi-Society Task ForceAmerican College of Radiology Colon Cancer Committee, “Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology,” Gastroenterology 134(5), 1570–1595 (2008).
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Goel, A.

Y. Toiyama, M. Takahashi, K. Hur, T. Nagasaka, K. Tanaka, Y. Inoue, M. Kusunoki, C. R. Boland, and A. Goel, “Serum miR-21 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 105(12), 849–859 (2013).
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F. Stracci, M. Zorzi, and G. Grazzini, “Colorectal cancer screening: tests, strategies, and perspectives,” Front. Public Health 2, 210 (2014).
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T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
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J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
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S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
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S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
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D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
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S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
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Y. Toiyama, M. Takahashi, K. Hur, T. Nagasaka, K. Tanaka, Y. Inoue, M. Kusunoki, C. R. Boland, and A. Goel, “Serum miR-21 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 105(12), 849–859 (2013).
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Needham, C. J.

A. T. Harris, A. Lungari, C. J. Needham, S. L. Smith, M. A. Lones, S. E. Fisher, X. B. Yang, N. Cooper, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Potential for Raman spectroscopy to provide cancer screening using a peripheral blood sample,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 34 (2009).
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Nishiumi, S.

A. Ikeda, S. Nishiumi, M. Shinohara, T. Yoshie, N. Hatano, T. Okuno, T. Bamba, E. Fukusaki, T. Takenawa, T. Azuma, and M. Yoshida, “Serum metabolomics as a novel diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal cancer,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 26(5), 548–558 (2012).
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Nizin, J.

G. A. Ganepola, J. Nizin, J. R. Rutledge, and D. H. Chang, “Use of blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis and surveillance of colorectal cancer,” World J. Gastrointest. Oncol. 6(4), 83–97 (2014).
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A. Ikeda, S. Nishiumi, M. Shinohara, T. Yoshie, N. Hatano, T. Okuno, T. Bamba, E. Fukusaki, T. Takenawa, T. Azuma, and M. Yoshida, “Serum metabolomics as a novel diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal cancer,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 26(5), 548–558 (2012).
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Oubre, B. M.

T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
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Pan, J.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
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D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
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S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
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Parkin, D. M.

J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. Dikshit, S. Eser, C. Mathers, M. Rebelo, D. M. Parkin, D. Forman, and F. Bray, “Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012,” Int. J. Cancer 136(5), E359–E386 (2015).
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R. Labianca, G. D. Beretta, B. Kildani, L. Milesi, F. Merlin, S. Mosconi, M. A. Pessi, T. Prochilo, A. Quadri, G. Gatta, F. de Braud, and J. Wils, “Colon cancer,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 74(2), 106–133 (2010).
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Pickhardt, P. J.

B. Levin, D. A. Lieberman, B. McFarland, K. S. Andrews, D. Brooks, J. Bond, C. Dash, F. M. Giardiello, S. Glick, D. Johnson, C. D. Johnson, T. R. Levin, P. J. Pickhardt, D. K. Rex, R. A. Smith, A. Thorson, S. J. Winawer, American Cancer Society Colorectal Cancer Advisory GroupUS Multi-Society Task ForceAmerican College of Radiology Colon Cancer Committee, “Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology,” Gastroenterology 134(5), 1570–1595 (2008).
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M. Pignone, M. Rich, S. M. Teutsch, A. O. Berg, and K. N. Lohr, “Screening for colorectal cancer in adults at average risk: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force,” Ann. Intern. Med. 137(2), 132–141 (2002).
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T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
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R. Labianca, G. D. Beretta, B. Kildani, L. Milesi, F. Merlin, S. Mosconi, M. A. Pessi, T. Prochilo, A. Quadri, G. Gatta, F. de Braud, and J. Wils, “Colon cancer,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 74(2), 106–133 (2010).
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Qiu, S.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

Quadri, A.

R. Labianca, G. D. Beretta, B. Kildani, L. Milesi, F. Merlin, S. Mosconi, M. A. Pessi, T. Prochilo, A. Quadri, G. Gatta, F. de Braud, and J. Wils, “Colon cancer,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 74(2), 106–133 (2010).
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E. Quintero, C. Hassan, C. Senore, and Y. Saito, “Progress and challenges in colorectal cancer screening,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract. 2012, 846985 (2012).
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M. Barker and W. Rayens, “Partial least squares for discrimination,” J. Chem. 17(3), 166–173 (2003).
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J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. Dikshit, S. Eser, C. Mathers, M. Rebelo, D. M. Parkin, D. Forman, and F. Bray, “Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012,” Int. J. Cancer 136(5), E359–E386 (2015).
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Rehman, S.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
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B. Levin, D. A. Lieberman, B. McFarland, K. S. Andrews, D. Brooks, J. Bond, C. Dash, F. M. Giardiello, S. Glick, D. Johnson, C. D. Johnson, T. R. Levin, P. J. Pickhardt, D. K. Rex, R. A. Smith, A. Thorson, S. J. Winawer, American Cancer Society Colorectal Cancer Advisory GroupUS Multi-Society Task ForceAmerican College of Radiology Colon Cancer Committee, “Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology,” Gastroenterology 134(5), 1570–1595 (2008).
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M. Pignone, M. Rich, S. M. Teutsch, A. O. Berg, and K. N. Lohr, “Screening for colorectal cancer in adults at average risk: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force,” Ann. Intern. Med. 137(2), 132–141 (2002).
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Rutledge, J. R.

G. A. Ganepola, J. Nizin, J. R. Rutledge, and D. H. Chang, “Use of blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis and surveillance of colorectal cancer,” World J. Gastrointest. Oncol. 6(4), 83–97 (2014).
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E. Quintero, C. Hassan, C. Senore, and Y. Saito, “Progress and challenges in colorectal cancer screening,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract. 2012, 846985 (2012).
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T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
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S. Boyd, M. F. Bertino, D. Ye, L. S. White, and S. J. Seashols, “Highly sensitive detection of blood by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Forensic Sci. 58(3), 753–756 (2013).
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E. Quintero, C. Hassan, C. Senore, and Y. Saito, “Progress and challenges in colorectal cancer screening,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract. 2012, 846985 (2012).
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N. Elmas, R. M. Killi, and A. Sever, “Colorectal carcinoma: radiological diagnosis and staging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 42(3), 206–223 (2002).
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R. Shah, E. Jones, V. Vidart, P. J. Kuppen, J. A. Conti, and N. K. Francis, “Biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps: systematic review,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 23(9), 1712–1728 (2014).
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D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4751 (2014).
[PubMed]

Shinohara, M.

A. Ikeda, S. Nishiumi, M. Shinohara, T. Yoshie, N. Hatano, T. Okuno, T. Bamba, E. Fukusaki, T. Takenawa, T. Azuma, and M. Yoshida, “Serum metabolomics as a novel diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal cancer,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 26(5), 548–558 (2012).
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T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
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A. T. Harris, A. Lungari, C. J. Needham, S. L. Smith, M. A. Lones, S. E. Fisher, X. B. Yang, N. Cooper, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Potential for Raman spectroscopy to provide cancer screening using a peripheral blood sample,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 34 (2009).
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Smith, R. A.

B. Levin, D. A. Lieberman, B. McFarland, K. S. Andrews, D. Brooks, J. Bond, C. Dash, F. M. Giardiello, S. Glick, D. Johnson, C. D. Johnson, T. R. Levin, P. J. Pickhardt, D. K. Rex, R. A. Smith, A. Thorson, S. J. Winawer, American Cancer Society Colorectal Cancer Advisory GroupUS Multi-Society Task ForceAmerican College of Radiology Colon Cancer Committee, “Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology,” Gastroenterology 134(5), 1570–1595 (2008).
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A. T. Harris, A. Lungari, C. J. Needham, S. L. Smith, M. A. Lones, S. E. Fisher, X. B. Yang, N. Cooper, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Potential for Raman spectroscopy to provide cancer screening using a peripheral blood sample,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 34 (2009).
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J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. Dikshit, S. Eser, C. Mathers, M. Rebelo, D. M. Parkin, D. Forman, and F. Bray, “Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012,” Int. J. Cancer 136(5), E359–E386 (2015).
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T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
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H. Brenner, V. Arndt, and T. Stürmer, “Cost-effectiveness of colonoscopy in screening for colorectal cancer,” Arch. Intern. Med. 162(19), 2249 (2002).
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Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
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Y. Toiyama, M. Takahashi, K. Hur, T. Nagasaka, K. Tanaka, Y. Inoue, M. Kusunoki, C. R. Boland, and A. Goel, “Serum miR-21 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 105(12), 849–859 (2013).
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A. Ikeda, S. Nishiumi, M. Shinohara, T. Yoshie, N. Hatano, T. Okuno, T. Bamba, E. Fukusaki, T. Takenawa, T. Azuma, and M. Yoshida, “Serum metabolomics as a novel diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal cancer,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 26(5), 548–558 (2012).
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Y. Toiyama, M. Takahashi, K. Hur, T. Nagasaka, K. Tanaka, Y. Inoue, M. Kusunoki, C. R. Boland, and A. Goel, “Serum miR-21 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 105(12), 849–859 (2013).
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T. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, and R. Ishigamori, “Biomarkers for colorectal cancer,” Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11(9), 3209–3225 (2010).
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T. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, and R. Ishigamori, “Biomarkers for colorectal cancer,” Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11(9), 3209–3225 (2010).
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T. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, and R. Ishigamori, “Biomarkers for colorectal cancer,” Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11(9), 3209–3225 (2010).
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T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
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Teutsch, S. M.

M. Pignone, M. Rich, S. M. Teutsch, A. O. Berg, and K. N. Lohr, “Screening for colorectal cancer in adults at average risk: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force,” Ann. Intern. Med. 137(2), 132–141 (2002).
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Thorson, A.

B. Levin, D. A. Lieberman, B. McFarland, K. S. Andrews, D. Brooks, J. Bond, C. Dash, F. M. Giardiello, S. Glick, D. Johnson, C. D. Johnson, T. R. Levin, P. J. Pickhardt, D. K. Rex, R. A. Smith, A. Thorson, S. J. Winawer, American Cancer Society Colorectal Cancer Advisory GroupUS Multi-Society Task ForceAmerican College of Radiology Colon Cancer Committee, “Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology,” Gastroenterology 134(5), 1570–1595 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toiyama, Y.

Y. Toiyama, M. Takahashi, K. Hur, T. Nagasaka, K. Tanaka, Y. Inoue, M. Kusunoki, C. R. Boland, and A. Goel, “Serum miR-21 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 105(12), 849–859 (2013).
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M. Di Lena, E. Travaglio, and D. F. Altomare, “New strategies for colorectal cancer screening,” World J. Gastroenterol. 19(12), 1855–1860 (2013).
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Q. Tu and C. Chang, “Diagnostic applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 8(5), 545–558 (2012).
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R. Shah, E. Jones, V. Vidart, P. J. Kuppen, J. A. Conti, and N. K. Francis, “Biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps: systematic review,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 23(9), 1712–1728 (2014).
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T. Vo-Dinh, F. Yan, and M. B. Wabuyele, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for medical diagnostics and biological imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(6–7), 640–647 (2005).
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Wabuyele, M. B.

T. Vo-Dinh, F. Yan, and M. B. Wabuyele, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for medical diagnostics and biological imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(6–7), 640–647 (2005).
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J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
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Wang, L.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
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T. deVos, R. Tetzner, F. Model, G. Weiss, M. Schuster, J. Distler, K. V. Steiger, R. Grützmann, C. Pilarsky, J. K. Habermann, P. R. Fleshner, B. M. Oubre, R. Day, A. Z. Sledziewski, and C. Lofton-Day, “Circulating Methylated SEPT9 DNA in Plasma Is a Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1337–1346 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, L. S.

S. Boyd, M. F. Bertino, D. Ye, L. S. White, and S. J. Seashols, “Highly sensitive detection of blood by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Forensic Sci. 58(3), 753–756 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wils, J.

R. Labianca, G. D. Beretta, B. Kildani, L. Milesi, F. Merlin, S. Mosconi, M. A. Pessi, T. Prochilo, A. Quadri, G. Gatta, F. de Braud, and J. Wils, “Colon cancer,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 74(2), 106–133 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winawer, S. J.

B. Levin, D. A. Lieberman, B. McFarland, K. S. Andrews, D. Brooks, J. Bond, C. Dash, F. M. Giardiello, S. Glick, D. Johnson, C. D. Johnson, T. R. Levin, P. J. Pickhardt, D. K. Rex, R. A. Smith, A. Thorson, S. J. Winawer, American Cancer Society Colorectal Cancer Advisory GroupUS Multi-Society Task ForceAmerican College of Radiology Colon Cancer Committee, “Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology,” Gastroenterology 134(5), 1570–1595 (2008).
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Wu, Y.

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
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Xi, G.

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
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Xie, S.

Yacoub, W. N.

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T. Vo-Dinh, F. Yan, and M. B. Wabuyele, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for medical diagnostics and biological imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(6–7), 640–647 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, X. B.

A. T. Harris, A. Lungari, C. J. Needham, S. L. Smith, M. A. Lones, S. E. Fisher, X. B. Yang, N. Cooper, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Potential for Raman spectroscopy to provide cancer screening using a peripheral blood sample,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 34 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, D.

S. Boyd, M. F. Bertino, D. Ye, L. S. White, and S. J. Seashols, “Highly sensitive detection of blood by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Forensic Sci. 58(3), 753–756 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, M.

A. Ikeda, S. Nishiumi, M. Shinohara, T. Yoshie, N. Hatano, T. Okuno, T. Bamba, E. Fukusaki, T. Takenawa, T. Azuma, and M. Yoshida, “Serum metabolomics as a novel diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal cancer,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 26(5), 548–558 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshie, T.

A. Ikeda, S. Nishiumi, M. Shinohara, T. Yoshie, N. Hatano, T. Okuno, T. Bamba, E. Fukusaki, T. Takenawa, T. Azuma, and M. Yoshida, “Serum metabolomics as a novel diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal cancer,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 26(5), 548–558 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (A) Comparison of normalized mean SERS spectra for 25 normal, 23 adenomatous polyps, and 21 CRC plasma samples. (B) Difference spectra calculated from the mean SERS spectra among the three plasma types.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Histogram displaying the eight SERS peak intensities (mean ± 1 SD) for normal (gray), adenomatous polyps (blue), and CRC (red) plasma samples. The differences are statistically significant (p<0.01) between normal and CRC for all SERS peaks, between adenomatous polyps and CRC for all SERS peaks, and between normal and adenomatous polyps for the 1664 cm−1 peak.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scatter plots of the posterior probability according to the normal, polyps and colorectal cancer categories calculated from the SERS data sets using different grouping methods. (A) Normal Vs Polyps plus Cancer, (B) Polyps Vs Cancer. (C) Normal Vs Polyps.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of classification results for different groupings of plasma samples generated using PLS-DA analysis. The integration areas under the ROC curves (AUC) are 0.938, 0.869 and 0.945, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SERS peak positions and vibrational mode assignments

Metrics